Tropical Storm Danielle (1980)

Last updated

Tropical Storm Danielle
Tropical storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Danielle 1980-09-05 2100Z.jpg
Tropical Storm Danielle at peak intensity making landfall near Galveston on September 5
FormedSeptember 4, 1980
DissipatedSeptember 7, 1980
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 60 mph (95 km/h)
Lowest pressure1004 mbar (hPa); 29.65 inHg
Fatalities3 direct
Damage$25 million (1980 USD)
Areas affected Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma
Part of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Danielle caused considerable flooding in the state of Texas during September 1980. The eighth tropical cyclone and fourth named storm of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season, Danielle developed from a tropical wave that emerged into the Atlantic Ocean from the west coast of Africa on August 22. Three days later, the tropical wave developed into a tropical depression. Four days later, the depression degenerated into a tropical wave. After tracking westward and entering the Gulf of Mexico, the system gradually developed, and became a tropical depression on September 4. The depression gradually strengthened and became Tropical Storm Danielle only hours before landfall in eastern Texas on September 5. Danielle steadily weakened inland and dissipated two days later.

Contents

Danielle produced widespread rainfall in Louisiana, though few areas reported more than 5 inches (130 mm) of precipitation. Rainfall was heavier in Texas, peaking at 18.29 inches (465 mm) in Nederland. Much of the damage caused by the storm was as a resulting of flooding. In Port Arthur, twelve homes were damaged, while Interstate 10 was inundated by flood waters. [1] Danielle also spawned several tornadoes in Texas, though none effects from them are unknown. Outside of Texas and Louisiana, the storm also dropped light rainfall in Oklahoma and Mississippi. Overall, Danielle caused three fatalities and at least $25 million (1980 USD) in damage.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Danielle 1980 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa on August 22 and tracked westward across the Atlantic Ocean. [2] On August 25, the system developed into Tropical Depression Eight. [2] [3] After four days, the depression degenerated back into a tropical wave, [2] [3] which continued westward across the Atlantic. By September 2, the remnants of the depression then interacted with a mid-level low pressure system over southern Florida. As a result, a low-level circulation developed in the Gulf of Mexico [4] as the system as a whole moved off Florida later that day. Organization continued and it is estimated that Tropical Depression Eight at 1800 UTC on September 4, while located about 120 miles (190 km) south of New Orleans, Louisiana. [2] The National Hurricane Center began issuing advisories a few hours later. [5] Furthermore, the National Hurricane Center later noted that strengthening was more likely if the depression remained offshore for a longer period of time. [6]

Between 0600 and 1100 UTC, a barge known as the Glomar Tender II recorded sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). However, this measurement was deemed to be "small scale[d]" and not representative of the storm's actual intensity. [2] At 1700 UTC on September 5, the National Hurricane Center upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Danielle, based on observations from reconnaissance aircraft and an oil rig. [7] The oil rig, which was location near the coast of Louisiana, reported winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 1,004  mbar (29.6  inHg ); this would later be considered the peak intensity of Danielle. A few hours later, Danielle made landfall near Galveston, Texas at the same intensity. The storm steadily weakened after moving inland and was downgraded to tropical depression by 1200 UTC on September 6. [2] About four hours later, the National Hurricane Center discontinued advisories on Danielle. [8] However, the storm did not dissipate until 1200 UTC on September 7, while located near Del Rio, Texas. The remnants of the storm continued westward for the next two days. [2]

Preparations and impact

Texas

As the storm was approaching, the National Weather Service issued flash flood watches from Freeport to Sabine Pass, Texas. [9] Rainfall from the storm peaked at 18.29 inches (465 mm) in the town of Nederland. [10] A 24-hour precipitation record of 17.16 inches (436 mm) was reported at the Southeast Texas Regional Airport in Beaumont. [1] Due to heavy rainfall, an automobile accident in Beaumont resulted in one fatality. [1] A police officer in Beaumont noted that almost every street in the city was flooded. [11] The heavy rainfall resulted in considerable flash flooding in eastern Texas, causing residents to evacuate their homes. Flood waters also forced the shutdown of Interstate 10. [1] According to a police spokesman, at least 60% of streets in Port Arthur were inundated by water. [11] In Orange County, two people were injured in automobile accidents. [9] Along Highway 124, a bayou overflowed its bank. [12] Because there were numerous inundated streets, police barricaded roads in Beaumont, Bridge City, Orange, Vidor, and Port Arthur. [13] A sewer system in Roscoe was also damaged by flood waters, leaving 1,500 residents without running water. [14] In Port Arthur, twelve homes were reported flooded; [9] one house in the Lakeview neighborhood had 1 foot (0.30 m) of water inside. [15] Flood waters entered an oil pit at Port Neches, which sent at least 200 barrels of oil into the Neches River. [16]

