The Treaty of Zuhab (Persian : عهدنامه زهاب, Ahadnāmah Zuhab), also called Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin (Turkish : Kasr-ı Şirin Antlaşması), was an accord signed between the Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639. The accord ended the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1623-1639 and was the last conflict in almost 150 years of intermittent wars between the two states over territorial disputes. It can roughly be seen as a confirmation of the previous Peace of Amasya from 1555.
The treaty confirmed the dividing of territories in West Asia priorly held by the Safavids, such as the permanent parting of the Caucasus between the two powers, in which East Armenia, eastern Georgia, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan stayed under the control of the Safavid Empire, while western Georgia and most of Western Armenia came fully under Ottoman rule. It also included all of Mesopotamia (including Baghdad) being irreversibly ceded to the Ottomans,as well as Safavid-controlled eastern Samtskhe (Meskheti), making Samtskhe in its entirety an Ottoman possession.
Nevertheless, border disputes between Persia and the Ottoman Empire did not end. Between 1555 and 1918, Persia and the Ottomans signed no less than 18 treaties that would re-address their disputed borders. The exact demarcation according to this treaty would permanently begin during the 19th century, essentially laying out the rough outline for the frontier between modern day Iran and the states of Turkey and Iraq (the former Ottoman-Persian border until 1918, when the Ottoman Empire lost its territories in the Middle East following their defeat in World War I.) Nevertheless, according to Professor Ernest Tucker, the Zuhab treaty can be seen as the "culmination" of a process of normalisation between the two that had commenced with the Peace of Amasya.As opposed to any other Ottoman-Safavid treaty, the Zuhab treaty proved to be more "resilient", and it became a "point of departure" for almost all further agreements on a diplomatic level between the two neighbors.
Murad IV was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ahmed I and Kösem Sultan. He was brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, and he succeeded his uncle Mustafa I. He was only 11 when he ascended the throne. His reign is most notable for the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39), of which the outcome would permanently part the Caucasus between the two Imperial powers for around two centuries, while it also roughly laid the foundation for the current Turkey–Iran–Iraq borders.
The Battle of Chaldiran took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire. As a result, the Ottomans annexed Eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq from Safavid Iran. It marked the first Ottoman expansion into Eastern Anatolia, and the halt of the Safavid expansion to the west. The Chaldiran battle was just the beginning of 41 years of destructive war, which only ended in 1555 with the Treaty of Amasya. Though Mesopotamia and Eastern Anatolia were eventually reconquered by the Safavids under the reign of Shah Abbas the Great, they would be permanently lost to the Ottomans by the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab.
Luarsab I, of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of the Georgian Kingdom of Kartli from 1527 to 1556 or from 1534 to 1558. Persistent in his resistance against Safavid Persian aggression, he was killed in the Battle of Garisi.
The history of Ottoman–Safavid relations started with the establishment of Safavid dynasty in Persia (Iran) in the early 16th century. The initial Ottoman–Safavid conflict culminated in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and was followed by a century of border confrontation. In 1639, Safavid Persia and Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Zuhab which recognized Iraq in Ottoman control, and decisively parted the Caucasus in two between the two empires. For most of it, the Zuhab treaty was a consolidation of the Peace of Amasya of about a century earlier.
Constantine I, also known as Constantine Khan, Constantin(e) Mirza, or Konstandil / Kustandil Mirza, of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from March to October 1605.
The Peace of Amasya was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.
The Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623–1639 was the last of a series of conflicts fought between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia, then the two major powers of Western Asia, over control of Mesopotamia. After initial Persian success in recapturing Baghdad and most of modern Iraq, having lost it for 90 years, the war became a stalemate as the Persians were unable to press further into the Ottoman Empire, and the Ottomans themselves were distracted by wars in Europe and weakened by internal turmoil. Eventually, the Ottomans were able to recover Baghdad, taking heavy losses in the final siege, and the signing of the Treaty of Zuhab ended the war in an Ottoman victory. Roughly speaking, the treaty restored the borders of 1555, with the Safavids keeping Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Eastern Armenia, and the present-day Azerbaijan Republic, while western Georgia and Western Armenia decisively came under Ottoman rule. The eastern part of Samtskhe (Meskheti) was irrevocably lost to the Ottomans as well as Mesopotamia. Despite parts of Mesopotamia were briefly retaken by the Iranians later on in history, notably during the reigns of Nader Shah (1736–1747) and Karim Khan Zand (1751–1779), it remained thenceforth in Ottoman hands until the aftermath of World War I.
