Trento

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Trento

Trènt  (Ladin)
Comune di Trento
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Panorama of Trento
Flag of Trento.svg
Flag
Trento CoA.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Trento
Italy provincial location map 2016.svg
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Trento
Location of Trento in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Italy Trentino-South Tyrol location map.svg
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Trento
Trento (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol)
Coordinates: 46°04′N11°07′E / 46.067°N 11.117°E / 46.067; 11.117 Coordinates: 46°04′N11°07′E / 46.067°N 11.117°E / 46.067; 11.117
Country Italy
Region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Province Trentino (TN)
Frazioni see list
Government
  Mayor Alessandro Andreatta (PD)
Area
[1]
  Total157.9 km2 (61.0 sq mi)
Elevation
194 m (636 ft)
Population
 (March, 2018) [2]
  Total118,160
  Density750/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Trentini, Tridentini
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
38121-38122-38123
Dialing code 0461
Patron saint Saint Vigilius
Saint dayJune 26
Website Official website

Trento (Italian pronunciation:  [ˈtrento] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); [3] also anglicized as Trent; [4] Ladin : Trènt; German : Trient; Cimbrian : Tria [5] ) is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of the autonomous province of Trento. In the 16th century, the city was the location of the Council of Trent. Formerly part of Austria and Austria-Hungary, it was annexed by Italy in 1919. With almost 120,000 inhabitants, Trento is the third largest city in the Alps and second largest in the Tyrol.

Contents

Trento is an educational, scientific, financial and political centre in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, in Tyrol and Northern Italy in general. The University of Trento ranks 2nd among 'medium-sized' Universities in the Census ranking [6] and 5th in the Il Sole 24 Ore ranking of Italian universities. [7] The city contains a picturesque Medieval and Renaissance historic centre, with ancient buildings such as Trento Cathedral and the Castello del Buonconsiglio.

Together with other Alpine towns Trento engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc.

Trento was awarded the title of Alpine Town of the Year 2004.

The city often ranks highly among Italian cities for quality of life, standard of living, and business and job opportunities, being ranked 5th in 2017. [8] Trento is also one of the nation's wealthiest and most prosperous cities, with its province being one of the richest in Italy, with a GDP per capita of €31,200 and a GDP (nominal) of €16.563 billion. [9]

Geography

The township of Trento encompasses the city centre as well as many suburbs of extremely varied geographical and population conditions (from the industrial suburb of Gardolo, just north of the city, to tiny mountain hamlets on Monte Bondone). Various distinctive suburbs still retain their traditional identity of rural or mountain villages.

Trento lies in a wide glacial valley known as the Adige valley, just south of the Dolomite Mountains, where the Fersina River and Avisio rivers join the Adige River (the second longest river in Italy). River Adige is one of the three primary south-flowing Alpine rivers; its broadly curving course alongside Trento was straightened in 1850. [10] The valley is surrounded by mountains, including Vigolana (2,150 m (7,050 ft)), Monte Bondone (2,181 m (7,156 ft)), Paganella (2,124 m (6,969 ft)), Marzola (1,747 m (5,732 ft)) and Monte Calisio (1,096 m (3,596 ft)). Nearby lakes include Lake Caldonazzo, Lake Levico, Lake Garda and Lake Toblino.

Frazioni

Frazioni, or subdivisions of Trento:

Demographics

In 2007, there were 112,637 people residing in Trento, of whom 48% were male and 52% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 18.01 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 19.37 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Trento residents is 41 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Trento grew by 5.72 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. [11] The current birth rate of Trento is 9.61 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2006, 92.68% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (mostly Albania, Romania): 4.13%, North Africa: 1.08%, and the Americas: 0.85%.