Danielle also produced tides 2 to 3 feet (0.61 to 0.91 m) above normal, causing minor beach erosion along the Texas coast. Several boats and docks on Lake Buchanan were damaged. [1] A third fatality from the storm occurred when a fisherman's boat on Sabine Lake capsized, causing the man to die of a heart attack during rescue. [17] Danielle spawned several tornadoes in the state of Texas, one of which caused an estimated $1,500 (1980 USD) in damage to a storage barn in Galveston County on the Bolivar Peninsula. [18] Another touched down twice in Beaumont and overturned a mobile home at a mobile home park. After the storm, the American Red Cross opened storm shelters for residents forced out of their homes because of the flooding. [19] Due to adverse conditions, "hundreds" were left without electricity in Beaumont, Silsbee, Kountze, Hamshire, and Fannett. [20] In addition, then President of the United States Jimmy Carter declared Jefferson and Nolan counties as disaster area, allowing those areas to receive federal aid. [21] Damage in Jefferson County alone totaled to $2.7 million (1980 USD). Overall, Danielle caused two fatalities and between $25 million and $50 million (1980 USD) in damage within the state of Texas. [9] [22]

Elsewhere

In the Gulf of Mexico, rough seas from Danielle caused a maintenance barge to capsize, washing all 11 crewmen overboard. A fatality occurred when one of the crewmen drowned, though the other ten were rescued by the United States Coast Guard. Additionally, the storm also caused a United States Coast Guard helicopter to crash into the sea due to high winds and lack of fuel, though all twelve crewmen survived. [9] Offshore, a barge encountered winds of 58 mph (93 km/h) with gusts up to 92 mph (148 km/h) and light rainfall. [2]

Danielle's effects on southern and eastern Louisiana was minimal. The state received moderate to heavy rainfall; [10] there, the highest rainfall total there was 2.23 inches (57 mm) in Houma. [23] Light rainfall was also reported in Oklahoma and Mississippi, with no areas reporting at least 3 inches (76 mm) of precipitation. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Agnes Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1972

Hurricane Agnes was the costliest hurricane to hit the United States at the time, causing an estimated $2.1 billion in damage. The hurricane's death toll was 128. The effects of Agnes were widespread, from the Caribbean to Canada, with much of the east coast of the United States affected. Damage was heaviest in Pennsylvania, where Agnes was the state's wettest tropical cyclone. Due to the significant effects, the name Agnes was retired in the spring of 1973.

2000 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2000 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active hurricane season, but featured the latest first named storm in a hurricane season since 1992. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was slightly above average due to a La Niña weather pattern although most of the storms were weak. The first cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed in the southern Gulf of Mexico on June 7 and dissipated after an uneventful duration. However, it would be almost two months before the first named storm, Alberto, formed near Cape Verde; Alberto also dissipated with no effects on land. Several other tropical cyclones—Tropical Depression Two, Tropical Depression Four, Chris, Ernesto, Nadine, and an unnamed subtropical storm—did not impact land. Five additional storms—Tropical Depression Nine, Florence, Isaac, Joyce, and Leslie—minimally affected land areas.

1998 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1998 Atlantic hurricane season was one of the most disastrous Atlantic hurricane seasons on record, featuring the highest number of storm-related fatalities in over 218 years and one of the costliest ever at the time. The season had above average activity, due to the dissipation of the El Niño event and transition to La Niña conditions. It officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. The first tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Alex, developed on July 27, and the season's final storm, Hurricane Nicole, became extratropical on December 1.

1992 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1992 Atlantic hurricane season was a highly below average season. It featured Hurricane Andrew, the costliest Atlantic hurricane known at the time, surpassing Hugo of 1989 and later surpassed by Katrina of 2005, as well as Hurricane Bonnie, the latest second named storm on record since tropical cyclones in the Atlantic were first named in 1950, when it formed on September 17. The season officially began on June 1, 1992, and lasted until November 30, 1992. The first storm, an unnamed subtropical storm, developed in the central Atlantic on April 21, over a month before the official start of hurricane season. On August 16, Hurricane Andrew formed and would later strike the Bahamas, as well U.S. States of Florida and Louisiana, becoming the costliest Atlantic hurricane on record until the record was surpassed just over 13 years later. Andrew caused $27.3 billion, with most of the damages being done in Florida, as well as 65 fatalities. In addition, Andrew was also the strongest hurricane of the season, reaching winds of 175 mph (282 km/h) while approaching Florida.

