Tromelin Island

Last updated

Coordinates: 15°53′32″S54°31′29″E / 15.89222°S 54.52472°E / -15.89222; 54.52472


Tromelin Island
Île Tromelin  (French)
Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.svg
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
Anthem:  La Marseillaise
Iles eparses de l'ocean Indien.svg
Location of Tromelin and other Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean
Official languages French
French Overseas Territory
 Discovered by Jean Marie Briand de la Feuillée
 French claim to sovereignty
29 November 1776
Currency Euro (EUR)
ISO 3166 code TF
Internet TLD .tf
Anchor of the wrecked frigate Utile Anchor of the Utile.jpg
Anchor of the wrecked frigate Utile

Tromelin Island ( /ˌtrmlɪn/ [ citation needed ]; French : Île Tromelin, pronounced  [il tʁɔmlɛ̃] ) is a low, flat island in the Indian Ocean about 500 km (310 mi) north of Réunion and about 450 km (280 mi) east of Madagascar. Tromelin is administered as part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands, a French Overseas Territory, but Mauritius claims sovereignty over the island.

Tromelin has facilities for scientific expeditions and a weather station. [1] It is a nesting site for birds and green sea turtles.


The island is named in honour of Jacques Marie Boudin de Tromelin de La Nuguy, captain of the French corvette Dauphine. He arrived at the island on 29 November 1776, and rescued eight stranded enslaved Malagasy people who had been on the island for 15 years. [2]


Map of Tromelin Island. Tromelin-topo.svg
Map of Tromelin Island.
Present settlement on Tromelin Island. Tromelin station2.JPG
Present settlement on Tromelin Island.

Tromelin is situated in the Mascarene Basin and is part of the Îles Éparses. It is currently only 7 m (23 ft) high. [3] It formed as a volcano, [4] [5] now eroded, and developed an atoll ring of coral. [3]

Tromelin is about 1,700 m (1.1 mi) long and 700 m (0.43 mi) wide, with an area of 80 ha (200 acres), covered in scrub dominated by octopus bush [6] and surrounded by coral reefs. [3] [7] Access by sea is quite difficult as there are no harbours and the only anchorage, to the northwest of the island, is poorly situated. [7] The best, but by no means ideal, landing area is on the east side of the northern peninsula. [7] A 1,200 m (3,900 ft) airstrip provides a link with the outside world. [8]

Fauna and Flora

Flora is poorly developed due to weather conditions and lack of fresh water. With the exception of two or three months in summer, this flat island is swept day and night by heavy winds that are sustained in winter. In summer, it can suffer the onslaught of cyclones and tropical storms.

There is only grass and brush (low shrubs) present on the island. Veloutaries ( Heliotropium foertherianum ) and purslane ( Portulaca oleracea ), with growth shaped by a dominant east winds are present everywhere on the island.

The fauna consists mainly of hermit crabs (Paguroidea), seabirds, and sea turtles for which the island is an important nesting place. The green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ), also known as the freshwater turtle, is mainly encountered and, to a lesser extent, the tortoiseshell turtle, better known as the caret.

The waters are rich with fish. The French Coral Reef Initiative (IFRECOR) has identified 26 species of corals. Allochthonous species were introduced on the island during the various shipwrecks: rats, mice and rabbits. The latter were decimated in 1986 by cyclone Erinesta.

Important Bird Area

The island has been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International because of its significance as a seabird breeding site. Both masked (with up to 250 pairs) and red-footed boobies (up to 180 pairs) nest on the island. Sulidae populations have seriously declined in the western Indian Ocean with those on Tromelin among the healthiest remaining.

The island's masked boobies are of the western Indian Ocean subspecies (Sula dactylatra melanops), of which Tromelin is a stronghold. [9] The red-footed boobies constitute the only polymorphic population in the region, indicating its biogeographical isolation. Both great and lesser frigatebirds used to nest on the island. The breeding populations of both birds have since been extirpated, although they continue to use the island for roosting.

