Tropical Storm Delta (2005)

Last updated
Tropical Storm Delta
Tropical storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Ts delta 112405.jpg
Tropical Storm Delta at peak intensity on November 24
FormedNovember 22, 2005
DissipatedNovember 30, 2005
(Extratropical after November 28)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 70 mph (110 km/h)
Lowest pressure980 mbar (hPa); 28.94 inHg
Fatalities7 direct, 12 missing
Damage$364 million (2005 USD)
Areas affected Canary Islands, Morocco, Algeria, Parts of North Africa, Mediterranean Sea
Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Delta was a late-forming tropical storm during the hyperactive 2005 Atlantic hurricane season which struck the Canary Islands as a strong extratropical storm where it caused significant damage. It then crossed over Morocco before dissipating. It was the 26th tropical or subtropical storm to form in the 28-storm 2005 season.

Contents

Tropical Storm Delta, like many late-season storms, developed out of an extratropical low. The storm gradually gained tropical characteristics and was briefly a subtropical storm on November 22 before transitioning to a tropical storm. Delta moved erratically for a few days before moving towards the Canary Islands. It became extratropical just before it passed to the north of the archipelago.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Delta 2005 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On November 19, a broad area of eastward-moving low pressure formed in the central Atlantic Ocean about 1400  miles (2200  km) southwest of the Azores. [1] It moved steadily eastward through November 20, but on November 21, under the influence of a cold front to its north, the low turned northeastward and started to develop central convection. [1] On November 22, the non-tropical low pressure system began to gain some tropical characteristics, and its northward motion slowed to a stop. Late that afternoon, the low transitioned into a subtropical storm while stalled about 800 mi (1,300 km) west-southwest of the Azores. [1] Operationally, the National Hurricane Center considered that the storm had already gained enough tropical characteristics to be classified as a tropical storm, but in post-storm analysis, this was reconsidered. [2]

The storm's convection organized around a central core, and the system became a tropical storm on November 23 and received the name Delta. [1] An eye-like feature appeared near the storm's circulatory center several times that day. [2] The larger-scale deep-layered cyclonic circulation within which it was embedded steered it on a slow southward and then south-southwesterly track. [3] Strong wind shear prevented immediate development and the system added an eastward component to its drift. [3] Moving out of the high-shear environment on November 24, Delta gained organization. [4] Outflow and convective banding increased [4] and an eye feature became well defined. [5] This eye signaled the storm's peak strength of 70 mph (110 km/h), just below hurricane status. However, the official forecast at the time predicted Delta to strengthen further and become a minimal hurricane. [5] Delta's motion stalled as it reached the southern base of a large cyclonic trough over the northern Atlantic within which it was embedded. [5] Maintaining its intensity, Delta remained motionless for half a day [6] until, that evening when it began a slow southward drift at 6 mph (9 km/h). [7] Maintaining its intensity, Delta remained motionless for half a day [7] Convection broke down in the storm's western semicircle early on November 25; the decreased organization caused slight weakening. [5] Maintaining its intensity, Delta remained motionless for half a day [8] The southward motion slowed [9] [10] and the weakening trend continued into the evening. [10] Cooling cold tops were counteracted by wind shear which exposed most of the low-level center. [11] The storm's southward motion stopped and it began moving east at 6 mph (9 km/h). [12] Some of the computer models suggested the weakening tropical storm could be absorbed by a developing low to the west, which a few days later became Hurricane Epsilon. This did not occur, and Tropical Storm Delta began to move to the northeast. [1] [2]

Tropical Storm Delta approaching the Canary Islands on November 27 Gooddeltapic.jpg
Tropical Storm Delta approaching the Canary Islands on November 27

As Delta accelerated to the northeast towards the Canary Islands, it intensified again, reaching a second peak of just under hurricane strength on November 27. In post-storm analysis, the NHC noted that there was a possibility that Delta had briefly reached hurricane strength that day; however, the data was not conclusive enough to justify an upgrade to hurricane status. On November 28, as it neared the Canary Islands Tropical Storm Delta lost its tropical characteristics. The extratropical storm, which maintained winds of near-hurricane strength, passed about 105 mi (165 km) north of the islands that night. The storm moved over Morocco early on November 29 and rapidly weakened overland, dissipating late that day over northwestern Algeria. [1]