1980 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1980 Atlantic hurricane season was tied with 1932, 1969, and 1994 for having the most named storms form in the Atlantic Ocean during the month of November – only to be surpassed in 2001, 2005, and 2020. The season officially began on June 1, 1980, and lasted until November 30, 1980. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean.

1986 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1986 Atlantic hurricane season was a below average season that produced 10 depressions, 6 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and no major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1, 1986, and lasted until November 30, 1986. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. During the 1986 season, the first subtropical depression formed in the first week of June, while the last tropical cyclone dissipated at the end of the third week of November. The 1986 season had lower than average activity because of an ongoing El Niño event, and was the least active season in the North Atlantic since the 1983 Atlantic hurricane season. This was also the first season since 1972 to have no major hurricanes.

Tropical Storm Claudette (1979)

Tropical Storm Claudette was the third-wettest tropical cyclone on record in the contiguous United States. The storm caused significant flooding in eastern Texas and western Louisiana in July 1979. The eighth tropical cyclone and third named storm of the 1979 Atlantic hurricane season, Claudette developed from a tropical wave located east of the Windward Islands on July 16. It gradually strengthened and was upgraded to a tropical storm on July 17 and crossed the northern Leeward Islands later that day. As it neared landfall in Puerto Rico early on July 18, upper-level winds weakened it back to a tropical depression. Claudette remained disorganized and the National Hurricane Center operationally reported that it degenerated back into a tropical wave after crossing Puerto Rico. Late on July 18, the depression struck Dominican Republic, emerged into the Caribbean Sea on the following day. Claudette struck western Cuba on July 21, shortly before reaching the Gulf of Mexico and "regenerating" into a tropical cyclone. By July 23, Claudette regained tropical storm intensity and turned northward toward the Gulf Coast of the United States. The storm made landfall near the Texas-Louisiana border late on July 23 as a moderately strong tropical storm. It weakened slowly and drifted over land, lasting until dissipation in West Virginia on July 29.

Tropical Storm Fay (2002) Atlantic tropical storm in 2002

Tropical Storm Fay was the sixth named storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season; it was a moderate tropical storm which caused flooding in parts of Texas and Northern Mexico. It formed from a trough of low pressure that moved south into the Gulf of Mexico, and became stationary. A low pressure center developed along this trough, and on September 5, a Hurricane Hunter aircraft reported that the system had gained sufficient organization to be classified a tropical depression, 95 miles (153 km) southeast of Galveston. The depression drifted south-southwest while strengthening, reaching its peak strength of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) on the morning of September 6. The system then made an abrupt turn to the west-northwest, and remained steady in strength and course until landfall the next day, near Matagorda. The system weakened rapidly after landfall degenerating into a remnant low on September 8, but the storm's circulation survived for another three days.

Hurricane Abby (1968)

Hurricane Abby made landfall in Cuba, Florida, and North Carolina in June 1968. The first tropical cyclone, first named storm, and first hurricane on the season, Abby developed over the northwestern Caribbean Sea on June 1, as a result of the interaction between a mid-tropospheric trough and a cold front. Moving generally north-northeastward, the depression slowly strengthened while approaching the western tip of Cuba, becoming Tropical Storm Abby late on June 2. Shortly thereafter, Abby made landfall in Pinar del Río Province. The storm dropped heavy rainfall in western Cuba, with up to 12 inches (300 mm) on Isla de la Juventud. However, no flooding was reported. After reaching the southeastern Gulf of Mexico on June 3, Abby strengthened further and became a Category 1 hurricane on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. However, early on June 4, Abby weakened to a tropical storm. Around midday on June 4, the system made landfall near Punta Gorda, Florida as a strong tropical storm.

Tropical Storm Gabrielle (1995) Atlantic tropical storm in 1995

Tropical Storm Gabrielle caused moderate flooding in northeastern Mexico and southern Texas in August 1995. The eighth tropical cyclone and seventh named storm of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season, Gabrielle developed from a tropical wave in the west-central Gulf of Mexico on August 9. Initially a tropical depression, the system gradually intensified and by the following day, it became a tropical storm. Favorable conditions caused Gabrielle to continue to strengthen, with the storm nearly reaching hurricane status late on August 11. However, it soon made landfall near La Pesca, Tamaulipas, thus halting further intensification. Once inland, Gabrielle rapidly weakened and dissipated by early on August 12.

