Treviso

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Treviso
Trevizo (Venetian)
Città di Treviso
Piazza dei Signori e Palazzo dei Trecento.jpg
Treviso-Stemma.svg
Location of Treviso
Treviso
Italy provincial location map 2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Treviso
Location of Treviso in Italy
Italy Veneto location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Treviso
Treviso (Veneto)
Coordinates: 45°40′N12°15′E / 45.667°N 12.250°E / 45.667; 12.250
Country Italy
Region Veneto
Province Treviso (TV)
Frazioni Monigo, San Paolo, Santa Bona, San Pelajo, Santa Maria del Rovere, Selvana, Fiera, Sant'Antonino, San Lazzaro, Sant'Angelo, San Giuseppe, Canizzano
Government
  Mayor Mario Conte ( Lega Nord )
Area
[1]
  Total55.5 km2 (21.4 sq mi)
Elevation
15 m (49 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2019) [2]
  Total85,760
  Density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Demonym Trevigiani or Trevisani
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
31100
Dialing code 0422
ISTAT code 026086
Patron saint St. Liberalis
Saint day27 April
Website Official website

Treviso ( US: /trˈvz/ tray-VEE-zoh, [3] Italian: [treˈviːzo] ; Venetian : Trevizo [tɾeˈʋizo]) is a city and comune (municipality) in the Veneto region of northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Treviso and the municipality has 84,669 inhabitants (as of September 2017). [4] Some 3,000 live within the Venetian walls (le Mura) or in the historical and monumental center; some 80,000 live in the urban center while the city hinterland has a population of approximately 170,000.

Contents

The city is home to the headquarters of clothing retailer Benetton, Sisley, Stefanel, Geox, Diadora and Lotto Sport Italia, appliance maker De'Longhi, and bicycle maker Pinarello.

Treviso is also known for being the original production area of Prosecco wine and radicchio, [5] [6] and is thought to have been the origin of the popular Italian dessert tiramisù. [7]

History

Ancient era

Some believe that Treviso derived its name from the Celtic word "tarvos" mixed with the Latin ending "isium" forming "Tarvisium", of the tarvos. Tarvos means bull in Celtic mythology, though the same word can relate to the lion, or Leo, in Eastern astrology. Others believe it comes from a word from the language of a tribe who first came to Treviso. [8]

Tarvisium, then a city of the Veneti, became a municipium in 89 BC after the Romans added Cisalpine Gaul to their dominions. Citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe of Claudia. The city lay in proximity of the Via Postumia, which connected Opitergium to Aquileia, two major cities of Roman Venetia during Ancient and early medieval times. Treviso is rarely mentioned by ancient writers, although Pliny writes of the Silis, that is the Sile River, as flowing ex montibus Tarvisanis.

During the Roman period, Christianity spread to Treviso. Tradition records that St. Prosdocimus, a Greek who had been ordained bishop by St. Peter, brought the Catholic faith to Treviso and surrounding areas. By the 4th century, the Christian population grew sufficient to merit a resident bishop. The first documented bishop was John the Pious [9] who began his episcopacy in 396 AD.

Early Middle Ages

Treviso went through a demographic and economic decline similar to the rest of Italy after the fall of the Western Empire; however, it was spared by Attila the Hun, and thus, remained an important center during the 6th century. According to tradition, Treviso was the birthplace of Totila, the leader of Ostrogoths during the Gothic Wars. Immediately after the Gothic Wars, Treviso fell under the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until 568 AD when it was taken by the Lombards, who made it one of 36 ducal seats [10] and established an important mint. The latter was especially important during the reign of the last Lombard king, Desiderius, and continued to churn out coins when northern Italy was annexed to the Frankish Empire. People from the city also played a role in the founding of Venice.

Charlemagne made it the capital of a border march, i.e. the Marca Trevigiana, which lasted for several centuries.

Middle Ages

Treviso joined the Lombard League, and gained independence after the Peace of Constance (1183). [11] This lasted until the rise of seignories in northern Italy. [10] In 1214, Treviso was the scene of the Castle of Love that turned into a war between Padua and Venice. Among the various families who ruled over Treviso, the Da Romano reigned from 1237 to 1260. Struggles between Guelph and Ghibelline factions followed, with the first triumphant in 1283 with Gherardo III da Camino, after which Treviso experienced significant economic and cultural growth which continued until 1312. [10] Treviso and its satellite cities, including Castelfranco Veneto (founded by the Trevigiani in contraposition to Padua), had become attractive to neighbouring powers, including the da Carrara and Scaligeri. After the fall of the last Caminesi lord, Rizzardo IV, the Marca was the site of continuous struggles and ravages (1329–1388).

