Tristan Klingsor, birth name (Arthur Justin) Léon Leclère (born Lachapelle-aux-Pots, Oise department, 8 August 1874; died Nogent-sur-Marne, 3 August 1966), was a French poet, musician, painter and art critic, best known for his artistic association with the composer Maurice Ravel.
His pseudonym, combining the names of Wagner's hero Tristan (from Tristan und Isolde ) and his (Wagner's) villain Klingsor (from Parsifal ), indicates one aspect of his artistic interests, though he said that he chose the names because he liked the "sounds" they made, the associations with Arthurian and Breton legends he had read as a child, and that there were already too many literary men in Paris with the surname Leclère. Some of his "orientalist" poems are addressed to a mysterious "jeune étranger," possibly symbolising his gay orientation, although he did marry in 1903, and had a daughter two years later.His first collection, Filles-fleurs (1895), was in eleven-syllable verse. After this he often used a personal form of free verse. He was a member of the Fantaisiste group of French poets. Certain of his poems were set to music by composers including Charles Koechlin, Georges Hüe and Georges Migot, and he is best remembered as providing the texts for Ravel’s song cycle Shéhérazade (1903). He and Ravel belonged to the Paris avant-garde artistic group known as Les Apaches for whose meetings he was sometimes the host. He recorded his long acquaintance with the composer in an essay, "L'Époque Ravel". Ravel dedicated the first of his Trois Chansons to him in 1915.
Klingsor was also a painter (exhibiting from 1905 at the Salon d'Automne and being awarded the Prix Puvis de Chavannes in 1952). His visual art was reviewed twice by Guillaume Apollinaire: In 1906, he called Klingsor's attempts "Merde!" but in 1908, he was kinder, stating: "Klingsor animates his painting with the same sentimental delicacy that gives his poetry its somewhat contrived, dated charm. For my part, I prefer the poet to the painter.” He was also the author of several studies on art, and a composer in his own right, with several collections of melodies, four-part songs, and piano music.
Guillaume Apollinaire was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic of Polish-Belarusian descent.
Léon-Paul Fargue was a French poet and essayist.
Jean-François de La Harpe was a French playwright, writer and literary critic.
Francis Jammes was a French and European poet. He spent most of his life in his native region of Béarn and the Basque Country and his poems are known for their lyricism and for singing the pleasures of a humble country life. His later poetry remained lyrical, but also included a strong religious element brought on by his (re)conversion to Catholicism in 1905.
The Mercure de France was originally a French gazette and literary magazine first published in the 17th century, but after several incarnations has evolved as a publisher, and is now part of the Éditions Gallimard publishing group.
André du Bouchet was a French poet.
Gabriel-Albert Aurier was a French poet, art critic and painter, associated with the Symbolist movement.
Shéhérazade is the title of two works by the French composer Maurice Ravel. Both have their origins in the composer's fascination with Scheherazade, the heroine and narrator of The Arabian Nights. The first work, an overture (1898), Ravel's earliest surviving orchestral piece, was not well received at its premiere and has not subsequently been among his most popular works. Four years later he had a much greater success with a song cycle with the same title, which has remained a standard repertoire piece and has been recorded many times.
Gabriel Marie Grovlez was a French composer, conductor, pianist, and music critic.
Paul-Pierre Roux, called Saint-Pol-Roux was a French Symbolist poet.
André Fontainas (1865–1948) was a Belgian Symbolist poet and critic. He was born in Brussels. He spent much of his life in France. He taught at Lycee Fontaines. He was a member of the Académie Mallarmé.
Philéas Lebesgue was a French essayist and translator. At once a poet, novelist, essayist, translator and literary critic.
Jean Robiquet was a French art historian, art critic and curator. He was also a playwright and opérettes librettist known under the pseudonym Jean Roby.
Louis Aubert, called le Fils, was an 18th-century French painter and composer, active from 1740 to 1780. The violinist and composer Jacques Aubert was his father and Abbé Aubert (1731–1814) his brother.
Adolphe van Bever was a 19th–20th-century French bibliographer and erudite.
Charles Derennes was a French novelist, essayist and poet, the winner of the Prix Femina in 1924.
Marie Gabriel Mourey was a French novelist, essayist, poet, playwright, translator and art critic.
Trois poèmes de Mallarmé is a sequence of three art songs by Maurice Ravel, based on poems by Stéphane Mallarmé for soprano, two flutes, two clarinets, piano, and string quartet. Composed in 1913, it was premiered on 14 January 1914, performed by Rose Féart and conducted by D.-E. Inghelbrecht, at the inaugural concert of the société musicale indépendante of the 1913–1914 season in the Salle Érard in Paris.
Holy Family, also called The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, is an oil on canvas painting by the French Rococo artist Antoine Watteau, now in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg. Variously dated between 1714 and 1721, Holy Family is possibly the rarest surviving religious subject in Watteau's art, related to either the Gospel of Matthew, or the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew; it depicts the Virgin, the Christ Child, and Saint Joseph amid a landscape, surrounded by putti.
Pierre-François Laurent (1739-1809) was an engraver and co-director with Louis-Nicolas-Joseph Robillard de Péronville of the publication Le Musée français. As an engraver, he specialised in landscapes and genre subjects after Dutch artists. He also produced several engravings of subjects from the recent national history.