Trento Informa (a magazine distributed by the "comune") reports that in 2011 there were 117,190 people residing in Trento, of whom 48.5% aged between 45 and 65. The average age was 43.1 years. 13,535 (11.5%) were foreigners. [12]

History

Loggia of Buonconsiglio Castle in International Gothic style 10 2014 Trento-Castello Buonconsiglio-panorama Loggia veneziana gotica-Col Castion, Doss Trento, Mausoleo Cesare Battisti, Monte Soprasasso, Monte Terlago-ITALY- K-5 II -Tamron AF 17-50mm F2.8-photo Paolo Villa.jpg
Loggia of Buonconsiglio Castle in International Gothic style

The origins of this city on the river track to Bolzano and the low Alpine passes of Brenner and the Reschen Pass [13] over the Alps are disputed. Some scholars maintain it was a Rhaetian settlement: the Adige area was however influenced by neighbouring populations, including the (Adriatic) Veneti, the Etruscans and the Gauls (a Celtic people). According to other theories, the latter did instead found the city during the 4th century BC.

Trento was conquered by the Romans in the late 1st century BC, after several clashes with the Rhaetian tribes. Before the Romans, Trento was a Celtic village. In reality, the name derives from Trent, which is a tribute to the Celtic god of the waters (because of the river Adige)[ citation needed ]. The Romans gave their settlement the name Tridentum and is a tribute to the Roman god Neptune (Tri Dentum, meaning 'Three Teeth' because of the three hills that surround the city: the Doss Trent, Sant'Agata and San Rocco). The Latin name is the source of the adjective "tridentine". On the old city hall, a Latin inscription is still visible: "Montes argentum mihi dant nomenque Tridentum" ("Mountains give me silver and the name of Trento"), attributed to Fra' Bartolomeo da Trento (died in 1251). Tridentum became an important stop on the Roman road that led from Verona to Innsbruck. [14]

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the independent bishopric of Trento was conquered by Ostrogoths, Byzantines, Lombards and Franks, finally becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1027, Emperor Conrad II created the Prince-Bishops of Trento, who wielded both temporal and religious powers. In the following centuries, however, the sovereignty was divided between the Bishopric of Trent and the County of Tyrol (from 1363 part of the Habsburg monarchy). Around 1200, Trento became a mining center of some significance: silver was mined from the Monte Calisio – Khalisperg, and Prince-Bishop Federico Wanga issued the first mining code of the alpine region.

In the 14th century, the region of Trento was part of Austria. The dukes of Austria (Habsburg Family) were also the counts of Tyrol and dominated the region for six centuries (1918).

A dark episode in the history of Trento was the Trento blood libel. When a 3-year-old Christian boy, Simonino, later known as Simon of Trent, disappeared in 1475 on the eve of Good Friday, the city's small Jewish community was accused of killing him and draining his blood for Jewish ritual purposes. [15] Eight Jews were tortured and burned at the stake, and their families forced to convert to Christianity. The bishop of Trento, Johannes Hinderbach, had Simonino canonized and published the first book printed in Trento, "Story of a Christian Child Murdered at Trento", embellished with 12 woodcuts. [15] In a governmental ceremony in the 1990s, Trento apologized to the Jewish community for this dark episode and unveiled a plaque commemorating the formal apology.

18th century copy of a late 16th-century map of Trento, northeast at top, showing walled old city and original course of the Adige Trento woodcut.jpg
18th century copy of a late 16th-century map of Trento, northeast at top, showing walled old city and original course of the Adige
Council of Trent Council of Trent.JPG
Council of Trent

In the 16th century, Trento became notable for the Council of Trent (1545–1563) which gave rise to the Counter-Reformation. The adjective Tridentine (as in "Tridentine Mass") literally means pertaining to Trento, but can also refer to that specific event. Among the notable prince-bishops of this time were Bernardo Clesio (who governed the city from 1514 to 1539, and managed to steer the Council to Trento) and Cristoforo Madruzzo (who governed from 1539 to 1567), both able European politicians and Renaissance humanists, who greatly expanded and embellished the city.