Preparations and impact

Storm damage from Delta on Tenerife EfectosTormentaDeltaTenerife2.jpg
Storm damage from Delta on Tenerife

Tropical Storm Delta's arrival in the Canary Islands was described as a "historic" event. Tropical cyclones there are extremely rare and the islands had no tropical warning systems in place. The government issued a general emergency advisory and advised citizens to stay indoors. [13] Tenerife North Airport was closed, stranding hundreds of passengers for the duration of the storm. [13] The Education Board of the Canary Islands Government suspended Tuesday classes for all non-university schools for 320,000 students. [14] [15] [16] The shipping company Fred Olsen suspended services linking the islands of Tenerife and La Palma and La Gomera. [14] On the island of El Hierro the exposed road to Sabinosa Health Center was closed as a precaution. [14]

Delta caused considerable damage in the Canary Islands. The storm claimed nineteen lives [15] and caused a total of 312 million ($364 million 2005 US dollars) damage throughout the archipelago. [17] Eighteen died when a boat sank off the Canary Islands; twelve of the bodies were never found. The nineteenth man was killed when while trying to repair his roof during the storm; winds threw him from his ladder. [15] The islands of Tenerife and La Palma were hardest hit, with many uprooted trees and landslides reported. The peak gust recorded at La Palma was 95 mph (152 km/h), and at Tenerife the maximum gust was 90 mph (147 km/h). [18] Some patients at Tenerife's University Hospital were evacuated to a safer part of the building when paneling from the hospital's heliport was torn free and smashed some of the building's windows. [15] Off Santa Cruz's southern quay a tug boat broke its ties, collided with another vessel, and sank. Passengers at Tenerife North Airport, who were stranded when their flights canceled, witnessed parts of the new international terminal's roof tear off in the wind. [15] In La Palma a falling palm tree, trunk snapped by the wind, injured the leg of a German tourist. [14] Many palm trees along the Avenida Marítima were also blown down. The storms winds blew out windows and collapsed cornices, although other structural damage was minimal. Metal plates that had been used to board up buildings were strewn all over the island. [14]

Dedo de Dios am 30.09.2005.jpg
Dedo de Dios am 05.12.2005.jpg
El Dedo de Dios before (top) and after (bottom) Tropical Storm Delta, showing the destruction of the upper portion of the formation.

Over 225,000 residents lost electricity and 12,000 lost telephone service. [15] [19] Some vandalism and looting was reported during the loss of power, and the police made several arrests during the night. [15] For over 24 hours roads were closed on the islands of El Hierro, Tenerife and La Palma: the first two due to landslides and the third by the collapse of an old house and a massive tree. [14] One of the most famous geological features of the island of Gran Canaria, [20] El Dedo de Dios (or God's finger), which had been pointing towards the sky for over a millennium, was destroyed by Delta's wind and wave action along Gran Canaria's shore. Upon hearing of the destruction of the natural monument one man, later found to be clinically insane, unsuccessfully tried to kill himself and then stabbed three members of his own family. [21]

When the remnants of Delta arrived in Morocco they were described as a "normal atmospheric disturbance". No damage was reported there and in fact the system was welcomed by farmers who needed the rain to complete the sowing of cereal crops. [19]

Aftermath

With the Canary Islands' power grid substantially disrupted, the Unelco-Endesa power company was forced to use temporary generators to boost power at sub-stations far from the main grid. In La Corujera in Santa Úrsula, these generators were poorly received and over 1,000 local residents claimed to be affected by the noise and pollution. Children, the elderly and people with respiratory problems suffered most acutely. [22] Roughly 25 million (US$37.25 million) was allocated by the government of the Canary Islands in relief and reconstruction funds. Of this total, €22.5 million (US$33.5 million) was used to repair infrastructure and utilities; €1.5 million (US$2.2 million) was used for agricultural relief; and €1 million (US$1.5 million) was used in home repairs. [23] Due to the severity of crop losses, farmers would be given a grant from the government that would cover 50% of their losses, including infrastructural. A tax break was also given to most residents who suffered damage from Delta. [24]

