|Tropical storm (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||May 6, 1981|
|Dissipated||May 9, 1981|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained: 60 mph (95 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||999 mbar (hPa); 29.5 inHg|
|Areas affected||Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Cuba, Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands|
|Part of the 1981 Atlantic hurricane season|
Tropical Storm Arlene was a rare off-season tropical cyclone that hit Cuba and the Bahamas in May 1981. Its formation was unusual, originating from a tropical disturbance that crossed from the eastern Pacific Ocean into the Caribbean Sea; few Atlantic hurricanes develop in this manner. On May 6, a tropical depression developed, and the next day it became Tropical Storm Arlene near the Cayman Islands, three weeks before the start of the hurricane season. This marked the first Atlantic tropical storm in May since 1970's Hurricane Alma. Arlene moved northeastward throughout its life, bringing rainfall and locally gusty winds as it crossed Cuba and the southeastern Bahamas. On May 9, the storm dissipated when a large non-tropical storm absorbed Arlene. There were no reports of deaths or significant damage. This was one of a few known damages come to light.
Callypygian yacht crippled at sea, mayday May 13-14 to North Carolina Coast Guard after capsizing , crew rescued at sea by oil tanker Cove Sailer out of Baton Rouge Louisiana Sun May 16.(4 nights stranded at sea with oncoming water and broken window aboard) Jumped off to rope ladder off side of tanker. Air lifted by Cape Cod Coast Guard to Otis Air Force Base. Had drifted from the Carolinas NE to 680 naut miles off Cape Cod . All 4 persons survived.
The origins of Arlene were from a cloud mass that developed in the eastern Pacific Ocean in early May 1981. The system crossed Central America, and by the afternoon of May 5, a low-level circulation was evident near Roatán, off the coast of Honduras. Convection was initially disorganized, preventing classification as a tropical cyclone. It was not until late on May 6 that Dvorak satellite intensity estimates began on the system. Around that time, it is estimated it became a tropical depression, while located near the Cayman Island. It was a rare example of an Atlantic depression forming from a disturbance that originated in the eastern Pacific.
After becoming a tropical depression, the system evolved rapidly as a spiral band formed around the circulation. Based on satellite imagery, the National Hurricane Center upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Arlene on May 7. Shortly thereafter, Hurricane Hunters confirmed the intensity, while reporting a pressure of 1,000.0 hectopascals (29.53 inHg). By then and through much of its lifetime, the circulation was located along the western edge of the deep convection. Arlene strengthened slightly further to winds of 50 mph (85 km/h), before it moved ashore in eastern Cuba early on May 8. As it approached land, the convection was weakening, although its center maintained a steady northeast path, due to a high pressure system to its north.
While crossing eastern Cuba, the circulation of Arlene became ill-defined, although re-strengthening over water was considered possible. mph (95 km/h), or tropical storm strength, located over the southeastern Bahamas in a large convective band extending of the center. When the thunderstorms dissipated, the winds again dropped, and Arlene returned to tropical depression status. Early on May 9, the depression was absorbed by an advancing trough. Late the next day, the combined systems reorganized and resembled having some subtropical characteristics, although it weakened further by May 11.When it reached open waters, Arlene was already a depression, and there was considered little likelihood of redevelopment, with strong shear pushing the convection far east of the center. Nevertheless, a NOAA reconnaissance mission found that winds briefly increased to 60
As Arlene was approaching its first landfall, the National Hurricane Center noted the potential for heavy rainfall in Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas; small boats in those regions were advised to remain at harbor. Meanwhile, the government of the Bahamas issued storm warnings for the central and southeastern portion of its country. 46 miles per hour (74 km/h) winds; later, peak winds in the Bahamas reached around 35 miles per hour (56 km/h). Arlene was the only May tropical storm on record to affect the Cuban province of Camagüey, although its passage was mostly noticed in its disruption of sugar cane production.There were no reports of damage or casualties from Cuba or the Bahamas, and therefore storm affects were judged to have been minimal. Early in the duration of Arlene, Cayman Brac reported
The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season was a very deadly, destructive, and extremely active Atlantic hurricane season, with over 3,200 deaths and more than $61 billion in damage. More than half of the 16 tropical cyclones brushed or struck the United States. Due to the development of a Modoki El Niño – a rare type of El Niño in which unfavorable conditions are produced over the eastern Pacific instead of the Atlantic basin due to warmer sea surface temperatures farther west along the equatorial Pacific – activity was above average. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the season's last storm, Otto, dissipated on December 3, extending the season beyond its traditional boundaries. The first storm, Alex, developed offshore of the Southeastern United States on July 31, one of the latest dates on record to see the formation of the first system in an Atlantic hurricane season. It brushed the Carolinas and the Mid-Atlantic, causing one death and $7.5 million (2004 USD) in damage. Several storms caused only minor damage, including tropical storms Bonnie, Earl, Hermine, and Matthew. In addition, hurricanes Danielle, Karl, and Lisa, Tropical Depression Ten, Subtropical Storm Nicole and Tropical Storm Otto had no effect on land while tropical cyclones.
