Tropical Storm Andrea (2013)

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Tropical Storm Andrea
Tropical storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Andrea Jun 6 2013 1840Z.jpg
Tropical Storm Andrea at peak intensity, while approaching Florida on June 6
FormedJune 5, 2013
DissipatedJune 10, 2013
(Extratropical after June 7)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 65 mph (100 km/h)
Lowest pressure992 mbar (hPa); 29.29 inHg
Fatalities1 direct, 3 indirect
Damage$86,000 (2013 USD)
Areas affected Yucatán Peninsula, Cuba, United States East Coast, Atlantic Canada
Part of the 2013 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Andrea brought flooding to Cuba, the Yucatan Peninsula, and portions of the East Coast of the United States in June 2013. The first tropical cyclone and named storm of the annual hurricane season, Andrea originated from an area of low pressure in the eastern Gulf of Mexico on June 5. Despite strong wind shear and an abundance of dry air, the storm strengthened while initially heading north-northeastward. Later on June 5, it re-curved northeastward and approached the Big Bend region of Florida. Andrea intensified and peaked as a strong tropical storm with winds at 65 mph (100 km/h) on June 6. A few hours later, the storm weakened slightly and made landfall near Steinhatchee, Florida later that day. It began losing tropical characteristics while tracking across Florida and Georgia. Andrea transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over South Carolina on June 7, though the remnants continued to move along the East Coast of the United States, until being absorbed by another extratropical system offshore Maine on June 10.

Contents

Prior to becoming a tropical cyclone, the precursor to Andrea dropped nearly 12 inches (300 mm) of rainfall on the Yucatán Peninsula. In Cuba, the storm brought flooding, especially in Pinar del Río Province. Over 1,000 people fled their homes, mainly along the Cuyaguateje River. A tornado was also spawned in the area, damaging three homes. In Florida, the storm brought heavy rainfall to some areas, causing localized flooding. There were nine tornadoes in Florida, the worst of which touched down in The Acreage and downed power lines and trees, causing significant roof damage to several houses; there was also one injury. After Andrea transition into an extratropical storm, the remnants that also spawned one tornado in North Carolina, though damage was minor. Additionally, minor flooding was reported in some areas of the Northeastern United States. Three fatalities occurred due to weather-related traffic accidents in Virginia and New Jersey. There was a direct death reported after a surfer in South Carolina went missing and was presumed to have drowned. The remnants of Andrea also brought gusty winds to Atlantic Canada, causing thousands of power outages in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale

Map key
Saffir-Simpson scale
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Tropical depression (<=38 mph, <=62 km/h)

Tropical storm (39-73 mph, 63-118 km/h)

Category 1 (74-95 mph, 119-153 km/h)

Category 2 (96-110 mph, 154-177 km/h)

Category 3 (111-129 mph, 178-208 km/h)

Category 4 (130-156 mph, 209-251 km/h)

Category 5 (>=157 mph, >=252 km/h)

Unknown
Storm type
Tropical cyclone
Subtropical cyclone
Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression Andrea 2013 track.png
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
ArrowUp.svg Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

At the end of May 2013, a broad and diffuse cyclonic disturbance developed over eastern Mexico and northern Central America, incorporating the remnants of eastern Pacific Hurricane Barbara. As a tropical wave approached from the east, an inverted trough developed on the northern edge of the active region on June 2, setting the stage for the formation of a weak surface low pressure system over the southern Gulf of Mexico the next day. [1] The National Hurricane Center (NHC) began monitoring the system in their Tropical Weather Outlooks, [2] and bulletins were issued every six hours regarding the probability of tropical cyclone formation within 48 hours. [3] A nearby upper trough created unfavorable conditions for tropical cyclogenesis, subjecting the low to wind shear and abundant dry air that kept it indistinct and disorganized. On June 5, the environment became less hostile, and the system began to improve in structure. [1]

