Temporal range: Palaeogene–present
|16 genera, 140 species|
Trechaleidae is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Eugène Simon in 1890,and includes about 140 described species in 16 genera. They all live in Central and South America except for Shinobius orientalis , which is endemic to Japan.
The Araneomorphae are an infraorder of spiders. They are distinguished by having chelicerae (fangs) that point diagonally forward and cross in a pinching action, in contrast to the Mygalomorphae, where they point straight down. Most of the spiders that people encounter in daily life belong to the Araneomorphae.
Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs able to inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all orders of organisms. Spiders are found worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every habitat with the exceptions of air and sea colonization. As of November 2015, at least 45,700 spider species, and 113 families have been recorded by taxonomists. However, there has been dissension within the scientific community as to how all these families should be classified, as evidenced by the over 20 different classifications that have been proposed since 1900.
Eugène Louis Simon was a French naturalist who worked particularly on insects and spiders, but also on birds and plants. He is by far the most prolific spider taxonomist in history, describing over 4,000 species.
As of April 2019 [update] , the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:
The World Spider Catalog (WSC) is an online searchable database concerned with spider taxonomy. It aims to list all accepted families, genera and species, as well as provide access to the related taxonomic literature. The WSC began as a series of individual web pages in 2000, created by Norman I. Platnick of the American Museum of Natural History. After Platnick's retirement in 2014, the Natural History Museum of Bern (Switzerland) took over the catalog, converting it to a relational database.
Amapalea is a genus of spiders in the Trechaleidae family. It was first described in 2006 by Silva & Lise. As of 2017, it contains only one Brazilian species, Amapalea brasiliana.
Barrisca is a genus of spiders in the Trechaleidae family. It was first described in 1936 by Chamberlin & Ivie. As of 2017, it contains 2 species.
Caricelea is a genus of spiders in the Trechaleidae family. It was first described in 2007 by Silva & Lise. As of 2017, it contains 3 species, all from Peru.
Nursery web spiders (Pisauridae) is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Eugène Simon in 1890. They resemble wolf spiders (Lycosidae) except for several key differences. Wolf spiders have two very prominent compound eyes in addition to the other six, while a nursery web spider's eyes are all about the same size. Additionally, female nursery web spiders carry their egg sacs with their jaws and pedipalps instead of attaching them to their spinnerets as wolf spiders do. When the eggs are about to hatch, a female spider builds a nursery "tent", places her egg sac inside, and stands guard outside, hence the family's common name. Like the wolf spiders, however, the nursery web spiders are roaming hunters that don't use webs for catching prey.
Theridiidae, also known as the tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders and comb-footed spiders, is a large family of araneomorph spiders first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1833. This diverse, globally distributed family includes over 3,000 species in 124 genera, and is the most common arthropods found in human dwellings throughout the world.
Anyphaenidae is a family of araneomorph spiders, sometimes called anyphaenid sac spiders. They are distinguished from the sac spiders of the family Clubionidae and other spiders by having the abdominal spiracle placed one third to one half of the way anterior to the spinnerets toward the epigastric furrow on the underside of the abdomen. In most spiders the spiracle is just anterior to the spinnerets. Like clubionids, anyphaenids have eight eyes arranged in two rows, conical anterior spinnerets and are wandering predators that build silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark or under rocks. There are more than 500 species in over 50 genera worldwide.
Long-jawed orb weavers or long jawed spiders (Tetragnathidae) is a family of araneomorph spiders first described by Anton Menge in 1866. They have elongated bodies, legs, and chelicerae, and build small orb webs with an open hub with few, wide-set radii and spirals with no signal line or retreat. Some species are often found in long vegetation near water.
Corinnidae is a family of araneomorph spiders, sometimes called corinnid sac spiders. The family, like other "clubionoid" families, has a confusing taxonomic history. Once it was a part of the large catch-all taxon Clubionidae, now very much smaller. The original members of the family are apparently similar only in that they have eight eyes arranged in two rows, conical anterior spinnerets that touch and are generally wandering predators that build silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark or under rocks.
Ancylometes is a genus of Central and South American wandering spiders first described by Philipp Bertkau in 1880. Originally placed with the nursery web spiders, it was moved to the Ctenidae in 1967. The genus name is derived in part from Ancient Greek "ἀγκύλος" (ancylo-), meaning "crooked, bent".
Dolichognatha is a widespread genus of tropical and subtropical spiders.
Caponiidae is a family of ecribellate haplogyne spiders that are unusual in a number of ways. They differ from other spiders in lacking book lungs and having the posterior median spinnerets anteriorly displaced to form a transverse row with the anterior lateral spinnerets. Most species have only two eyes, which is also unusual among spiders. A few species of Caponiidae variously have four, six or eight eyes. In some species the number of eyes will increase when the spiderling changes its skin as it grows towards adulthood.
Trechalea is a genus of spider in the family Trechaleidae, found in the United States to Peru and Brazil.
Aglaoctenus is a genus of wolf spiders first described by Albert Tullgren in 1905. As of February 2019, it contains only five species, all from South America.
Nilus is a genus of African and Asian nursery web spiders first described by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1876. The genus Thalassius is now included in Nilus.
Hesydrus is a genus of spiders in the Trechaleidae family. It was first described in 1898 by Simon. As of 2017, it contains 7 Central and South American species.
Paradossenus is a genus of spiders in the Trechaleidae family. It was first described in 1903 by F. O. Pickard-Cambridge. As of 2017, it contains 13 species.
Rhoicinus is a genus of spiders in the Trechaleidae family. It was first described in 1898 by Simon. As of 2017, it contains 10 species, all from South America.
Syntrechalea is a genus of spiders in the Trechaleidae family. It was first described in 1902 by F. O. Pickard-Cambridge. As of 2017, it contains 12 species.
Enna is a genus of South American and Central American araneomorph spiders in the Trechaleidae family, first described by Octavius Pickard-Cambridge in 1897.
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