There are no resident landbirds. [6]


Aerial view Tromelin aerial photograph.JPG
Aerial view

The island was discovered by France in 1720s. [10] [11] It was recorded by the French navigator Jean Marie Briand de la Feuillée and named “Île des Sables” (‘Isle of Sand’). [12]

Wreck of the ship Utile

On 31 July 1761 [13] the French ship Utile ("Useful"), a frigate of the French East India Company, chartered by Jean-Joseph de Laborde and commanded by Captain Jean de La Fargue, transporting slaves from Madagascar to Mauritius in contravention of Mauritian law, ran onto the reefs of the island. [14] The ship had departed Bayonne in France with 142 men. After a stopover on Mauritius (then called the Isle de France), the ship embarked 160 Malagasy men, women, and children at Foulpointe, on the east coast of Madagascar, to bring them into slavery on Mauritius, despite the prohibition of trafficking decreed by the governor. A navigation error, due to the use of two conflicting charts, caused the vessel to wreck on the reefs of Tromelin Island (then called the Isle of Sand). The ship was a frigate, not a slave ship, and thus was not equipped with the shackles and chains usually found on slave ships. [15]

After the wreck, the crew and about 60 Malagasy people managed to reach the island, but the rest of the slaves, locked in the hold, drowned. The crew retrieved various equipment, food and wood from the wreckage. They dug a well, providing drinking water, and fed on salvaged food, turtles, and seabirds. [15]

Captain Jean de Lafargue lost his mind as a result of the wreck, and was replaced by his first lieutenant, second-in-command, Barthelemy Castellan du Vernet who lost his brother Leon in the shipwreck. Castellan built two camps, one for the crew and one for the slaves, a forge and an oven, and with the materials recovered from the wreckage, began construction of a boat. [15] On 27 September 1761, a contingent of 122 French sailors (crew and officers) left Tromelin aboard the Providence. They left the surviving slaves – 60  Malagasy men and women – on the desert island, promising to return and rescue them. [14]

The sailors reached Madagascar in just over four days and, after a stopover in Foulpointe, where men died of tropical diseases, were transferred to Réunion Island (then Bourbon Island), and then to Mauritius (then called the Isle de France). When the crew of the ship reached Mauritius, they requested that colonial authorities send a ship to rescue the Malagasy slaves on the island. However, they met with a categorical refusal from the governor, with the justification that France was fighting the Seven Years' War and thus no ship could be spared, the island of Mauritius being itself under threat of attack from British India. [16]

Castellan left Mauritius (Isle de France) to return to France in 1762 and never gave up hope to one day return to the Isle of Sand to save the Malagasy people. The news of the castaway slaves got published and stirred the Parisian intellectual milieu; later, the episode was all but forgotten with the end of the Seven Years' War and the bankruptcy of the East India Company. [15]

In 1773, a ship passing close to Tromelin Island located the slaves and reported them to the authorities of Isle de France. A boat was sent, but this first rescue failed, as the ship could not approach the island. A year later, a second ship, Sauterelle, also failed to reach the island. During this second failed rescue, a sailor managed to swim to the island, but he had to be abandoned by the ship due to bad weather. This sailor remained on Tromelin Island and, some time later, probably around 1775, built a raft on which he embarked with three men and three women, but which disappeared at sea. [15]

It was not until 29 November 1776, 15 years after the sinking, that Ensign Tromelin-Lanuguy, captain of the corvette Dauphine, [2] reached Tromelin Island and rescued the survivors – seven women and an eight-month-old child. [5] [16] Upon arriving there, Tromelin-Lanuguy discovered that the survivors were dressed in plaited feather clothes and that they had managed, during all these years, to keep a fire lit (the island did not have a single tree). The Malagasy people, who had been left on the bleak little island, built a shed with coral stones, for most of the wood had been used in the construction of the raft for the crew. They also built a lookout on the highest point of the island in order not to miss the ship that would, they hoped, come to their rescue. They were all from the Central Highlands of Madagascar, and had no knowledge of how to produce food in the coastal environment. Most had died within the first few months on the island. [12] The survivors remained with Jacques Maillart, governor of Mauritius (Isle de France), who declared them free and offered to bring them back to Madagascar, which they refused. [15] Maillart decided to baptize the child Jacques Moyse (Moses), on the day of his arrival in Port-Louis on 15 December 1776, and to rename his mother Eve (her Malagasy name was Semiavou) and to do the same with the child's grandmother, whom he called Dauphine after the name of the corvette that rescued them. [15] The trio was welcomed in the house of the intendant of Mauritius (Isle de France). Tromelin was the first to precisely describe the island that now bears his name. [15]