Post-Tropical Cyclone Andrea over The Carolinas on June 7 Andrea Jun 7 2013 1610Z.jpg
Post-Tropical Cyclone Andrea over The Carolinas on June 7

On June 5, a Hurricane Hunters flight found a closed center and winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). In response, the NHC initiated advisories on Tropical Storm Andrea later that day, [4] while centered about 310 miles (500 km) southwest of St. Petersburg, Florida. [1] Due to somewhat unfavorable conditions, significant strengthening was initially considered unlikely. Early on June 6, deep convection was displaced well to the east and southeast of the center as a result of wind shear up to 29 mph (47 km/h). [5] Despite this, Andrea intensified to attain peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) at 1200 UTC that day. Thereafter, unfavorable conditions, including dry air entrainment caused the storm to weaken slightly. At 2200 UTC on June 6, Andrea made landfall in Dixie County, Florida about 10 miles (15 km) south of Steinhatchee. Simultaneously, the storm attained its minimum barometric pressure of 992  mbar (29.3  inHg ). [1]

After moving inland on June 6, [1] the NHC noted that extratropical transition was likely within 24 hours and that it "could occur sooner if the convective structure does not improve." [6] By later on June 7, most of the convection became displaced to the northwest due to dry air. Around that time, the storm began accelerating northeastward at 26 mph (42 km/h) due to an approaching mid-latitude trough. [7] Based on ground observations and Doppler radar, the system transitioned into an extratropical cyclone at 1800 UTC on June 7, while located over northeastern South Carolina. [1] The remaining thunderstorms around Andrea became indistinguishable from those associated with a frontal zone over North Carolina. [8] Due to a policy created in response to Hurricane Sandy, [1] the NHC continued to issue advisories on the remnants of Andrea as it remained a threat to the East Coast of the United States. [9] On June 8, it moved rapidly northeastward across the Mid-Atlantic and New England. [1] Because gale-force winds were located well to the southeast of the center, the NHC ceased advisories on the remnants of Andrea. [10] Upon reaching the Gulf of Maine, the extratropical remnants of Andrea were absorbed by another extratropical low pressure area around 0000 UTC on June 10. [1]

Preparations

Tropical storm warnings in effect at 1500 UTC on June 6 Al01 2013 5day.png
Tropical storm warnings in effect at 1500 UTC on June 6

Multiple tropical cyclone warnings and watches were posted along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States in association with Tropical Storm Andrea. At 2200 UTC on June 5, a tropical storm warning was issued from Boca Grande to the mouth of the Ochlockonee River in Florida. Additionally, a tropical storm watch was put into effect for Flagler Beach, Florida to Surf City, North Carolina. At 0900 UTC on June 6, the tropical storm warning was extended from the mouth of the Ochlockonee River to Indian Pass, Florida. Simultaneously, another tropical storm warning was issued from Flagler Beach, Florida to Cape Charles Light in Virginia. Early on June 7, the tropical storm warning on the Gulf Coast of Florida was expanded to include Boca Grande to the Steinhatchee River in Florida, before being canceled a few hours later. At 0900 UTC on June 7, the tropical storm warning from Flagler Beach to Surf City was modified to Altamaha River, Georgia to Cape Charles Light. Throughout that day, the tropical storm warning was progressively retracted northward, with the southern terminal being at the Savannah River in Georgia at 1200 UTC, the Santee River in South Carolina at 1500 UTC, the Little River Inlet in South Carolina at 1800 UTC, and finally Surf City at 2100 UTC. Early on June 8, all tropical cyclone warnings and watches were discontinued. [1]

The United States Coast Guard urged marine interests and boaters in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina to take precaution to protect their lives and vessels. [11] In Florida, the Gulf Islands National Seashore closed their campground and a beach front road. [12] Additionally, several states parks were closed and campers were evacuated. [13] At Pensacola Beach, condominium associations asked residents to remove furniture from high balconies due to the anticipation of strong winds. [12] A state of emergency was issued for Taylor County, where two shelters were opened. [14]