Fishermen of the Canary Islands had to return to and remain in port for several days while weathering the storm, and this disruption was blamed for a 10–15% reduction of the islands' tuna catch. [25] Tropical Storm Delta also had some further-reaching effects. The political opposition Popular Party challenged that the impact of Tropical Storm Delta proved the need for the island to prepare an emergency plan to deal with natural and man-made disasters. Only five of the island's many municipalities had an emergency plan, and there was no coordination across the entire island chain. [26] Delta also served to highlight the islands' aging power grid, [17] prompting the regional director general of industry and energy to consider building another power plant on the archipelago. [27] The storm sparked a vigorous debate on the island about the effects of global climate change, how they will affect the islands, and how these effects can be avoided. [28] [29]

Naming and distinctions

Tropical Storm Delta was the second Atlantic storm to be designated Delta. The first was 1972's Subtropical Storm Delta. The next one to be so named was Hurricane Delta in 2020. [30] Delta's record-setting formation date as the season's 26th tropical or subtropical storm would stand until 2020, when Hurricane Epsilon, which formed on October 19. [31]

See also

Related Research Articles

1954 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1954 Atlantic hurricane season was an above-average Atlantic hurricane season in terms of named storms, with 16 forming, but a well below average season in terms of Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) totals, with only 54. Overall, the season resulted in $751.6 million in damage, the most of any season at the time. The season officially began on June 15, and nine days later the first named storm developed. Hurricane Alice developed in the Gulf of Mexico and moved inland along the Rio Grande, producing significant precipitation and record flooding that killed 55 people. Activity was slow until late August; only Barbara, a minimal tropical storm, developed in July. In the span of two weeks, hurricanes Carol and Edna followed similar paths before both striking New England as major hurricanes. The latter became the costliest hurricane in Maine's history.

2005 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was, at the time, the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record until the record was surpassed in 2020. The season broke numerous records, with 28 tropical or subtropical storms recorded. The United States National Hurricane Center named 27 storms, exhausting the annual pre-designated list and resulting in the usage of six Greek letter names, and also identified an additional unnamed storm during a post-season re-analysis. A record 15 storms attained hurricane status, with maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (119 km/h); of those, a record seven became major hurricanes, which are a Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. Four storms of this season became Category 5 hurricanes, the highest ranking on the scale.

2007 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2007 Atlantic hurricane season was a slightly above-average season, featuring many weak and short-lived storms. Despite the high activity of weak storms during 2007, it was the first season to feature more than one Category 5 landfalling hurricane, a feat that would not be matched until ten years later. It produced 17 tropical cyclones, 15 tropical storms, six hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean, although as shown by Subtropical Storm Andrea and Tropical Storm Olga in early May and early December, respectively, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. The first system, Subtropical Storm Andrea, developed on May 9, while the last storm, Tropical Storm Olga, dissipated on December 13. The most intense hurricane, Dean, is tied for the eighth most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded as well as the fourth most intense Atlantic hurricane at landfall. The season was one of only seven on record for the Atlantic with more than one Category 5 hurricane. It was the second on record in which an Atlantic hurricane, Felix, and an eastern Pacific hurricane, Henriette, made landfall on the same day. September had a then record-tying eight storms, until it was surpassed in 2020. However, the strengths and durations of most of the storms were low.

Hurricane Vince Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Vince was an unusual hurricane that developed in the northeastern Atlantic basin. Forming in October during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, it strengthened over waters thought to be too cold for tropical development. Vince was the twentieth named tropical cyclone and twelfth hurricane of the extremely active season.