During this period, and as an expression of this Humanism, Trento was also known as the site of a Jewish printing press. In 1558 Cardinal Madruzzo granted the privilege of printing Hebrew books to Joseph Ottolengo, a German rabbi. The actual printer was Jacob Marcaria, a local physician; after his death in 1562, the activity of the press of Riva di Trento ceased. Altogether, 34 works were published in the period from 1558 to 1562, most of them bearing the coat of arms of Madruzzo. [17]

Prince-bishops governed Trento until the Napoleonic era, when it changed hands among various states. Under the reorganization of the Holy Roman Empire in 1802, the Bishopric was secularized and annexed to the Habsburg territories. The Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 ceded Trento to Bavaria, and the Treaty of Schönbrunn four years later gave it to Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy.

The population staged armed resistance to French domination. The resistance leader was Andreas Hofer. During his youth, he lived in Italian Tyrol, where he learned the Italian language. When Hofer recovered Trento for the Austrians (1809), he was welcomed with enthusiasm by the population of Trento. Approximately 4,000 Trentinian volunteers (Sìzzeri or Schützen) died in battle against the French and Bavarian troops. In 1810, Hofer was captured and brought to Mantua, and was shot by French soldiers on the express order of Napoleon.

With Napoleon's defeat in 1814, Trento was again annexed by the Habsburg Empire. Church government was finally extinguished, and Trento was henceforth governed by the secular administration of Tyrol. In the following decades, Trento experienced a modernization of administration and economy with the first railroad in the Adige valley opening in 1859. The entire Mediterranean basin was at risk of malaria, a factor that affected the entire Italian peninsula and this Alpine region was not spared. Even Tuscany was particularly hard hit; malaria existed far inland into the Veneto area, reaching the Italian Alps. [18] From 1918 to 1940, government figures show Italy's malaria deaths decreased by 96%, due to the efforts of the Rockefeller Foundation and Italy's own malaria experts, who themselves were international leaders in malariology. [19]

During the late 19th century, Trento and Trieste, cities with ethnic Italian majorities still belonging to the Austrians, became icons of the Italian irredentist movement. Benito Mussolini briefly joined the staff of a local newspaper in 1909, but left Trento because they could not create an anti-Austrian group. There was dissatisfaction with the lack of provincial autonomy and the failure to establish a university for the region. Feelings of loyalty were focused on the 'father-figure' emperor, not for Austria.

Mausoleum of Cesare Battisti Il Mausoleo di Cesare Battisti, a Trento.jpg
Mausoleum of Cesare Battisti

The nationalist cause led Italy into World War I. Damiano Chiesa and the deputy in the Austrian parliament Cesare Battisti were two well-known local irredentists who had joined the Italian Army to fight against Austria-Hungary with the aim of bringing the territory of Trento into the new Kingdom of Italy. The two men were taken prisoners at the nearby southern front. They were put on trial for high treason and executed in the courtyard of Castello del Buonconsiglio.

The region was greatly affected during the war, and some of its fiercest battles were fought on the surrounding mountains in the southernmost regions and the southeast. Of a population of just less than 400,000 in the province, 55,000 men served in the Imperial and Royal Army of whom 11,000 died. Most served on the Galician front; 700 served with the Italian Army. After World War I, Trento and its Italian-speaking province, along with Bolzano (Bozen) and the part of Tyrol that stretched south of the Alpine watershed (which was primarily German-speaking), were annexed by Italy.