Impact

Radar loop of Tropical Storm Andrea crossing Florida Andrealoop.gif
Radar loop of Tropical Storm Andrea crossing Florida

Becoming a tropical storm on June 5, Andrea marked the fourth consecutive season with a named storm in the month of June, following Hurricane Alex in 2010, Tropical Storm Arlene in 2011, and Hurricane Chris and Tropical Storm Debby in 2012. This was over a month earlier than the 19662009 average date of the first named storm, July 9. [15]

The precursor disturbance to Andrea dropped nearly 12 inches (300 mm) of rain on the Yucatán Peninsula in a 24-hour period. In Cuba, the Civil Defense issued a weather alarm for Pinar del Río Province from June 5 to June 6. There was also a lower-level "alert" in the adjacent provinces of Artemisa and Mayabeque. Over 1,000 people fled their homes due to flooding, especially along the Cuyaguateje River in Pinar del Río Province. The city of Las Martinas received more than 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall in 24 hours; a few other locations reported over 8 inches (200 mm) of rain. Of the 24 dams in Pinar del Río Province, six had already filled by June 5. The disturbance spawned a tornado in that area, which damaged three homes. [16]

Florida

Damage from the tornado spawned in The Acreage Andreatornado.gif
Damage from the tornado spawned in The Acreage

Along the Florida coast, storm surge produced by Andrea remained relatively minor, with surge heights ranging from 2–4 ft (0.61–1.22 m) across the state's Gulf coast. These measurements peaked in Cedar Key, where a station documented a storm surge height of 4.08 ft (1.24 m); the same station recorded a storm tide height of 6.26 ft (1.91 m). [17] The highest wind measurement was at a mesonet site in Davis Islands, which observed sustained winds of 47 mph (76 km/h). [1] [17] A total of 10 tornadoes were spawned in Florida. [1] Near Myakka City, a tornado damaged the roofs of three single family homes, six pole barns, and four outbuildings. One horse and six chickens were killed, and another horse and two dogs were injured. Significant piles of debris and downed power lines covered State Road 70 in Myakka City. Damage was estimated at $50,000. Another twister spawned in Sun City Center downed trees and damaged lanais, fascia and shingles. Damage reached approximately $36,000. [17]

Andrea dropped locally heavy rainfall in some areas of West Central Florida, with a Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) station observing 6.17 inches (157 mm) inches of precipitation near Chiefland. Minor street flooding was reported in several counties. Near the city of Coachman, the weight of saturated leaves on the roof of a dog kennel at the Pinellas County Humane Society caused a large section of the roof to collapse. In East Central Florida, the storm produced about 2–3 inches (51–76 mm) of rain, with isolated totals of 5–6 inches (130–150 mm) over a three-day period in Orange, Osceola, and Volusia counties. [17] In North Florida, the storm spawned a tornado at the Naval Station Mayport in Jacksonville. A number of "non-critical" structures suffered minor impact, while other buildings experienced damaged roofs and broken windows. [17] Strong winds were also observed in the area, with gusts up to 83 mph (134 km/h) at the Jacksonville Beach Pier; this was the strongest wind gust associated with the storm. [1] Another tornado was spawned on Amelia Island in Fernandina Beach, though it caused minimal damage. [17]

Flooding from Tropical Storm Andrea in northeastern Miami-Dade County Andreaflood.jpg
Flooding from Tropical Storm Andrea in northeastern Miami-Dade County

Of the ten tornadoes in Florida, three were spawned in the southern portions of the state. In The Acreage, an EF-1 tornado caused minor to moderate roof damage to several homes, mainly in the form of shingles and roof covering torn off. Numerous trees were uprooted or snapped near the trunk, along with several branches falling; this resulted in broken windows in several homes. At one home, the garage door was damaged, causing the door to blow in, which in turn led to the roof being damaged above the garage. An 85-year-old woman was injured after being struck by a falling branch of an oak tree, which broke through her bedroom window. A few vehicles were moved from their original locations, while a 30 feet (9.1 m) boat was flipped on its side. Another tornado in Belle Glade damaged an awning and downed trees and several power lines. Further south, a tornado touched down in Broward County and entered Palm Beach County before lifting back up; it resulted in no damage. [17]

