Triphylia

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Triphylia

Triphylia[ pronunciation? ] (Greek : Τριφυλία, Trifylia, "the country of the three tribes") was an area of the ancient Peloponnese. Strabo and Pausanias both describe Triphylia as part of Elis, and it fell at times under the domination of the city of Elis, but Pausanias claims they reckoned themselves Arcadian, not Elean. They fell under the rule of Elis in the 8th century BC, and remained under Elean rule until the Spartans asserted their control in 402 BC. When the Spartans were defeated by the Thebans at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, the Eleans attempted to reassert their control, but the Triphylians, in order to maintain their independence from Elis, joined the Arcadian League in 368 BC. In this period, their political fortunes were often shared by the areas on the border between Elis and Arcadia but in to the north of the River Alpheus; Xenophon mentions the Amphidolians and Acrorians and the city-states of Lasion, Margana, and Letrini in this context. The Amphidolians, Marganians, and Letrinians are remarkable in Xenophon for fielding slingers for the Peloponnesian army.

The most important city in Triphylia was Lepreum, which maintained its self-government in the 5th century BC. In his accounts of wars between the Eleans and their enemies in Sparta and Arcadia in this period, Xenophon also mentions Scillus, Macistus, Epium, Phrixa, and Epitalium as cities in Triphylia.


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Acroreia or Akroreia was a mountainous district of ancient Elis on the borders of Arcadia, in which the rivers Peneius and Ladon take their rise. The inhabitants of the district were called Acrocreii (Ἀκρωρεῖοι), and their towns appear to have been Thraustus, Alium, Opus, and Eupagium, to which Lasion may be added. The name is used in opposition to Κοίλη or Hollow Elis. Diodorus Siculus writes that the Spartans, under command of Pausanias of Sparta, marched against Elis with 4,000 men in 402 BCE, and that the towns of Opus, Alium, Eupagium, Thraustus, and Lasion were subdued. Xenophon mentions an Arcadian raid into Elis and took several towns of Acroreia around 365 BCE. Stephanus of Byzantium, who is followed by many modern writers, makes Acrocreii a town, and places it in Triphylia; but this error appears to have arisen from confounding the Acrocreii with the Paroreatae in Triphylia.

Epeium or Epeion or Epium or Epion or Aepion or Aipion was a town of Triphylia in ancient Elis, which stood between Makistos and Heraea, and may have been the successor settlement to Homeric Aepy. It is one of the six cities founded by the Minyans in the territory of Paroreatae and Caucones.

Macistus or Makistos, or Macistum or Makiston (Μάκιστον), was a city of ancient Elis, in Greece. It is one of the six cities founded by the Minyans in the territory of the Paroreatae and Caucones.

Elis (city)

Elis was a polis (city-state) and the capital city of the ancient district of Elis, in ancient Greece. It was situated in the northwest of the Peloponnese, to the west of Arcadia. The position of the city of Elis was the best that could have been chosen for the capital of the country. Just before the Peneius emerges from the hills into the plain, the valley of the river is contracted on the south by a projecting hill of a peaked form, and nearly 500 feet (150 m) in height. This hill was the acropolis of Elis, and commanded as well the narrow valley of the Peneius as the open plain beyond. The ancient city lay at the foot of the hill, and extended across the river, as Strabo says that the Peneius flowed through the city; but since no remains are now found on the right or northern bank, it is probable that all the public buildings were on the left bank of the river, more especially as Pausanias does not make any allusion to the river in his description of the city.