In 1781 the Marquis de Condorcet recounted the tragedy of the castaways of Tromelin, to illustrate the inhumanity of the slave trade, in his book Reflections on the Slavery of Negroes advocating the abolition of slavery. [15]

Expedition "Forgotten slaves"

An archeological expedition entitled "Forgotten Slaves", led by Max Guérout, a former French naval officer and director of operations of the Naval Archeology Research Group, and Thomas Romon, archaeologist at INRAP (National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research), took place from October to November 2006, under the patronage of UNESCO and the French Committee for the History and Remembrance of Slavery (CPMHE). The results of the research were made public on 17 January 2007. The ten members of the expedition probed the wreck of Utile, and searched the island for traces of shipwreck, in order to better understand the living conditions of the Malagasy people during these fifteen years. [15] According to Max Guérout, head of the mission, "In three days, a well 5 meters deep was dug. This represented a considerable effort. We found many bones of birds, turtles, and fish." One does not have the impression that these people were crushed by their condition. They tried to survive with order and method." [15]

An anonymous logbook, attributed to a writer of the crew, was found. Basements made of beach sandstone and coral were also found (the survivors thus transgressed a Malagasy custom according to which stone constructions were reserved for tombs). There were also six copper bowls and a pebble used to sharpen knives. The fire was maintained for fifteen years, thanks to the wood from the wreck, the island being devoid of trees. [15]

A second expedition, organized in November 2008, did not reveal the burials observed in 1851 by an English naval officer. However, the remains of two bodies displaced during the digging of the foundations of a building of the weather station have been uncovered. Three buildings built with coral blocks have been discovered, including the kitchen, which was still equipped with kitchen utensils, and in particular copper containers that had been repaired several times, testifying to the Malagasy's determination to survive. [15]

A third archaeological mission took place in November 2010. It allowed the discovery of three new buildings and many objects, including two lighters and flints, which elucidated the technique used by the castaways to rekindle the fire. [15]

The fourth expedition, took place in September–October 2013. It lasted for 45 days, and enabled the identification of many tools and shelters, as well as the layout of the site. [15]

In 2016, an exhibition presenting the results of the various excavation campaigns, entitled "Tromelin, the island of forgotten slaves", was presented jointly in metropolitan France and in the DROM: At the Stella Matutina Museum in Saint-Leu (La Réunion), the castle of the Dukes of Brittany in Nantes, the House of Agglomeration of Lorient, the Aquitaine Museum in Bordeaux, the departmental museum of archeology and prehistory of Martinique in Fort-de-France, and finally to the Basque Museum of the History of Bayonne from June to November 2017.

Sovereignty claims

Tromelin is administered as part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands, a French Overseas Territory, but Mauritius claims sovereignty over the island despite its absence in the listing of the 8th article of the 1814 Paris Treaty. [17] Indeed, the treaty does not specifically mention all the dependencies of Mauritius, which leads to uncertainty on the sovereignty of Tromelin, and the official text was the most clearly text in French. During the British period of Mauritius, France administered the island as a dependency of the region of Réunion and built infrastructure without British protest. France and Mauritius have been negotiating for years in regard to the possible establishment of a condominium over the island. In 2010, Mauritius and France reached an agreement on the co-management of Tromelin, without prejudice to the sovereignty of Mauritius over Tromelin.

The French claim to sovereignty dates from 29 November 1776, [18] the date that the ship Dauphine arrived.

The Mauritian claim to sovereignty is based on the fact that the island must have been ceded to United Kingdom by the treaty of Paris in 1814 and should not continue to be administered by France as a dependency of Réunion.