A convective band associated with Tropical Storm Andrea moved slowly across South Florida, prompting flash flood warnings for Broward and Miami-Dade County Counties. Precipitation peaked at 14.27 inches (362 mm) in North Miami Beach, [18] 13.96 inches (355 mm) of which fell in a 24-hour period. Roads became impassable in the Waterways community in Aventura, leaving over 50 vehicles disabled. In nearby Golden Beach, hundreds of people became stranded in their vehicles, according to city officials. At the Biscayne Bay Campus of Florida International University, 11.71 inches (297 mm) of rain was observed. A number of stalled vehicles and impassable roads were reported in North Miami, while 24 families were forced to evacuate due to flooding. Further north in Broward County, the city of Hollywood was particularly hard hit, with 9 inches (230 mm) of rain observed. Several vehicles became disabled after retention ponds overflowed. [17]

Elsewhere in North America

Rainfall totals in the United States in associated with Tropical Storm Andrea Andrea2013filledrainblk.png
Rainfall totals in the United States in associated with Tropical Storm Andrea

Along the coast of Alabama, 13 swimmers were rescued due to strong rip currents. [12] In Georgia, the storm brought gusty winds to the coast, reaching 32 mph (51 km/h) at Fort Pulaski. [1] Wind damage was minor, limited to mostly downed trees and power lines in several counties; in Chatham County, a falling tree struck a house. [19] Generally light rainfall was reported across much of southern and eastern Georgia, though up to 5.34 inches (136 mm) fell near Richmond Hill. [1] In Chatham County, a portion of U.S. Route 25 was temporarily closed due to flooding. [19] Along the coast of South Carolina, a storm surge of 3.55 feet (1.08 m) was observed in Beaufort County. A surfer in Horry County went missing and was later presumed to have drowned. [1] In several counties along the coast or just inland, trees and power lines were downed. [19] Andrea dropped light rainfall in the state, peaking at 4.9 inches (120 mm) near Cordova. [1]

The storm brought significant amounts of rainfall to North Carolina in short periods of time, with a peak amount of 7.41 inches (188 mm) near Cameron. [1] In Raleigh, 5.14 inches (131 mm) of rain fell in 24 hours, which broke the highest daily precipitation record for the city. Additionally, this total exceeded the average rainfall amount for the month of June. [20] Many streams, creeks, and river overflowed in eastern North Carolina, resulting in numerous street closures in several counties. [17] The Crabtree Valley Mall in Raleigh was closed after the parking lots became inundated. A number of low-lying and creek-side communities in Apex, Cary, Clayton, Durham, and Raleigh were flooded. [20] A tornado was spawned near Varnamtown, where it downed several trees and damaged a large storage building. [17]

The storm produced over 5 inches (130 mm) of rain in southeastern Virginia, with up to 7.73 inches (196 mm) in Williamsburg. [1] Several roads in Accomack County were left impassable due to high water. [17] One indirect death occurred due to a car accident in southwestern Virginia on June 7. [1] In Maryland, rainfall in the eastern portion of the state was generally between 3 and 6 inches (76 and 152 mm). Poor drainage in some areas resulted in multiple road closures in Caroline and Talbot counties, the latter of which reported about 20 roads shutdown. Radar estimates of precipitation in Delaware were between 2 and 4 inches (51 and 102 mm), while 5.19 inches (132 mm) was observed in Smyrna. Flash flooding occurred in areas of poor drainage, causing several road closures, especially in central Delaware. Radar estimates of precipitation in eastern Pennsylvania ranged from 2 to 4 inches (51 to 102 mm), with a peak of 4.09 inches (104 mm) in Langhorne. There, the Neshaminy Creek reached 9 feet (2.7 m) above flood stage. In Delaware County, flooding was reporting along the Chester Creek. [17]