In July 1943 Mussolini was removed as Prime Minister when the allies invaded Sicily. Italy surrendered to the Allies, and declared war on Germany. German troops promptly invaded northern Italy and the provinces of Trento, Belluno and South Tyrol became part of the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills, annexed to Germany. Some German-speakers wanted revenge upon Italian-speakers living in the area, but were mostly prevented by the occupying German troops, who still considered Mussolini head of the Italian Social Republic and wanted to preserve good relations with the Italians. From November 1944 to April 1945, Trento was bombed as part of the so-called "Battle of the Brenner". War supplies from Germany to support the Gothic Line were for the most part routed via the rail line through the Brenner Pass. Over 6,849 sorties were flown by the Allies over targets from Verona to the Brenner Pass, with 10,267 tons of bombs dropped. Parts of the city were hit by the Allied bombings, including the church of S. Maria Maggiore, the Church of the Annunciation and several bridges over the Adige river. In spite of the bombings, most of the medieval and renaissance city center was spared. It was finally liberated on 3 May 1945.

In 1947, Trento became the host of the Rally Stella Alpina.

Since the 1950s, the region has enjoyed prosperous growth, thanks in part to its special autonomy from the central Italian government.

On 4 August 2015, the cathedral tower caught fire by "spontaneous combustion". The clock stopped at 10:50 AM, a matter of minutes after the fire began.

Economy

Vineyard in Trento Pergola trentino.JPG
Vineyard in Trento

The city owes much of its unique economy to its position along the main communication route between Italy and Northern Europe and to the Adige river which, prior to its diversion in the mid-19th century, ran through the center of the city. The Adige river was formerly a navigable river and one of the main commercial routes in the Alps. The original course of the river is now covered by the Via Torre Vanga, Via Torre Verde and the Via Alessandro Manzoni.

University of Trento, Faculty of Science Trento-university-science-faculty-2010.jpg
University of Trento, Faculty of Science

As late as World War II, Trento depended on wine-making and silk. [20] The manufacturing industry installed in the post-war period has been mostly dismantled. Today, Trento thrives on commerce, services, tourism, high-quality agriculture and food industry (including wine, fruit), as a research and conference center thanks to a small but renowned university and internationally renowned research centers such as Fondazione Bruno Kessler , active in both fundamental and applied research, the Italian-German Historical Institute, the Centre for Computational and Systems Biology and ECT* , active in theoretical nuclear studies and part of FBK, and as logistics and transportation thoroughfare.

Valued pink and white porphyry is still excavated from some surrounding areas (Pila). This stone can be seen in many of Trento's buildings, both new and old.

The city has two long-running annual sporting events: the Giro al Sas (a 10 km (6 mi) professional road running competition) was first held in the city in 1907 and continues to the present, [21] while the Giro del Trentino is an annual road cycling race which the city has hosted every year since 1963. [22]

Economy Festival Trento

The Economy Festival (Festival dell’Economia di Trento) was brought into being in 2006 in order to enable and facilitate discussions between economists and a broad public. The aim of this festival is to put economic terminology across to everyone. The Festival dell’Economia di Trento takes place every year at the end of May on the historic Palazzi of the old town in Trento. Well known economists explain and interpret current economic issues, both from an economic-scientific as well as from a social and entrepreneurial viewpoint. In the course of recent years, numerous economic scholars and managers such as Sir Anthony Atkinson, Fan Gang, Zygmunt Bauman and the Nobel Prize winner Gary Becker took an active part. [23]

Politics

Government

Trento is governed by the City Council of Trento. Voters elect directly 33 councilors and the Mayor of Trento every five years. The current Mayor of Trento is Alessandro Andreatta (PD), elected for the first time on 3 May 2009 (he served as acting mayor from 25 September 2008 to 3 May 2009) and re-elected in 2015.

Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino

In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.