The Treaty of Constantinople, also known as the Peace of Istanbul or the Treaty of Ferhad Pasha, was a treaty between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire ending the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590. It was signed on 21 March 1590 in Constantinople. The war started when the Ottomans, then ruled by Murad III, invaded the Safavid possessions in Georgia, during a period of Safavid weakness. With the empire beleaguered on numerous fronts and its domestic matters plagued by civil wars and court intrigues, the new Safavid king Abbas I, who had ascended the throne in 1588, opted for unconditional peace, which lead to the treaty. The treaty put an end to 12 years of hostilities between the two arch rivals. While both the war and the treaty were a success for the Ottomans, and severely disadvantageous for the Safavids, the new status quo proved to be short lived, as by the next bout of hostilities, several years later, all Safavid losses were recovered.
The Ottoman–Persian Wars or Ottoman–Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging neighboring Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty. The two states were arch rivals, and were also divided by religious grounds, the Ottomans being staunchly Sunni and the Safavids being Shia. A series of military conflicts ensued for centuries during which the two empires competed for control over eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Iraq.
The Treaty of Ahmet Pasha was a treaty signed on 10 January 1732 between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia.
The Battle of Çıldır was fought in 1578 during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590).
Recapture of Baghdad refers to the second conquest of the city by the Ottoman Empire as a part of the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1623-1639.
The Ottoman–Persian War of 1743–1746 was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Afsharid dynasty of Iran.
Qarachaqay Khan was a military commander in Safavid Iran of Armenian origin. He was known for his great collection of porcelain items and loyal service to Shah Abbas I. Qarachaqay Khan was killed while commanding an expedition against the Georgian rebels.
Manuchar III Jaqeli, of the House of Jaqeli, was the last atabeg of the principality of Samtskhe, nominally ruling between 1607–1625. As a child, he accompanied his father, Manuchar II Jaqeli, when the latter settled at the Safavid Iranian court, then located at Qazvin. Later, when the Iranian royal court had already been moved to Isfahan, his mother Elene had been making efforts in order for her son to be able to succeed as the next atabeg. She discussed the matter at court with then incumbent Safavid king Abbas I, Alexander II of Kakheti, as well as the Portuguese diplomat Antonio de Gouvea. With Manuchar III living at the court, Elene herself received "virtually nothing" from Abbas I, although she had offered him sovereignty over Samtskhe. Having been confirmed in 1607 as ruler of Samtskhe by Abbas I, Manuchar III continued to fight the Ottomans in a similar fashion to his father. However, he ceased his activities in 1608, when due to the circumstances, he was forced to flee to Kartli. Following his father's death in 1614, Manuchar III now officially claimed the title of atabeg of Samtskhe and made active efforts to incite anti-Ottoman sentiments in the area. Later, in 1624, he battled against the Ottoman pasha of Erzurum; shortly after, he moved to Kartli once again. There, he supported Giorgi Saakadze against the Iranians, and was reputable at the Battle of Marabda. In 1625, he resumed relations with the Ottomans, who subsequently confirmed him as atabeg of Samtskhe; when he actually returned to Samtskhe however, he was killed (poisoned) by his own uncle Beka Jaqeli, better known as Sefer Pasha. Manuchar III was the last Christian ruler of Samtskhe; upon his death in 1625, the Ottomans completely incorporated the western part of the principality of Samtskhe as a pashalik. In 1639, by the Treaty of Zuhab, they also gained the eastern part, which had been under Safavid control. The members of the House of Jaqeli, who had been at the head of the principality for centuries, converted to Islam, and remained in power as hereditary pashas in the Ottoman service.
Mohammad Khan Tokhmaq Ustajlu, also commonly known as Tokhmaq Khan Ustajlu, was a 16th-century Safavid official, diplomat and military leader from the Turkoman Ustajlu tribe. He was appointed as governor (beglarbeg) of Erivan Province in 1568–1575. Thereafter, he led an embassy to the Ottoman Empire. On his return, he participated in some judicial developments, and was reappointed as governor of Erivan Province in 1578. In the same year, he served as main commander at the Battle of Çıldır during the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578–1590, where his army was routed. A few years later, in 1583, Mohammad Khan Tokhmaq's second tenure over the Erivan Province was brought to an end due to encroachments by the Ottomans, who controlled the province until 1604.
Etienne Padery was an Ottoman-born Greek, who served as a translator to the French embassy in Constantinople, and later as a French consul to the Safavid Empire.
The province of Georgia was a velayat (province) of the Safavid Empire located in the area of present-day Georgia. The territory of the province was principally made up of the two subordinate eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti and, briefly, parts of the Principality of Samtskhe. The city of Tiflis was its administrative center, the base of Safavid power in the province, and the seat of the rulers of Kartli. It also housed an important Safavid mint.
The Erivan Province, also known as Chokhur-e Sa'd, was a velayat (province) of the Safavid Empire, centered on the territory of the present-day Armenia. Erivan (Yerevan) was the provincial capital and the seat of the Safavid governors.
Nakihat Khanum was a Safavid queen consort of Circassian origin, as the first wife of Safavid king (shah) Abbas II. Originally a concubine, she was the mother of Abbas II's successor, king Suleiman I.
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