Treviso notary and physician Oliviero Forzetta was an avid collector of antiquities and drawings; the collection was published in a catalog in 1369, the earliest such catalog to survive to this day. [12]

Venetian rule

After a Scaliger domination in 1329–1339, the city gave itself to the Republic of Venice, [11] becoming the first notable mainland possession of the Serenissima. From 1318 it was also, for a short time, the seat of a university. Venetian rule brought innumerable benefits; however, Treviso necessarily became involved in the wars of Venice. In 1381 the city was given to the duke of Austria, and between 1384 and 1388 it was ruled by the despotic Carraresi. [10] Having returned to Venice, the city was fortified and given a massive line of walls and ramparts, still existing; these were renewed in the following century under the direction of Fra Giocondo, two of the gates being built by the Lombardi. The many waterways were exploited with several waterwheels which mainly powered mills for milling grain produced locally. The waterways were all navigable and "barconi" would arrive from Venice at the Port of Treviso (Porto de Fiera) pay duty and offload their merchandise and passengers along Riviera Santa Margherita. Fishermen were able to bring fresh catch every day to the Treviso fish market, which is held still today on an island connected to the rest of the city by two small bridges at either end.

Gate San Tomaso, with the Lion of Saint Mark, emblem of the Venetian Republic PortaSanTomaso3.JPG
Gate San Tomaso, with the Lion of Saint Mark, emblem of the Venetian Republic

French and Austrian rule

Treviso was taken in 1797 by the French under Mortier, who was made duke of Treviso. French domination lasted until the defeat of Napoleon, after which it passed to the Austrian Empire. The citizens, still at heart loyal to the fallen Venetian Republic, were displeased with imperial rule and in March 1848, drove out the Austrian garrison. However, after the town was bombarded, the people were compelled to capitulate on the following 14 June. Austrian rule continued until Treviso was annexed with the rest of Veneto to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866. [10] [13]

20th century and later

During World War I, Treviso held a strategic position close to the Austrian front. Just north, the Battle of Vittorio Veneto helped turn the tide of the War.

During World War II, one of several Italian concentration camps was established for Slovene and Croatian civilians from the Province of Ljubljana in Monigo, near Treviso. The Monigo camp was disbanded with the Italian capitulation in 1943.

The city suffered several bombing raids during World War II. [14] A large part of the medieval structures of the city center were destroyed—including part of the Palazzo dei Trecento, later rebuilt—causing the death of about 1,600 people. [15]

In January 2005, a bomb enclosed in a candy egg and attributed to the so-called Italian Unabomber detonated on a Treviso street. [16]

Geography

A bridge on the Sile river in Treviso Il Sile a Treviso.jpg
A bridge on the Sile river in Treviso

Treviso stands at the confluence of Botteniga with the Sile, [11] 30 kilometres (19 miles) north of Venice, 50 km (31 mi) east of Vicenza, 40 km (25 mi) north-east of Padua, and 120 km (75 mi) south of Cortina d'Ampezzo. The city is situated some 15 km (9 mi) south-west the right bank of the Piave River, on the plain between the Gulf of Venice and the Alps.

Climate

Climate in Treviso has mild differences between highs and lows, and has adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa" (temperate Humid subtropical climate). [17]

Climate data for Treviso (Treviso Airport) (1991–2020)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.3
(61.3)
22.3
(72.1)
24.6
(76.3)
31.6
(88.9)
33.4
(92.1)
38.5
(101.3)
37.4
(99.3)
40.0
(104.0)
33.0
(91.4)
28.0
(82.4)
24.6
(76.3)
16.5
(61.7)
40.0
(104.0)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)7.9
(46.2)
10.2
(50.4)
14.7
(58.5)
18.9
(66.0)
23.7
(74.7)
27.7
(81.9)
30.2
(86.4)
30.1
(86.2)
25.0
(77.0)
19.1
(66.4)
13.4
(56.1)
8.8
(47.8)
19.2
(66.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.3
(37.9)
5.0
(41.0)
9.3
(48.7)
13.4
(56.1)
18.4
(65.1)
22.4
(72.3)
24.6
(76.3)
24.3
(75.7)
19.3
(66.7)
14.2
(57.6)
9.1
(48.4)
4.2
(39.6)
14.0
(57.2)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)−0.3
(31.5)
0.6
(33.1)
4.5
(40.1)
8.3
(46.9)
13.1
(55.6)
17.1
(62.8)
19.1
(66.4)
18.9
(66.0)
14.4
(57.9)
10.1
(50.2)
5.5
(41.9)
0.8
(33.4)
9.3
(48.7)
Record low °C (°F)−9.6
(14.7)
−11.0
(12.2)
−8.0
(17.6)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.6
(34.9)
0.0
(32.0)
9.9
(49.8)
9.0
(48.2)
−2.6
(27.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
−5.2
(22.6)
−11.4
(11.5)
−11.4
(11.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)45.24
(1.78)
50.88
(2.00)
59.95
(2.36)
76.33
(3.01)
99.16
(3.90)
83.01
(3.27)
71.91
(2.83)
73.04
(2.88)
97.74
(3.85)
78.03
(3.07)
94.15
(3.71)
63.90
(2.52)
893.34
(35.17)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)5.435.205.808.539.078.216.896.596.866.838.366.4184.18
Average relative humidity (%)77.6073.8470.5170.1069.8169.5468.0468.0970.5575.7479.0978.6772.63
Average dew point °C (°F)0.16
(32.29)
0.72
(33.30)
4.03
(39.25)
7.81
(46.06)
12.41
(54.34)
16.24
(61.23)
17.94
(64.29)
17.81
(64.06)
14.07
(57.33)
10.57
(51.03)
6.10
(42.98)
1.37
(34.47)
9.10
(48.38)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 153.76166.88196.23200.10245.83248.10293.57260.40204.90166.47132.00151.282,419.52
Source: NOAA [18]