Heavy rainfall was reported in New Jersey, amounting to more than 5 in (130 mm) in Oceanport. The heavy precipitation resulted in traffic jams and caused flooding along the Millstone and Raritan rivers. Three car accidents were blamed on the storm, two of which were fatal. Numerous roads flooded across the state, leading to several high-water rescues. [21] Overflowing rivers and streams in Bergen and Union counties flooded low-lying and poor drainage areas. The Rockaway River at Boonton reached 5 feet (1.5 m) above flood stage from the afternoon of June 8 until the following morning. [17] Winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) downed some trees and power lines, leaving 500–2,000 residences without power. A plane traveling from Palm Beach, Florida to Boston, Massachusetts had to make an emergency landing at Newark Liberty International Airport after being struck by lightning. [21] In New York, 4.77 inches (121 mm) fell at Central Park in New York City in only a few hours, causing flash flooding in some areas. Train 3 on the New York City Subway briefly suspended service from 96th Street station to the 148th Street station. [17]

In Connecticut, the storm dropped up to 6.64 inches (169 mm) in Gales Ferry, causing flash flooding in Fairfield and New London counties. About 3 to 5 inches (76 to 127 mm) of precipitation fell throughout Rhode Island, flooding many streets, several basements, and stranding a number of cars, particularly in Providence County. An exit ramp of Interstate 95 in Providence was flooded with 1.5 feet (0.46 m) of water. An estimated 3 and 5 inches (76 and 127 mm) of precipitation fell in eastern Massachusetts. A number of roads were inundated in Bristol County, including Routes 24 and 79 and the ramps onto Interstate 95. Many cars were stranded in about 2 feet (0.61 m) of water in Fall River. Several basements were flooded in New Bedford, while several streets were flooded or left impassable. [17] Elsewhere in New England, light rainfall was observed in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. [22]

As a post-tropical cyclone, Andrea brought rain and gale-force winds to Atlantic Canada. Officials closed the Confederation Bridge to high-profile vehicles due to the blustery conditions. More than 4,000 customers in Nova Scotia and parts of New Brunswick lost power as the storm moved through on June 8. [23]

See also

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Tropical Storm Bret made a rare landfall on the Delmarva Peninsula in June 1981. The sixth tropical cyclone, third designated tropical depression, and second named storm of the season, Bret developed as a subtropical storm from a large area of frontal clouds near Bermuda on June 29. Moving westward, the subtropical storm intensified while producing deep convection, and was consequently reclassified as a tropical storm early on June 30. Around that time, Bret peaked with sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h). The storm then began weakening and struck near Oyster, Virginia as a minimal tropical storm early on July 1. Upon moving inland, Bret weakened to a tropical depression and subsequently accelerated prior to dissipating over northern Virginia that same day.

Hurricane Cindy (1959) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1959

Hurricane Cindy impacted the Carolinas, the Mid-Atlantic states, New England, and the Canadian Maritime Provinces during the 1959 Atlantic hurricane season. The third storm of the season, Cindy originated from a low-pressure area associated with a cold front located east of northern Florida. The low developed into a tropical depression on July 5 while tracking north-northeastward, and became Tropical Storm Cindy by the next day. Cindy turned westward because of a high-pressure area positioned to its north, and further intensified into a weak hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas on July 8. Early on July 9, Cindy made landfall near McClellanville, South Carolina, and re-curved to the northeast along the Fall Line as a tropical depression. It re-entered the Atlantic on July 10, quickly restrengthening into a tropical storm while it began to move faster. On July 11, Cindy passed over Cape Cod, while several other weather systems helped the storm maintain its intensity. Cindy transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on July 12 as it neared the Canadian Maritime Provinces.