The 2000 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active hurricane season, but featured the latest first named storm in a hurricane season since 1992. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was slightly above average due to a La Niña weather pattern although most of the storms were weak. The first cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed in the southern Gulf of Mexico on June 7 and dissipated after an uneventful duration. However, it would be almost two months before the first named storm, Alberto, formed near Cape Verde; Alberto also dissipated with no effects on land. Several other tropical cyclones—Tropical Depression Two, Tropical Depression Four, Chris, Ernesto, Nadine, and an unnamed subtropical storm—did not impact land. Five additional storms—Tropical Depression Nine, Florence, Isaac, Joyce, and Leslie—minimally affected land areas.
The 1999 Atlantic hurricane season had five Category 4 hurricanes – the highest number recorded in a single season in the Atlantic basin, previously tied in 1961, and later tied in 2005 and 2020. The season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was a fairly active season, mostly due to a persistent La Niña that developed in the latter half of 1998. The first storm, Arlene, formed on June 11 to the southeast of Bermuda. It meandered slowly for a week and caused no impact on land. Other tropical cyclones that did not affect land were Hurricane Cindy, Tropical Storm Emily, and Tropical Depression Twelve. Localized or otherwise minor damage occurred from Hurricanes Bret, Gert, and Jose, Tropical Storms Harvey and Katrina.
The 1998 Atlantic hurricane season was one of the most disastrous Atlantic hurricane seasons on record, featuring the highest number of storm-related fatalities in over 218 years and one of the costliest ever at the time. The season had above average activity, due to the dissipation of the El Niño event and transition to La Niña conditions. It officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. The first tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Alex, developed on July 27, and the season's final storm, Hurricane Nicole, became extratropical on December 1.
Hurricane Michelle was the fifth costliest tropical cyclone in Cuban history and strongest of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. The thirteenth named storm and seventh hurricane that year, Michelle developed from a tropical wave that had traversed into the western Caribbean Sea on October 29; the wave had initially moved off the coast of Africa 13 days prior. In its early developmental stages, the depression meandered over Nicaragua, later paralleling the Mosquito Coast before intensifying into tropical storm intensity on November 1; Michelle was upgraded to hurricane strength the following day. Shortly after, rapid intensification ensued within favorable conditions, with the storm's central barometric pressure dropping 51 mbar in 29 hours. After a slight fluctuation in strength, Michelle reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 140 mph (225 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 933 mbar. This tied Michelle with 1999's Lenny as the fourth most powerful November hurricane on record in the Atlantic Basin, behind only the 1932 Cuba hurricane and 2020 Hurricanes Iota and Eta. At roughly the same time, the hurricane began to accelerate northeastward; this brought the intense hurricane to a Cuban landfall within the Bay of Pigs later that day. Crossing over the island, Michelle was weakened significantly, and was only a Category 1 hurricane upon reentry into the Atlantic Ocean. The hurricane later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over The Bahamas on November 5, before being absorbed by a cold front the following day.
The 1993 Atlantic hurricane season was a below average Atlantic hurricane season that produced ten tropical cyclones, eight tropical storms, four hurricanes, and one major hurricane. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. The first tropical cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed on May 31, while the final storm, Tropical Depression Ten, dissipated on September 30, well before the average dissipation date of a season's last tropical cyclone; this represented the earliest end to the hurricane season in ten years. The most intense hurricane, Emily, was a Category 3 on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale that paralleled close to the North Carolina coastline causing minor damage and a few deaths before moving out to sea.
