|Kabul trolleybus system|
|Open||February 9, 1979|
|Stock||86 Škoda 9Tr|
|Route length||12.5 km (7.8 mi)|
The Kabul trolleybus system was a public transport service in Kabul, the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. The system was built by the Czechoslovak Elektrizace železnic Praha 9, 1979, with 25 Škoda 9TrH23 trolleybuses, eventually expanding to 86 vehicles by 1988, of which 80 were in operation. Operated by the state-owned Millie Bus, it used the same branding and a light-blue and white livery.(Electrification of railways, Prague) from 1976. The service launched on February
The initial line built by the Czechoslovak company ran between Pamir Cinema in downtown Kabul to Silo Road (Kote Sangi) in western Kabul, via Kabul Zoo, Karte Char and Kabul University. Subsequently, the Afghans themselves extended the line from Silo Road northwards back to downtown at Spinzar Hotel in Deh Afghanan. The line was also extended in the other direction, via Jadayi Maiwand to a textile factory located to the north-east. The total length of the system was 12.5 km (7.8 mi).[ when? ] The line was intentionally split into three routes with transfer points. The routes were distinguished only by destinations and not by numbers. [ better source needed ]
The trolleybus service was highly popular due to its low price compared to the regular bus service of Millie Bus. It carried about 21 million passengers per year. [ unreliable source? ]However its overhead line and electric contact network was reportedly in bad condition by the late 1980s with poor maintenance. Following the outbreak of civil war, the last trolleybus came to a halt in late 1992. The copper overhead wires were subsequently looted and sold to scrap dealers. The steel poles and some of the overhead can still be seen in Kabul today.
In 2003 and 2004, there were plans for a resurrected trolleybus service to ease congestion. [ page needed ] The Kabul Times reported in 2013 that the government was committed to renovating the system to tackle air pollution and deal with the busy traffic and increasing population in the city. In 2017, a new bus rapid transit system was revealed, which would be Kabul's first public transport system since the trolleybuses and which will run on much of the roads that were once served by trolleybuses. [ failed verification ]Its revival was discussed with Czech officials in 2011 and again with an Indian delegation in 2017.
The Škoda 9TrH23 is a variant of the 9Tr, produced from 1961 to 1982. It was one of the most popular models used in the former Soviet Union. The model in Kabul had three doors and operated on an overhead line voltage of between 550 and 600 volts.
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws power from dual overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires, and two trolley poles, are required to complete the electrical circuit. This differs from a tram or streetcar, which normally uses the track as the return path, needing only one wire and one pole. They are also distinct from other kinds of electric buses, which usually rely on batteries. Power is most commonly supplied as 600-volt direct current, but there are exceptions.
A trolley pole is a tapered cylindrical pole of wood or metal, used to transfer electricity from a "live" (electrified) overhead wire to the control and the electric traction motors of a tram or trolley bus. It is a type of current collector. The use of overhead wire in a system of current collection is reputed to be the 1880 invention of Frank J. Sprague, but the first working trolley pole was developed and demonstrated by Charles Van Depoele, in autumn 1885.
A dual-mode bus is a hybrid bus that can run independently on power from two different sources, typically electricity from overhead lines or batteries, alternated with conventional fossil fuel. In contrast to other hybrid buses, dual-mode buses can run forever exclusively on their electric power source (wires). Several of the examples listed below involve the use of dual-mode buses to travel through a tunnel on electric overhead power.
Electric Transit, Inc. (ETI) was a joint venture between the Škoda group in the Czech Republic and AAI Corporation in the United States which made trolleybuses for the Dayton and San Francisco trolleybus systems, constructing a total of 330 trolleybuses. ETI was formed in 1994, and ownership was divided as 65% by Škoda and 35% by AAI. The latter was a wholly owned subsidiary of United Industrial Corporation. Up to that time, Škoda had built more than 12,000 trolleybuses since 1935, but none for cities outside Europe and Asia. The ETI joint venture was dissolved in 2004, shortly after an unsuccessful bid to supply trolleybuses to Vancouver.
Milli Bus, also spelt Millie Bus, is a government-run bus service operating across Afghanistan. Operations are managed by the Afghan Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation.
The San Francisco trolleybus system forms part of the public transportation network serving San Francisco, in the state of California, United States. Opened on October 6, 1935, it presently comprises 15 lines, and is operated by the San Francisco Municipal Railway, commonly known as Muni, with around 300 trolleybuses. In San Francisco, these vehicles are also known as "trolley coaches", a term that was the most common name for trolleybuses in the United States in the middle decades of the 20th century.
The Burgas trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network of the Black Sea city and municipality of Burgas, the fourth most populous city, and the largest and most important port, in Bulgaria.
The Yerevan trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network in Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. Since the closure of the Gyumri trolleybus system in 2005, it has been Armenia’s only trolleybus system.
The Dayton trolleybus system forms part of the public transportation network serving Dayton, in the state of Ohio, United States. Opened on April 23, 1933, it presently comprises five lines, and is operated by the Greater Dayton Regional Transit Authority, with a fleet of 45 trolleybuses.
Škoda 24Tr Irisbus is a low-entry trolleybus model built from 2003 until 2014 by Czech trolleybus manufacturer Škoda Electric, supplying electrical equipment, in cooperation with Irisbus, supplying body.
The Plovdiv trolleybus system was a part of the public transport network of the city and municipality of Plovdiv, the second most populous city in Bulgaria.
The Ruse trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network of the city and municipality of Ruse, the fifth most populous city in Bulgaria. Opened in 1988, the system currently has seven lines. Its approximate length is 63 km and has been designed to work with 600V DC electricity. Over the years, various models of trolleybuses have been operated in Ruse.
As of 2012 there were around 300 cities or metropolitan areas where trolleybuses were operated, and more than 500 additional trolleybus systems have existed in the past. For complete lists of trolleybus systems by location, with dates of opening and closure, see List of trolleybus systems and the related lists indexed there.
The Baku trolleybus system was a system of trolleybuses forming part of the public transport arrangements in Baku, the capital city of Azerbaijan, for about 65 years from 1941.
Vologda Mechanical Plant is a Russian machine company located in the city of Vologda, specializing in the production of public vehicles: trolleybuses and buses. Managed by the Open Joint Stock Company "Trans-Alpha".
The production of urban electric transport is a branch of Russian engineering. Russia has the largest number of trolley (85) and tram systems (86) in the world.
The Škoda 14Tr is a Czech trolleybus that was produced from 1981 to 1998. Prototypes were built in 1972 and 1974.
The Mariánské Lázně trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network in Mariánské Lázně, in the Czech Republic. The spa town located in the western part of the Czech Republic is one of the smallest towns in the world that still has an operating trolleybus system. It was established as a replacement for older no longer adequate tram system and went into operation on 27 April 1952, when Mariánské Lázně was in Czechoslovakia. The very first vehicles to operate the newly established network were Škoda 7Tr. Since 2006 the public transport in Mariánské Lázně is operated by Městská Doprava Mariánské Lázně s. r. o. company.
Prague was the first city in Czechoslovakia to introduce modern-style trolleybuses. Only a few other trolleybus systems existed in the Czech lands previously – in České Velenice (Gmünd) and České Budějovice – using the same overhead system as the Electromote, the predecessor of all trolleybuses.
Kabul bus rapid transit is a bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Kabul, Afghanistan, currently under construction.