Government

Architecture

Parks and gardens

Education

Universities

As early as 1231 the city was looking for a doctor able to teach a course in Treviso, but it was not until 1269 that the canon Florio de' Dovari of Cremona was appointed, probably the first professor of law. In 1313-1314, it is recorded that the municipality guaranteed the presence of two Law professors, an ordinary and an extraordinary one, a third professor to teach Canonic Law and a fourth to teach Medicine. Even though the city had its own university in the Middle Ages, only in recent times the University of Padua, Ca' Foscari and the IUAV of Venice established their own university campuses, giving once again the status of "university city" to Treviso. Classes are held at the former hospital of Battuti and the former Military District. In 2015 the University IUAV of Venice closed its campuses in Treviso, moving its degree courses to Venice.

Culture

Libraries

The public library has five locations, three of which are located in the city center. [21] There are also some private foundations, such as the documentation center of the Fondazione Benetton Studi e Ricerche with a library annex, [22] at Palazzo Caotorta, the Biblioteca Capitolare and the Biblioteca del Seminario. The Liceo Canova also has an interesting library on the ground floor of its main headquarters, in Via San Teonisto.

Museums

In addition to various museums, the city also offers important exhibition areas such as Palazzo dei Trecento, the city council's headquarters, Ca' dei Carraresi, owned by the Fondazione Cassamarca, and Palazzo Bomben, the headquarters of the Fondazione Benetton Studi e Ricerche. [23]

Cuisine

Going in order, the most typical appetizer is the soppressa, a soft cured meat cut into thick slices, usually accompanied by polenta and radicchio. Among the first courses, the "risi" (with liver or accompanied by seasonal vegetables such as asparagus, radicchio, peas or "bisi"...) and soups (in particular the simple capon broth with tortellini, the bean soup and the sopa coada) can be mentioned. As for the main course, feathered game and poultry stand out: roasted guinea fowl with "pevarada" (a sauce made with liver and anchovy paste), boiled chicken, goose (often seasoned with celery), spit roasted duck and capon stew.

Tiramisu, a typical dessert from Treviso. Treviso tiramisu.jpg
Tiramisù, a typical dessert from Treviso.

There is also fresh-water fish and in particular eel, "bisatto" in dialect, fried or stewed with polenta, fresh-water shrimp, trout and codfish (in Treviso and in the Triveneto commonly called "baccalà"). Even vegetables are often protagonists of the Trevisan table, and in particular, the famous Red Radicchio of Treviso. Although the province is rich in cheeses (Montasio, Asiago, Taleggio, Morlacco), the most typical is perhaps the soft Casatella of Treviso, a fresh cheese with protected designation of origin status prepared with pasteurized cow's milk.

Among the most cultivated fruits in the province are the Marrone of Combai, cherries, especially from the Hills of Asolo, and grapes. The most characteristic dessert is definitely the Tiramisù, which according to the tradition was prepared for the first time in the restaurant "Alle Beccherie". [29] Other desserts that can be cited are the "Fregolotta" cake and seasonal desserts such as frittelle, crostoli and castagnole for Carnival, the Easter "fugassa con le mandorle", the Favette dei Morti. The most famous white wine is certainly Prosecco, and in addition to it, the Tocai, the Verduzzo and those made with white, grey Pinot and Chardonnay grapes as far as white wines are concerned and Cabernet, Merlot, Pinot noir and Raboso as far as red wines are concerned. [30]

Sports

Treviso is home to several notable Italian sport teams, thanks to the presence of the Benetton family, who owns and sponsors:

The local football team, A.S.D. Treviso 2009, played for the first time in the Italian Serie A in 2005. Its home stadium is the Omobono Tenni.

Treviso is a popular stop on the professional cyclo-cross racing circuit and served as the site of the 2008 UCI Cyclo-cross World Championships.

Treviso is a popular area for cycling enthusiasts. From the city center there is an cycling path along the Sile river with connecting paths all the way to Jesolo, a seaside resort on the Adriatic sea. For road cyclists, Treviso is also a starting/finishing point for tours to the Montello hill and further into the hills of the area around Conegliano and Valdobbiadene.

Transportation

Treviso Centrale railway station has Trenitalia trains to Venice, Padua, Belluno, Portogruaro, Vicenza, Udine and Trieste.

Treviso Airport, west of the city, specializes in low cost airlines.

MOM is the major transport company in the city and provides for urban and suburban services in the Province of Treviso.

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Treviso is twinned with:

See also

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