Tropical Storm Debby (2012) Atlantic tropical storm in 2012

Tropical Storm Debby was a tropical cyclone that caused extensive flooding in North Florida and Central Florida during late June 2012. The fourth tropical cyclone and named storm of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, Debby developed from a trough of low pressure in the central Gulf of Mexico on June 23. The formation of Debby marked the earliest formation on record of the fourth named storm within the Atlantic basin until this record was beaten by Tropical Storm Danielle in 2016. Despite a projected track toward landfall in Louisiana or Texas, the storm headed the opposite direction, moving slowly north-northeast and northeastward. The storm slowly strengthened, and at 1800 UTC on June 25, attained its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h). Dry air, westerly wind shear, and upwelling of cold waters prevented further intensification over the next 24 hours. Instead, Debby weakened, and by late on June 26, it was a minimal tropical storm. At 2100 UTC, the storm made landfall near Steinhatchee, Florida with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). Once inland, the system continued to weaken while crossing Florida, and dissipated shortly after emerging into the Atlantic on June 27.

2019 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2019 Atlantic hurricane season was the fourth consecutive above-average and damaging season dating back to 2016. However, many were weak and short-lived, especially towards the end of the season. Six of those named storms achieved hurricane status, while three intensified into major hurricanes. Two storms became Category 5 hurricanes, marking the fourth consecutive season with at least one Category 5 hurricane, the third consecutive season to feature at least one storm making landfall at Category 5 intensity, and the seventh on record to have multiple tropical cyclones reaching Category 5 strength. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. However, tropical cyclogenesis is possible at any time of the year, as demonstrated by the formation of Subtropical Storm Andrea on May 20, marking the record fifth consecutive year where a tropical or subtropical cyclone developed before the official start of the season.

Hurricane Arthur Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2014

Hurricane Arthur was the earliest known hurricane to make landfall in the U.S. state of North Carolina during the calendar year. It was also the first hurricane to make landfall in the United States since Hurricane Isaac in 2012. The first named storm of the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season, Arthur developed from an initially non-tropical area of low pressure over the Southeastern United States that emerged into the western Atlantic Ocean on June 28. After sufficiently organizing, developing a well-defined circulation and deep convection amid a favorable environment, it was classified a tropical depression on July 1. The system continued to strengthen, and was declared a tropical storm later that day. Drifting northward, the storm reached hurricane status early on July 3 and curved toward the north-northeast. Further structural organization resulted in additional intensification, and by 01:00 UTC on July 4, the system attained its peak winds of 100 km/h (60 mph) as a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Arthur made landfall at 03:15 UTC over North Carolina's Shackleford Banks, positioned between Cape Lookout and Beaufort, and intensified slightly further, with a minimum atmospheric pressure of 973 mbar. The storm then trekked swiftly northeast, weakening as it passed by Cape Cod and Nantucket, before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone and coming ashore at Weymouth, Nova Scotia, on July 5. The remnants continued generally northeastward through Atlantic Canada before ultimately dissipating on July 9 over the Labrador Sea.

Tropical Storm Colin (2016) Atlantic tropical storm in 2016

Tropical Storm Colin was the earliest third named storm in the Atlantic basin on record for four years, until it was surpassed by Tropical Storm Cristobal in 2020. An atypical, poorly organized tropical cyclone, Colin developed from a low pressure area over the Gulf of Mexico near the northern coast of the Yucatán Peninsula late on June 5, 2016. Moving northward, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm about eight hours after its formation. On June 6, Colin curved to the north-northeast and intensified slightly to winds of 50 mph (85 km/h). Strong wind shear prevented further strengthening and resulted in the system maintaining a disheveled appearance on satellite imagery. Later, the storm began accelerating to the northeast. Early on June 7, Colin made landfall in rural Taylor County, Florida, still at peak intensity. The system rapidly crossed northern Florida and emerged into the Atlantic Ocean several hours later. By late on June 7, Colin transitioned into an extratropical cyclone offshore North Carolina before being absorbed by a frontal boundary the following day.

References

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