Main sights

Duomo Museo Diocesano Tridentino.jpg
Duomo
Buonconsiglio Castle 20110727 Trento Buonconsiglio Castle 6609.jpg
Buonconsiglio Castle
Palazzo pretorio Palazzo pretorio di Trento.jpg
Palazzo pretorio

Although off the beaten path of mass tourism, Trento offers rather interesting monuments. Its architecture has a unique feel, with both Italian Renaissance and Roman influences. The city center is small, and most Late-Medieval and Renaissance buildings have been restored to their original pastel colours and wooden balconies. Part of the medieval city walls is still visible in Piazza Fiera, along with a circular tower. Once, these walls encircled the entire city and were connected to the Castello del Buonconsiglio. The main monuments of the city include:

Trento also sports modernist architecture, including the train station and the central post office, both by rationalist architect Angiolo Mazzoni. In particular, the train station (1934–36) is considered a landmark building of Italian railways architecture and combines many varieties of local stone with the most advanced building materials of the time: glass, reinforced concrete, metal. The post office was once decorated with colored windows by Fortunato Depero, but these were destroyed during bombings in World War II. Other buildings of that time include the Grand Hotel (by G. Lorenzi) with some guest rooms furnished with futurist furniture by Depero, and the "R. Sanzio" Primary School built in 1931–34 and designed by Adalberto Libera.

Culture

Museums

Museo dell'Aeronautica Gianni Caproni Trento-museo Gianni Caproni-hangar.jpg
Museo dell'Aeronautica Gianni Caproni

Theatre

Cultural Events

Education

University of Trento

Faculty of Economics Facolta di Economia - Universita degli Studi di Trento.jpg
Faculty of Economics

The University of Trento was founded in 1962 and has its headquarters in the city of Trento. The other university location is in Rovereto. In total, over 16,000 students study in Trento. Through the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, the university also works closely together with the universities of Innsbruck and Bolzano. The University of Trento has the following faculties:

  • Economics and Management
  • Faculty of Law
  • Physics
  • Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering
  • Information Engineering and Computer Science
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Humanities
  • Mathematics
  • Psychology and Cognitive Science
  • Sociology and Social Research
  • CIBIO – Centre for Integrative Biology
  • CAFE – Centre Agriculture Food Environment
  • CIMeC – Centre for Mind/Brain Sciences
  • SSI – School of International Studies

Notable people

Alcide de Gasperi Alcide de Gasperi 2.jpg
Alcide de Gasperi

Notable people born in or associated with Trento include:

Transport

The A22-E45 highway connects Trento to Verona and to Bolzano, Innsbruck and Munich.

Trento railway station, opened in 1859, forms part of the Brenner railway (Verona–Innsbruck), which is the main rail connection between Italy and Germany. The station is also a junction with the Valsugana railway, which connects Trento to Venice. Trento has several other railway stations, including Trento FTM railway station, terminus of the Trento-Malè-Marilleva railway (FTM).

Bus or train services operate to the main surrounding valleys: Fassa, Fiemme, Gudicarie, Non, Primiero, Rendena, Sole, Tesino, Valsugana.

The public transport network within the city consists of 20 bus lines operated by Trentino Trasporti and a funicular service to Sardagna. The various railway stations within Trento's city limits are integrated into the public transport network.

Sport

Local Teams

Trentino Volley in PalaTrento Trento-Olympiacos 20-01-2010.jpg
Trentino Volley in PalaTrento

Sports Venue

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Trento is twinned with:

Districts of Trento are twinned with:

Partner cities

See also

Related Research Articles

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Region of Italy

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region of Italy, located in the northern part of the country. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the Province of Trento, commonly known as Trentino, and the Province of Bolzano, commonly known as South Tyrol.

Adige river in Northern Italy

The Adige is the second longest river in Italy after the Po, rising in the Alps in the province of South Tyrol near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland, flowing 410 kilometres (250 mi) through most of North-East Italy to the Adriatic Sea.

Trentino Autonomous province of Italy

Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north. Trento and South Tyrol constitute the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, an autonomous region under the constitution. The province is divided into 177 comuni (municipalities). Its capital is the city of Trento. The province covers an area of more than 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi), with a total population of about 540,000. Trentino is renowned for its mountains, such as the Dolomites, which are part of the Alps.

