Treaty of Warsaw (1705)

Last updated
Treaty of Warsaw
Type Peace treaty, alliance
Signed18/28 November 1705
Location Warsaw
Parties Swedish Empire
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Warsaw Confederation)
LanguageGerman

The Treaty of Warsaw was concluded on 18 November (O.S.) / 28 November 1705 during the Great Northern War. [1] It was a peace treaty and an alliance between the Swedish Empire and the faction of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth loyal to Stanisław Leszczyński. [1] [2]

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

Great Northern War Conflict between mainly the Swedish and Russian empires in 1700–1721

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. Frederick IV and Augustus II were defeated by Sweden, under Charles XII, and forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709 after the defeat of Charles XII at the Battle of Poltava. George I of Great Britain and of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715.

Swedish Empire the years 1611–1721 in the history of Sweden

The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries. The beginning of the Empire is usually taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, and its end as the loss of territories in 1721 following the Great Northern War.

Contents

Historical context

Early in the Great Northern War, Charles XII of Sweden campaigned in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, was king since 1697. [3] Aimed at dethroning his adversary, Charles XII managed to have his candidate Stanisław Leszczyński elected king of Poland on 12 July 1704. [3] Augustus' ally Peter the Great, tsar of Russia, was reluctant to engage Charles XII in a major battle as a consequence of the decisive defeat his army had suffered at Narva in 1700. [3] A faction of the Polish and Lithuanian nobles did not accept Leszczyński's election, [3] which had been imposed in neglect of the commonwealth's customs, and organized in the Sandomir or Sandomierz Confederation in support of Augustus. [4] They declared the election illegal, outlawed Leszczyński's supporters who were organized in the Warsaw Confederation, declared war on Sweden and allied with Russia in the Treaty of Narva. [5]

Charles XII of Sweden King of Sweden

Charles XII, sometimes Carl or Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. He assumed power, after a seven-month caretaker government, at the age of fifteen.

Electorate of Saxony State of the Holy Roman Empire, established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate 1356

The Electorate of Saxony was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356. Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was feoffed to the Margraves of Meissen from the Wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the ducal residence up the river Elbe to Dresden. After the Empire's dissolution in 1806, the Wettin Electors raised Saxony to a territorially reduced kingdom.

Stanisław Leszczyński king of Poland

Stanisław I Leszczyński, also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.

A Russo-Saxo-Polish-Lithuanian army was then assembled at Polotsk (Polatsk, Połock, Polockas), [1] [5] another allied army in Saxony, [6] and a third allied force commanded by General Otto Arnold von Paykull (Pajkul) advanced towards Warsaw, [1] where Charles XII and Leszczyński sojourned. [5] Pajkul's Saxo-Polish-Lithuanian horse reached the outskirts of Warsaw on 31 July 1705, where they were defeated. [7] The army at Polotsk was denied westward advance by Swedish forces under Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt. [1] Thus, Leszczyński was crowned king of Poland in Warsaw on 4 October 1705, and Sweden and the faction of the commonwealth represented by Leszczyński signed the treaty of Warsaw on 28 November. [1]

Polotsk City in Vitebsk Region, Belarus

Polotsk is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River. It is the center of the Polotsk District in Vitsebsk Voblast. Its population is more than 80,000 people. It is served by Polotsk Airport and during the Cold War was home to Borovitsy air base.

Otto Arnold von Paykull was a Livonian officer in the service of the Electorate of Saxony.

Warsaw City metropolis in Masovia, Poland

Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.780 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Terms

Sweden was allowed to occupy the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth's towns and fortresses and recruit soldiers in its territory without restriction. [1] [2] Anti-Swedish alliances concluded by the commonwealth were declared void, [2] Poland was to conclude treaties only with Charles XII's approval. [1]

The commonwealth's regions Courland, Lithuania, Royal Prussia and Ruthenia were to export goods only through the Swedish port of Riga, [2] the Polish port Połąga (Palanga, Palonga) in Courland was to be abandoned. [1] [2] In the territory of the commonwealth, Swedish merchants were granted substantial tax exemption and the right to settle and trade. [1]

Courland Place in Latvia

Courland, is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia. The largest city is Liepāja, the third largest city in Latvia. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland as they were formerly held by the same duke.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania European state from the 12th century until 1795

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, a polytheistic Baltic tribe from Aukštaitija.

Royal Prussia former country

Royal Prussia or Polish Prussia was a region of the Kingdom of Poland from 1466 to 1772.

The treaty further divided the commonwealth's territories then under Russian occupation among the parties: The areas of Smolensk and Kiev were to be re-integrated into Poland-Lithuania, while Polish Livonia and Courland were to be ceded to Sweden upon their reconquest. [2]

Smolensk City in Smolensk Oblast, Russia

Smolensk is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, 360 kilometers (220 mi) west-southwest of Moscow. Population: 326,861 (2010 Census); 325,137 (2002 Census); 341,483 (1989 Census).

Kiev City with special status in Kiev City Municipality, Ukraine

Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974, making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.

Inflanty Voivodeship geographic region

The Inflanty Voivodeship, or Livonian Voivodeship, also known as Polish Livonia, was an administrative division and local government in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship and lasted until the First Partition of Poland in 1772. The Inflanty Voivodeship was one of the few territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to be ruled jointly by Poland and Lithuania.

For future candidates to the Polish throne, the treaty was made part of the pacta conventa, meaning it had to be supported for any candidacy to become valid. [1]

Aftermath

As intended, the treaty made an inner-Polish-Lithuanian reconciliation of the Warsaw and Sandomir confederations impossible. [1] In early 1706, Augustus the Strong approached Warsaw with a cavalry force and ordered Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg to move the army assembled in Saxony into Poland-Lithuania. [8] Schulenburg was intercepted and defeated by Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld in the Battle of Fraustadt. [6] [8] The army assembled in Polotsk had been moved to Grodno (Hrodna, Gardinas, Garten), where it was tactically defeated and forced to withdraw eastwards. [6] [8] Charles XII then occupied Saxony, forcing Augustus to abandon both the Polish crown and his allies in the Treaty of Altranstädt (1706). [6] [8]

Sources

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Bromley (1970), p. 699
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frost (2000), p. 269
  3. 1 2 3 4 Anisimov (1993), p. 103
  4. Anisimov (1993), pp. 103-104
  5. 1 2 3 Anisimov (1993), p. 104
  6. 1 2 3 4 Anisimov (1993), p. 105
  7. Bromley (1970), pp. 699-700
  8. 1 2 3 4 Bromley (1970), p. 700

Bibliography