The United Nations never recognized the Mauritian sovereignty over Tromelin. In 1954, France constructed a meteorological station and a landing strip on the island. [19]

It is a matter of dispute whether the building agreement transferred sovereignty of Tromelin from one to the other, and Mauritius claims the island as part of its territory, on the grounds that France did not retain its sovereignty over island in 1814, which was de facto part of the colony of Mauritius at the time of independence. [20] Indeed, as early as 1959, even before independence, Mauritius informed the World Meteorological Organization that it considered Tromelin to be part of its territory. [21] A co-management treaty was reached by France and Mauritius in 2010, [22] but has not been ratified. [23]

Tromelin has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 280,000 km2 (108,109 sq mi), contiguous with that of Réunion. The island's weather station, which warns of cyclones, is still operated by France and is staffed by meteorologists from Réunion.


Climate data for Tromelin Island (1981–2010 averages, records 1955–present)
Record high °C (°F)36.3
Average high °C (°F)31.0
Daily mean °C (°F)28.4
Average low °C (°F)25.8
Record low °C (°F)20.5
Average precipitation mm (inches)137.4
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)12.113.814.712.310.211.312.911.
Source: Météo France [24]

Related Research Articles

Europa Island French atoll in the Mozambique Channel

Europa Island, in Malagasy Nosy Ampela is a 28-square-kilometre (11 sq mi) low-lying tropical atoll in the Mozambique Channel, about a third of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique. The island had never been inhabited until 1820, when the French family Rosier moved to it. The island officially became a possession of France in 1897.

Juan de Nova Island French territory and island in the Mozambique Channel

Juan de Nova Island, Malagasy: Nosy Kely) is a French-controlled tropical island in the narrowest part of the Mozambique Channel, about one-third of the way between Madagascar and Mozambique. It is a low, flat island, 4.8 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi) in size.

Mauritius Island nation in the Indian Ocean

Mauritius, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) off the southeast coast of the African continent, east of Madagascar. It includes the main island, as well as Rodrigues, Agaléga and St. Brandon. The islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues, along with nearby Réunion, are part of the Mascarene Islands. The capital and largest city, Port Louis, is located in Mauritius, where most of the population is concentrated. The country spans 2,040 square kilometres (790 sq mi) and has an exclusive economic zone covering 2.3 million square kilometres.

The known history of Mauritius begins with its discovery by Arabs and Malays, followed by Europeans and its appearance on maps in the early 16th century. Mauritius was successively colonized by the Netherlands, France and Great Britain, and became independent in 1968.

History of Madagascar Aspect of history

The history of Madagascar is distinguished clearly by the early isolation of the landmass from the ancient supercontinent containing Africa and India, and by the island's late colonization by human settlers from the Sunda islands and from East Africa. These two factors facilitated the evolution and survival of thousands of endemic plant and animal species, some of which have gone extinct or are currently threatened with extinction due to the government not allocating resources to help the growing population, causing many people to resort to harmful environmental practices as a way of survival. Trade in the Indian Ocean at the time of first colonization of Madagascar was dominated by large ships, called Djong, coming from Java and Sumatra.

Réunion Overseas department of France in the Indian Ocean

Réunion is an island in the Indian Ocean that is an overseas department and region of France. It is located approximately 550 km (340 mi) east of the island of Madagascar and 175 km (109 mi) southwest of the island of Mauritius. As of January 2022, it had a population of 868,846.

Aldabra Coral atoll in the Indian Ocean

Aldabra is the world's second-largest coral atoll. It is situated in the Aldabra Group of islands in the Indian Ocean that are part of the Outer Islands of the Seychelles, with a distance of 1,120 km (700 mi) southwest of the capital, Victoria, on Mahé Island.

Isle de France (Mauritius) 1715–1810 French colony in the Indian Ocean

Isle de France was the name of the Indian Ocean island which is known as Mauritius and its dependent territories between 1715 and 1810, when the area was under the French East India Company and a part of the French colonial empire. Under the French, the island witnessed major changes. The increasing importance of agriculture led to the importation of slaves and the undertaking of vast infrastructural works that transformed Port Louis into a major capital, port, warehousing, and commercial centre.