The 1963 Atlantic hurricane season featured one of the deadliest tropical cyclones on record in the Atlantic basin: Hurricane Flora. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was an season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of ten nameable storms. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed over the Bahamas on June 1. In late July, Hurricane Arlene, developed between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles. The storm later impacted Bermuda, where strong winds resulted in about $300,000 (1963 USD) in damage. Other storms such as hurricanes Beulah and Debra, as well as an unnamed tropical storm, did not impact land. During the month of September, Tropical Storm Cindy caused wind damage and flooding in Texas, leaving three deaths and approximately $12.5 million in damage. Hurricane Edith passed through the Lesser Antilles and the eastern Greater Antilles, causing 10 deaths and about $43 million in damage, most of which occurred on Martinique.
The 1981 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active season that featured 22 tropical depressions and 12 storms. The season officially began on June 1, 1981, and lasted until November 30, 1981. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. Almost all of the named storms made landfall. Cindy, Harvey, and Irene did not affect land, either directly or indirectly.
The 2007 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season, featuring one major hurricane. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the region. The first tropical cyclone of the season, Alvin, developed on May 27, while the final system of the year, Kiko, dissipated on October 23. Due to unusually strong wind shear, activity fell short of the long-term average, with a total of 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 1 major hurricane. At the time, 2007 featured the second-lowest value of the Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index since reliable records began in 1971. Two tropical cyclones – Cosme and Flossie – crossed into the central Pacific basin during the year, activity below the average of 4 to 5 systems.
Tropical Storm Gilda in 1973 was the first documented tropical cyclone on record to transition into a subtropical cyclone. It formed on October 16 in the western Caribbean Sea from a tropical wave, and strengthened to reach peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) before striking Cuba. It later moved slowly through the Bahamas before weakening to tropical depression status. On October 24, with the assistance of a cold front off the coast of the eastern United States, Gilda transformed into a subtropical storm, becoming very large and strong. The storm later accelerated northeastward and became extratropical, ultimately dissipating near Greenland.
Hurricane Debby caused minor damage in the Greater and Lesser Antilles in August 2000. The seventh tropical cyclone, fourth named storm, and second hurricane of the annual season, Debby developed from a tropical wave east of the Lesser Antilles on August 19. Favorable conditions allowed the depression to become Tropical Storm Debby early on August 20, and further strengthening into a hurricane occurred 24 hours later. Sustained winds peaked at 85 mph (140 km/h) on August 21. Debby made three landfalls on August 22, in Barbuda, Saint Barthélemy, and Virgin Gorda, before re-entering the Atlantic north of Puerto Rico. As Debby moved parallel to the north coast of Hispaniola late on August 23, it weakened back to a tropical storm. The storm tracked westward and weakened further, instead of approaching Florida and strengthening into a major hurricane. While south of eastern Cuba on August 24, Debby was downgraded to a tropical depression, six hours before completely dissipating.
Hurricane Wilma was the most intense tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin on record in terms of minimum barometric pressure, with an atmospheric pressure of 882 hPa. Wilma's destructive journey began in the second week of October 2005. A large area of disturbed weather developed across much of the Caribbean and gradually organized to the southeast of Jamaica. By late on October 15, the system was sufficiently organized for the National Hurricane Center to designate it as Tropical Depression Twenty-Four.
Hurricane Katrina was a late-forming tropical cyclone that impacted portions of the Greater Antilles and Bahamas in November 1981. The twenty-first tropical cyclone, eleventh named storm, and seventh hurricane of the 1981 Atlantic hurricane season, Katrina developed from an area of cloudiness in the western Caribbean Sea early on November 3. The initial tropical depression deepened slowly, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Katrina on November 5. About six hours later, Katrina peaked with sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). The storm made landfall along the south coast of Camagüey Province in Cuba early on November 6. Katrina quickly weakened to a tropical storm, before emerging into the Atlantic Ocean hours later. The system then accelerated northeastward and crossed the Bahamas late on November 6. Katrina dissipated late on November 7, shortly before merging with a frontal system.
