Trolleybuses in Oslo

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Oslo trolleybus
Oslo sporveier logo.png
Overview
Locale Oslo, Norway
Transit type Trolleybus
Number of lines 4
Daily ridership 96,000
Operation
Began operation 15 December 1940
Operator(s) Oslo Sporveier
Technical
System length 26.1 km

The Oslo trolleybus system was a trolleybus network operated by Oslo Sporveier in Oslo, Norway between 15 December 1940 and 15 February 1968. The system measured at the most 26.1 km on four lines.

Trolleybus electric bus reliant on overhead wires

A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit. This differs from a tram or streetcar, which normally uses the track as the return path, needing only one wire and one pole. They are also distinct from other kinds of electric buses, which usually rely on batteries. Power is most commonly supplied as 600-volt direct current, but there are exceptions.

Oslo Place in Østlandet, Norway

Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, and with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1877 and 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo.

Norway constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northwestern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land.

History

While Drammen had got the Drammen trolleybus, the first in Scandinavia in 1909, Oslo had relied on the Oslo Tramway since 1875. In 1927 Oslo Sporveier started their first bus route, and on 28 September 1931 they sent an application for operation of a trolleybus in Oslo between Oslo and Grorud. But the application met a lot of resistance. Schøyens Bilcentraler route 30 went from Grorud to Skøyen, and if Oslo Sporveier were to operate a route on the same line they would have to pay compensation to Schøyens. To avoid this, Oslo Sporveier changed their applied terminus to Majorstuen. But while the City Council of Aker wanted the other solution, and was pressing Oslo Sporveier to go to Skøyen, and the Norwegian National Road Administration felt that if Oslo Sporveier wanted to build a trolleybus route to Grorud, they would have to pay for part of the upgrade of Trondheimsveien, a term not acceptable for the company. [1]

Drammen Municipality in Buskerud, Norway

Drammen is a city in Buskerud, Norway. The port and river city of Drammen is centrally located in the eastern and most populated part of Norway. Drammen is the capital of the county of Buskerud.

Scandinavia Region in Northern Europe

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia also refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.

Grorud District in Norway

Grorud is a district of the city of Oslo, Norway. The district contains the Ammerud, Grorud, Kalbakken, Rødtvet, Nordtvet and Romsås areas. To the north of the district is the forest of Lillomarka. The district is the smallest in Oslo, with fewer than 30 000 inhabitants.

After a one-year trial run in Drammen in 1939 the first trolleybus route in Oslo opened in 1940. This was line 17, a 1.6 km feeding line at Rodeløkka. This line only used one bus, that didn't run on Sundays so it could be maintained. Then came World War II with fuel shortage, resulting in the trolleybus being quite popular, as Norway had ample electricity. But there were other problems, including material shortage and the fear of the German forces confiscating any copper that would be used in the wires. But after the war the network was expanded onwards, with three new lines in 1946. The lines were constantly expanded until 1955 when the network was at its largest. [2]

Rodeløkka

Rodeløkka is a neighborhood in Grünerløkka in Oslo, Norway.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Electricity Physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. Later on, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others.

The end of the trolleybuses started in 1960 when the sale of cars in Norway was deregulated. This resulted in an enormous reduction in public transport ridership, and the same year the Oslo City Council decided to close both the trolleybus and tramway networks. In 1961 the first line was decommissioned, followed by another the next year. Excess buses were sold to Drammen. The last lines were closed in 1968. The plan was to replace all the electrical powered tram and trolleybus routes with the diesel bus, a strategy that would prove fatal when the oil crisis (1973 and 1979) hit in the 1970s. Unlike the trolleybus network, the Oslo Tramway still exists. [3]

Public transport shared transport[ation] service that is available for use by the general public; usually of passengers but sometimes of goods

Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses, trams and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines, coaches, and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world.

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. The embargo was targeted at nations perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War. The initial nations targeted were Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States with the embargo also later extended to Portugal, Rhodesia and South Africa. By the end of the embargo in March 1974, the price of oil had risen from US$3 per barrel to nearly $12 globally; US prices were significantly higher. The embargo caused an oil crisis, or "shock", with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy. It was later called the "first oil shock", followed by the 1979 oil crisis, termed the "second oil shock."

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Røa Line

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History of the Oslo Tramway and Metro

The history of the Oslo Tramway and Oslo Metro in Oslo, Norway, starts in 1875, when Kristiania Sporveisselskab (KSS) opened two horsecar lines through the city centre. In 1894, Kristiania Elektriske Sporvei (KES) built the first electric street tramways, which ran west from the city centre. Within six years, all tramways were electric. The city council established Kristiania Kommunale Sporveie (KKS) in 1899, which built three lines before it was sold to KSS six years later. Both KSS and KES were taken over by the municipality in 1924, becoming Oslo Sporveier. The company gradually expanded the city tram network, which reached its peak length in 1939.

Rodeløkka Line

The Rodeløkka Line is a former line of the Oslo Tramway of Norway. It was in use from 1900 to 1961, serving the neighborhood of Rodeløkka. After closing, the southern part of the line was designated as part of the Sinsen Line. The Rodeløkka Line was built by Kristiania Kommunale Sporveie (KKS) in 1900, and was subsequently taken over by Kristiania Sporveisselskab (KSS) in 1905. In 1924, the ownership was transferred to Oslo Sporveier. It was served by Line 9 until 1949, when it was replaced by a bus service. In 1955, a new route from Carl Berners plass to Rodeløkka was built, and the line was served by Line 13 until 1961, when the service was terminated. The tracks were removed between 1962 and 1964.

Korsvoll Line

The Korsvoll Line is an abandoned line of the Oslo Tramway in Norway. The line branched off from the Sagene Line at Bentsebrugaten and ran along Bergensgata to Lisa Kristoffersens plass in Korsvoll, Oslo. The line opened on 1 May 1924 and was operated by Oslo Sporveier. From 1927 it became part of Line 10, which it remained part of until its closing on 17 January 1949. The reason for closing the line was that it was amongst the least trafficked lines of the tramway and Oslo Sporveier wanted to convert it to a trolleybus line.

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The Fornebu Line is a proposed rail line which would serve the peninsula of Fornebu in Bærum, Norway. The line is in the planning stages and the transit agency Ruter is working towards connecting it to the Oslo Metro. The line has at various stages been proposed as a automated people mover, tram-train, tramway, light rail, stadtbahn, rapid transit, bus rapid transit and commuter rail. The current proposal consists of a metro line starting at Majorstuen Station and running entirely in a tunnel for 8,150 meters (26,740 ft). It would possible have a station at Madserud, and then stations at Skøyen, Vækerø, Lysaker, Telenor Arena, Flytårnet and Fornebu Senter. A depot would be built at Fornebu and the line would connect to the metro's Common Tunnel at Majorstuen.

References

  1. Aspenberg, Nils Carl (1996). Trolleybussene i Norge. Oslo: Baneforlaget. p. 66.
  2. Aspenberg, op. cit., p. 70
  3. Aspenberg, op. cit., p. 78