Outer Islands of Mauritius Islands administered by but not part of the mainland of Mauritius

Outer Islands of Mauritius is the single first-order administrative division of the country and consists of the islands of Mauritius and several outlying islands. It is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Local Government and Outer Islands. The Constitution of Mauritius provides that the country includes the islands of Mauritius, Rodrigues, Agaléga, Saint Brandon, Tromelin and the Chagos Archipelago, including Diego Garcia and any other island comprised in the State of Mauritius. The Government of Mauritius claims sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago, which the United Kingdom split from its territories to create the British Indian Ocean Territory before its independence in 1968. Additionally, France shares a sovereignty claim over Tromelin, an uninhabited islet between Madagascar and Mauritius' main island.

Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean Islands, atoll, and reef in the Indian Ocean, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands

The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean consist of four small coral islands, an atoll, and a reef in the Indian Ocean, and have constituted the 5th district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF), though sovereignty over some or all of the Islands is contested by Madagascar, Mauritius, and the Comoros. None of the islands has ever had a permanent population.

Île Saint-Paul

Île Saint-Paul is an island forming part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands in the Indian Ocean, with an area of 6 km2. The island is located about 90 km (56 mi) south of the larger Île Amsterdam, 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) northeast of the Kerguelen Islands, and 3,000 km (1,900 mi) southeast of Réunion.

Saint Brandon, also known as the Cargados Carajos Shoals, is an Indian Ocean archipelago about 430 kilometres (270 mi) northeast of Mauritius consisting of a number of sand banks, shoals and islets. Saint Brandon consists of five island groups, with about 28–40 islands and islets in total, depending on seasonal storms and related sand movements. There are 22 named islands and shoals. The archipelago is low-lying and is prone to substantial submersion in severe weather. It has an aggregate land area estimated variously at 1.3 km2 (0.50 sq mi) and 500 acres (2.0 km2). Economic activity in the region is limited to fishing on the very extensive shallow bank covering approximately 900 sq mi (2,300 km2) around the islands. By the early 19th century, most of the islands were in use as fishing stations. Geographically, the archipelago is part of the Mascarene Islands and is situated on the Mascarene Plateau formed by the separation of the Mauritia microcontinent during the separation of India and Madagascar about 60 million years ago.

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the world's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds.

Mauritius campaign of 1809–1811 Amphibious and naval operations by the British during the Napoleonic Wars

The Mauritius campaign of 1809–1811 was a series of amphibious operations and naval actions fought to determine possession of the French Indian Ocean territories of Isle de France and Île Bonaparte during the Napoleonic Wars. The campaign lasted from the spring of 1809 until the spring of 1811, and saw both the Royal Navy and the French Navy deploy substantial frigate squadrons with the intention of disrupting or protecting trade from British India. In a war in which the Royal Navy was almost universally dominant at sea, the campaign is especially notable for the local superiority enjoyed by the French Navy in the autumn of 1810 following the British disaster at the Battle of Grand Port, the most significant defeat for the Royal Navy in the entire conflict. After their victory, the British used the original Dutch name of Mauritius for Isle de France. In 1814, Île Bonaparte was returned to France, who eventually renamed it La Réunion.

Abraham Samuel, also known as "Tolinar Rex," born in Martinique, was a mulatto pirate of the Indian Ocean in the days of the Pirate Round in the late-1690s. Being shipwrecked on his way back to New York, he briefly led a combined pirate-Antanosy kingdom from Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, from 1697 until he died there in 1705.

The islands of Africa are a major geographical sub-region of Africa, and represent a distinct demographic and historical cultural sphere of influence on the continent.

Jean-Baptiste Lislet Geoffroy was a French astronomer, botanist and cartographer.

Jacques Marie Boudin de Tromelin, Chevalier de La Nuguy was a French Navy officer. He served in the Indian Ocean under Suffren during the War of American Independence. Tromelin Island is named after him.

Dauphine was a small 4-gun corvette of the French Navy. She is notable for the rescue operation to Tromelin Island that gave it its present name, and for taking part in the Second voyage of Kerguelen. The Baie de la Dauphine, in the Kerguelen Archipelago, is named in her honour.