Tropical Storm Dean (1995) Atlantic tropical storm in 1995

Tropical Storm Dean was a short-lived storm that formed in late July 1995 and lasted into early August. It was the fourth named storm of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. It spent most of its life as a tropical depression, and briefly gained tropical storm status before its landfall on the Texas coast on July 30. After landfall, it dissipated over central Texas on August 2. The impacts from Dean were minimal, mainly due to heavy rain in Oklahoma and Texas that caused localized coastal and inland flooding. Two F0 Tornadoes touched down in Texas as a result of Dean's landfall. Also, Twenty families had to be evacuated in Chambers County, due to flooding in the area. One fatality was recorded as a result of flooding in Oklahoma. Several highways were flooded out in Oklahoma, which impeded travel in the state. In addition approximately $500,000 worth of damage was recorded in the aftermath of Dean.

The Climate of Beaumont, Texas covers the averages and extremes in past weather seen within the city of Beaumont, Texas. The city is within the humid subtropical climate regime, and is within the Piney Woods region of eastern Texas. The area around Beaumont receives the most rainfall in the state: more than 65 inches (1,700 mm) annually. Summers in the area are usually hot and humid, due to the moisture that flows inland off of the Gulf of Mexico. Winters are usually kept mild by the warm gulf waters. Hurricanes also pose a threat to the area. Hurricane Harvey in 2017, Hurricane Rita in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008 were the most recent significant storms to strike.

Tropical Storm Hermine (1998) Atlantic tropical cyclone

Tropical Storm Hermine was the eighth tropical cyclone and named storm of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season. Hermine developed from a tropical wave that emerged from the west coast of Africa on September 5. The wave moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean, and on entering the northwest Caribbean interacted with other weather systems. The resultant system was declared a tropical depression on September 17 in the central Gulf of Mexico. The storm meandered north slowly, and after being upgraded to a tropical storm made landfall on Louisiana, where it quickly deteriorated into a tropical depression again on September 20.

Tropical Storm Chris (1982) Atlantic tropical storm in 1982

Tropical Storm Chris caused minor flooding along the Gulf Coast of the United States in September 1982. The fifth tropical or subtropical cyclone and third named storm of the 1982 Atlantic hurricane season, Chris developed from a surface low-pressure area in the northern Gulf of Mexico on September 9. Although initially displaying subtropical characteristics, the low pressure area gradually acquired tropical characteristics, and was reclassified as Tropical Depression Four within 24 hours of development. The depression then began to intensify and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Chris on September 10. Thereafter, the storm turned north-northeastward and strengthened further. On September 11, Chris peaked as a 65 mph (100 km/h) tropical storm. Later that day, it made landfall near Sabine Pass, Port Arthur, Texas. By September 13, Chris dissipated over Arkansas.

Tropical Storm Barry (2007) Atlantic tropical cyclone

Tropical Storm Barry was a rapidly forming tropical cyclone that made landfall on Florida, United States, in early June 2007. The second named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Barry developed from a trough of low pressure in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico on June 1. It tracked rapidly northeastward, reaching peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) before weakening and making landfall near Tampa Bay as a tropical depression. Barry quickly lost tropical characteristics after wind shear removed much of the convection, and early on June 3, it completed the transition into an extratropical cyclone. The extratropical remnants tracked up the East Coast of the United States, and were absorbed by a larger extratropical cyclone on June 5.

Hurricane Humberto (2007) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2007

Hurricane Humberto was a Category 1 hurricane that formed and intensified faster than any other North Atlantic tropical cyclone on record, before landfall. The ninth named storm and third hurricane of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Humberto developed on September 12, 2007, in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico,. The tropical cyclone rapidly strengthened and struck High Island, Texas, with winds of about 90 mph (150 km/h) early on September 13. It steadily weakened after moving ashore, and on September 14, Humberto began dissipating over northwestern Georgia as it interacted with an approaching cold front.

Tropical Storm Erin (2007) Atlantic tropical storm in 2007

Tropical Storm Erin was a minimal tropical storm that made landfall in Texas in August 2007. The storm's remnants also unexpectedly restrengthened over Oklahoma, causing damage there as well. The second tropical cyclone to make landfall in the United States in the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season and the fifth named storm of the year, Erin formed in the Gulf of Mexico on August 14 from a persistent area of convection. It attained tropical storm status the next day, and on August 16, 2007 Erin made landfall near Lamar, Texas, and persisted over land across Texas before moving northward into Oklahoma. Due to the brown ocean effect, Erin intensified after landfall. The storm resulted in 16 fatalities and worsened an already-severe flooding issue in Texas.