Bernardo Clesio Catholic cardinal

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History of South Tyrol

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Prince-Bishopric of Trent ecclesiastical principality and constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire, 1027–1803

The Prince-Bishopric of Trent, was an ecclesiastical principality roughly corresponding to the present-day Northern Italian autonomous province of Trentino. It was created in 1027 and existed until 1802, when it was secularised and absorbed into the County of Tyrol held by the House of Habsburg. Trent was a Hochstift, an Imperial State under the authority of a prince-bishop at Trento.

Cles Comune in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy

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Buonconsiglio Castle fortification

Buonconsiglio Castle is a castle in Trento, northern Italy.

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Salorno Comune in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy

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The Trent Codices are a collection of seven large music manuscripts compiled around the middle of the 15th century, currently kept in the northern Italian city of Trent. They contain mostly sacred vocal music composed between 1400 and 1475. Containing more than 1,500 separate musical compositions by 88 different named composers, as well as a huge amount of anonymous music, they are the largest and most significant single manuscript source from the entire century from anywhere in Europe.

Tyrol Region across the Alps

Tyrol is a historical region in the Alps; in Northern Italy and western Austria. The area was historically the core of the County of Tyrol, part of the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from its formation in the 12th century until 1919. In 1919, following World War I and dissolution of Austria-Hungary, it was divided into two modern administrative parts through the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye:

Palazzo delle Albere, Trento building in Trento, Italy

Palazzo delle Albere is a Renaissance villa-fortress in Trento, northern Italy. It was built during the 16th century by the Madruzzo family of prince-bishops of Trento. It takes its name from the rows of poplars that once led to the castle; it is surrounded by a park, now smaller than once because it is crossed by the Brenner Railway and partly occupied by the Trento Monumental Cemetery. It has a square plan, with four square, 6 m-wide and 20 m tall corner towers, surrounded by a ditch.

The South Tyrolean Unterland or Bozen Unterland is a section of the Etschtal valley stretching from the regional capital Bolzano (Bozen) down the Adige (Etsch) river to Tramin and Salorno (Salurn). The area is known for its history, particularly regarding Rhaetic, Roman, and Germanic archaeological sites; its trilingualism, and its viticulture; the Gewürztraminer grape originated here.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Trento in the Trentino-South Tyrol region of Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bolzano/Bozen in the Trentino-South Tyrol region of Italy.

References

Notes

  1. "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. Luciano Canepari. "Trento". DiPI Online (in Italian). Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  4. "Trento | Italy | Encyclopædia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  5. Patuzzi, Umberto (2013). Unsarne Börtar [Our Words](PDF) (in Italian, German, and Cimbrian). Lucerna, Italy: Comitato unitario delle linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien. p. 9.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  6. "Classifica Censis 2017". Censis. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  7. "Le pagelle alle università". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  8. "Qualità della vita". Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  9. GDP per capita in the EU in 2011: seven capital regions among the ten most prosperous
  10. Taylor 1940:215, 224.
  11. "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  12. Trento Informa June 2012 Archived 18 February 2013 at Archive.today
  13. Griffith Taylor, "Trento to the Reschen Pass: A Cultural Traverse of the Adige Corridor", Geographical Review30.2 (April 1940:215–237), "The site and evolution of the town of Trento", pp 220-.
  14. Taylor 1940:221.
  15. 1 2 "The New York Times – Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". iht.com. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  16. The 16th-century original is Taylor 1940, fig. 6 p. 222.
  17. "Riva Di Trento:". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  18. Majori G (2012). "Short history of malaria and its eradication in Italy with short notes on the fight against the infection in the mediterranean basin". Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 4: e2012016. doi:10.4084/MJHID.2012.016. PMC   3340992 . PMID   22550561.
  19. http://rockarch.org/publications/resrep/hall.pdf
  20. Taylor 40:224.
  21. Un balzo nel passato Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Italian). Giro al Sas. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  22. Albo d’oro dal 1962 al 2009. Giro al Trentino. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
  23. "Economy Festival Trento". trentino.com. Retrieved 2 December 2017.

Further reading