  1. "[no title cited]". New Scientist. Vol. 145. 14 January 1995. p. 10.[ full citation needed ]
  2. 1 2 Annexe 2. Biographie de Jacques Marie Boudin de Tromelin, seigneur de Lanuguy. CNRS Editions. Histoire. CNRS Éditions. 28 November 2019. pp. 245–261. ISBN   9782271130426 . Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 Marriner, Nick; et al. (2012). "A geomorphological reconnaissance of Tromelin Island, Indian Ocean". Journal of Coastal Research. 28 (6): 1606–1616. doi:10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-11-00029.1. S2CID   128621103.
  4. Fisher, Robert L.; Johnson, George L.; Heezen, Bruce C. (1967). "Mascarene Plateau, Western Indian Ocean". GSA Bulletin. Geological Society of America. 78 (10): 1247–1266. Bibcode:1967GSAB...78.1247F. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1967)78[1247:MPWIO]2.0.CO;2.
  5. 1 2 Marriner, Nick; Guérout, Max; Romon, Thomas (2010). "The forgotten slaves of Tromelin (Indian Ocean): New geoarchaeological data". Journal of Archaeological Science. 37 (6): 1293–1304. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2009.12.032.
  6. 1 2 "Tromelin". Important Bird Areas factsheet. BirdLife International. 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  7. 1 2 3 "Chapter III: Islands and Banks East of Madagascar". Sailing Directions for the South Indian Ocean, Madagascar and the Islands West of Longitude 90° East. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1945. p. 124.
  8. Atoll Research Bulletin. Smithsonian Institution. 1951.
  9. African Wildlife. Wildlife Society of Southern Africa. 1974.
  10. Russell, James (11 April 2016). "The Recovery of Tromelin Island". National Geographic Society (blogs). Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  11. The World Factbook 2016-2017. Government Publications Office. United States Central Intelligence Agency. 18 August 2016. pp. 269ff. ISBN   978-0-16-093327-1 via Government Printing Office.
  12. 1 2 "La Revue Maritime N° 477" (PDF). Paris, FR: Institut Français de la Mer. December 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  13. Guérout (2015), p. 27.
  14. 1 2 "Lèse humanité". The Economist. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Guérout, Romon; Max, Thomas (2015). Tromelin, l'île aux esclaves oubliés. France: CNRS Editions.
  16. 1 2 "Shipwrecked and abandoned: The story of the slave Crusoes". 5 February 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  17. "Treaty of Paris". 1814. Art. VIII. «His Britannic majesty stipulating for himself and his allies, engages to restore to his most Christian majesty, within the term which shall be hereafter fixed, the colonies, fisheries, factories, and establishments of every kind, which were possessed by France on the 1 January 1792, in the seas and on the continents of America, Africa, and Asia, with the exception however of the islands of Tobago and St. Lucie, and of the Isle of France and its dependencies, especially Rodrigues and Les Sechelles, which several colonies and possessions his most Christian majesty cedes in full right and sovereignty to his Britannic majesty, and also the portion of St. Domingo ceded to France by the treaty of Basle, and which his most Christian majesty restores in full right and sovereignty to his Catholic majesty»
  18. "Ce n'est que quinze ans plus tard, le 29 novembre 1776, que le chevalier de Tromelin récupérera huit esclaves survivants : sept femmes et un enfant de huit mois. Le pavillon français fut planté sur l'île qui fut ainsi nommée Tromelin en hommage à ce chevalier". Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2017 via
  19. Charney, Jonathan I.; Colson, David A.; Alexander, Lewis M. (2005). International Maritime Boundaries. p. 3463. ISBN   9004144617.
  20. Forbes, Vivian Louis (1995). The maritime boundaries of the Indian Ocean region. Singapore University Press. p. 110. ISBN   9971691892.
  21. Rumley, Dennis; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Sakhuja, Vijay (2010). Fisheries Exploitation in the Indian Ocean: Threats and Opportunities. p. 123. ISBN   9789812309860.
  22. "Tromelin : La Réunion, spectatrice et spoliée".
  23. "Mauritius".
  24. "Tromelin (984)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2018.