1994 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 1994 Atlantic hurricane season was the final season in the most recent negative Atlantic multidecadal oscillation period of tropical cyclone formation within the basin. Despite the below average activity, the season was very deadly, with most of the deaths occurring during Hurricane Gordon, a devastating late-season tropical cyclone that caused severe impacts to the Caribbean Sea, the Greater Antilles and the United States, and one of the longest-lived Atlantic hurricanes on record at the time. The season produced seven named tropical cyclones and three hurricanes, a total below the seasonal average. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally limit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. The first tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Alberto, developed on June 30, while the last storm, Hurricane Gordon, dissipated on November 21. The season was unusual in that it produced no major hurricanes, which are those of Category 3 status or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. The most intense hurricane, Hurricane Florence, peaked as a Category 2 storm with winds of 110 mph (180 km/h). Aside from Chris, Florence, and Gordon, none of the storms exceeded tropical storm intensity.

Tropical Storm Hermine (1980) Atlantic tropical storm in 1980

Tropical Storm Hermine caused significant flooding in Mexico during September 1980. The eleventh tropical cyclone and eight named storm of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season, Hermine developed from a tropical wave that emerged into the Atlantic from the west coast of Africa on September 11. After uneventfully crossing the Atlantic Ocean, the system developed a well-defined circulation while in the Caribbean Sea on September 20 and was then classified as a tropical depression. After becoming a tropical cyclone, the depression steadily strengthened as it tracked nearly due westward. By September 21, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Hermine and brushed the northern coast of Honduras shortly thereafter. It nearly became a hurricane before it made landfall in Belize on September 22. After weakening over the Yucatan Peninsula, Hermine restrengthened to near-hurricane status again over the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall in the Mexican state of Veracruz. Hermine steadily weakened inland and eventually dissipated on September 26.

Tropical Storm Imelda Atlantic tropical storm in 2019

Tropical Storm Imelda was the fifth-wettest tropical cyclone on record in the continental United States, causing devastating and record-breaking floods in southeast Texas. The eleventh tropical cyclone and ninth named storm of the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season, Imelda formed out of an upper-level low that developed in the Gulf of Mexico and moved westward. Little development occurred until the system was near the Texas coastline, where it rapidly developed into a tropical storm before moving ashore shortly afterward on September 17. Imelda weakened after landfall, but continued bringing large amounts of flooding rain to Texas and Louisiana, before dissipating on September 21.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Tropical Storm Danielle Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. 1980. p. 2. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Tropical Storm Danielle Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. 1980. p. 1. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  3. 1 2 David M. Roth (2011). "CLIQR database". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center . Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  4. Miles B. Lawrence and Joseph M. Pelisser (1981). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1980" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  5. Miles B. Lawrence (September 4, 1980). "Tropical Depression Advisory". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  6. Gilbert R. Clark (September 5, 1980). "Tropical Depression Advisory". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  7. Neil L. Frank (September 5, 1980). "Tropical Storm Danielle Special Advisory Number 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  8. Miles B. Lawrence (September 6, 1980). "Tropical Storm Danielle Advisory Number 5". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Staff Writer (1980). "Tropical Storm Danielle strikes Texas". Indiana Gazette. Associated Press.
  10. 1 2 3 David Roth (May 16, 2007). "Tropical Storm Danielle - September 4-11, 1980". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center . Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  11. 1 2 Staff Writer (September 7, 1980). "Texas Coast Drenched By Tropical Storm Danielle". The Beaver County Times . Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  12. National Hurricane Center (September 7, 1980). "Unknown" . Retrieved March 24, 2012.Cite uses generic title (help)
  13. Marice Richter (September 6, 1980). "Storm floods kill Beaumont woman". The Beaumont Enterprise . Retrieved March 24, 2012.
  14. Staff Writer (September 30, 1980). "Flooding Closes Sewer System". New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
  15. Robert Sharp (September 9, 1980). "Residents go home". The Port Arthur News . Retrieved March 24, 2012.
  16. Ray Broussard (1980). "Flooding". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
  17. Ray Broussard (1980). "Tropical Storm Danielle Storm Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
  18. Staff Writer. "Danielle rains leave 1 dead, cause widespread flooding". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
  19. "Danielle Spawns Flooding". Syracuse Herald Journal. United Press International. 1980.
  20. Staff Writer. "Danielle brings heavy rains". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
  21. Federal Emergency Management Agency. "FEMA disaster declaration for Tropical Storm Danielle". United States Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  22. "The Weather of 1980" (PDF). Texas A&M University . Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  23. "Tropical Storm Danielle Preliminary Report". National Hurricane Center. 1980. p. 3. Retrieved 2012-03-01.