Hurricane Olga was the largest tropical cyclone by diameter of gale-force winds on record in the Atlantic at the time, until it was surpassed by Hurricane Igor in 2010, which was subsequently surpassed by Hurricane Sandy in 2012. The fifteenth named storm, ninth and final hurricane of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season, Olga formed as a subtropical cyclone on November 24. After acquiring tropical characteristics later that day, Olga meandered westward, and eventually reached hurricane status on November 26. Olga peaked as a 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1 hurricane before the storm turned southwestward and weakening back into a tropical storm. On November 30 it deteriorated further to a tropical depression, although it re-intensified two days later to tropical storm intensity. Olga then dissipated as a tropical cyclone on December 4 east of the Bahamas. Its damaging effects were limited to ships at sea. The cyclone's remnants produced heavy rainfall across the Bahamas and Florida. It was a relatively rare storm to exist in December, which is outside of the normal Atlantic hurricane season.
Hurricane Noel was a deadly and very damaging tropical cyclone that carved a path of destruction across the Atlantic Ocean from the Caribbean Sea to Newfoundland in late October 2007. The sixteenth tropical depression, fourteenth named storm, and the sixth hurricane of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Noel formed on October 27 from the interaction between a tropical wave and an upper-level low in the north-central Caribbean. It strengthened to winds of 60 mph (97 km/h) before making landfall on western Haiti and the north coast of eastern Cuba. Noel turned northward, and on November 1, it attained hurricane status. The hurricane accelerated northeastward after crossing the Bahamas, and on November 2, it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.
Hurricane Paloma was the seventh most intense November Atlantic hurricane on record. It was the sixteenth tropical storm, eighth hurricane and fifth major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. A late-season hurricane, it set several records for its intensity and formation. Paloma was the sixth most powerful November hurricane on record in the Atlantic Basin, behind only the 1932 Cuba hurricane, 2020 Hurricanes Iota and Eta, and a tie of 1999's Lenny, and 2001's Michelle. It also marked the first time that at least one major hurricane formed in every month of the hurricane season from July to November, with only June not having a major hurricane in the season.
The 2011 Atlantic hurricane season was the second in a group of three very active Atlantic hurricane seasons. The above-average activity was mostly due to a La Niña that persisted during the previous year. The season is tied with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2012 for the fourth highest number of tropical storms since record-keeping began in 1851. Although the season featured 19 tropical storms, most were weak. Only seven of them intensified into hurricanes, and only four of those became major hurricanes: Irene, Katia, Ophelia, and Rina. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during each year in which most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic Ocean. However, the first tropical storm of the season, Arlene, did not develop until nearly a month later. The final system, Tropical Storm Sean, dissipated over the open Atlantic on November 11.
Tropical Storm Andres is one out of two tropical cyclones on record to strike El Salvador. The first named storm of the active 1997 Pacific hurricane season, Andres formed on June 1 off the coast of Mexico. It initially moved toward the coast, although a change in steering winds turned the storm toward Mexico and Guatemala. After passing just offshore, Andres again changed direction toward the southeast, gradually weakening in the process. On June 7, it turned toward and hit El Salvador before dissipating. The storm brought rainfall to coastlines along much of its path, destroying some houses and inflicted damage. Two fishermen were reported missing in Nicaragua due to high seas, and there were four deaths in El Salvador.
Tropical Depression One was a weak tropical cyclone that struck Cuba and the Bahamas in May and June 1993. It formed in the western Caribbean Sea on May 31 and produced heavy rainfall along its path. In Cuba, the precipitation reached 12.4 inches (31.5 cm), which caused widespread flooding and damage in nine provinces. Over 16,500 houses were damaged, and a further 1,860 were destroyed. At least seven people were killed in the country. In neighboring Haiti, the flooding killed thirteen people, as well as thousands of livestock. Rainfall was also reported in southern Florida, which eased drought conditions. The depression eventually crossed the Bahamas and became extratropical.
The 2015 Atlantic hurricane season was the last of three consecutive below average Atlantic hurricane seasons. It produced twelve tropical cyclones, eleven named storms, four hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) for the season was 68% of the long-term median value. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, 2015, and ended on November 30, 2015. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the North Atlantic basin. However, the first named storm, Ana, developed on May 8, nearly a month before the official start of the season, the first pre-season cyclone since Beryl in 2012 and the earliest since Ana in 2003. The formation of Ana marked the first in a series of seven consecutive seasons with pre-season activity, spanning from 2015 to 2021. The season concluded with Kate transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on November 11, almost three weeks before the official end.