Tropical Storm Gamma (2005)

Tropical Storm Gamma was the 25th storm of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Gamma formed on November 18 from a tropical wave which had left the coast of Africa on November 3. Between November 13 and November 16 the system was designated Tropical Depression Twenty-Seven and moved westward through the Windward Islands into the Caribbean. Although its winds were not of tropical storm force, the storm brought damagingly heavy rainfall to Trinidad and to St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

Hurricane Ioke Category 5 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 2006

Hurricane Ioke, also referred to as Typhoon Ioke, had the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) of any tropical cyclone on record. The first and only storm to form in the Central Pacific in the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, Ioke was a record breaking, long-lived and extremely powerful storm that traversed the Pacific for 17 days, reaching the equivalent of Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale on three different occasions. It was the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Central Pacific, as well as the fifth-most intense Pacific hurricane on record, tied with 1973's Hurricane Ava. Ioke was the ninth named storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the active 2006 Pacific hurricane season.

Hurricane Gordon (2006) Category 3 Atlantic hurricane

Hurricane Gordon was the first tropical cyclone since 1992 to affect the Azores while retaining tropical characteristics. The eighth tropical storm, third hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season, Gordon formed on September 10 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It gradually matured into a hurricane as it tracked northward, reaching its peak intensity with winds of 195 km/h (121 mph) early on September 14 while located about 925 km (575 mi) southeast of Bermuda. After becoming nearly stationary, Gordon weakened to minimal hurricane status, although it re-intensified after accelerating to the east. It weakened again after moving over cooler waters, and passed through the Azores on September 20. Shortly thereafter, it became an extratropical cyclone and subsequently affected Spain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.

Extratropical cyclone Type of cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.

2008 Pacific hurricane season

The 2008 Pacific hurricane season was a near-average Pacific hurricane season which featured seventeen named storms, though most were rather weak and short-lived. Only seven hurricanes formed and two major hurricanes. This season was also the first since 1996 to have no cyclones cross into the central Pacific. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. Despite this, no tropical cyclones formed outside the usual limits of the season.

Hurricane Noel Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2007

Hurricane Noel was a deadly and very damaging tropical cyclone that carved a path of destruction across the Atlantic Ocean from the Caribbean Sea to Newfoundland in late October 2007. The sixteenth tropical depression, fourteenth named storm, and the sixth hurricane of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Noel formed on October 27 from the interaction between a tropical wave and an upper-level low in the north-central Caribbean. It strengthened to winds of 60 mph (97 km/h) before making landfall on western Haiti and the north coast of eastern Cuba. Noel turned northward, and on November 1, it attained hurricane status. The hurricane accelerated northeastward after crossing the Bahamas, and on November 2, it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.

2006 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2006 Pacific hurricane season was the most active since 2000, producing 19 tropical storms or hurricanes. Eighteen developed within the National Hurricane Center (NHC) area of warning responsibility, which is east of 140°W, and one storm formed between 140°W and the International Date Line, which is under the jurisdiction of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). Of the 19 total storms, eleven became hurricanes, of which six attained major hurricane status. Within the NHC portion of the basin, the season officially began on May 15, and in the CPHC portion, it started on June 1; the season officially ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin.

Hurricane Grace Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 1991

Hurricane Grace was a short-lived Category 2 hurricane that contributed to the formation of the powerful 1991 Perfect Storm. Forming on October 26, Grace initially had subtropical origins, meaning it was partially tropical and partially extratropical in nature. It became a tropical cyclone on October 27, and ultimately peaked with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). The storm had minor effects on the island of Bermuda as it passed to the south. A developing extratropical storm to the north turned Grace eastward; the hurricane was eventually absorbed into the large circulation of the larger low-pressure system. Fed by the contrast between cold air to the northwest and warm air from the remnants of Grace, this storm became a large and powerful nor'easter that caused extremely high waves and resulted in severe coastal damage along the East Coast of the United States.

2009 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2009 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average Atlantic hurricane season that produced eleven tropical cyclones, nine named storms, three hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. It officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's first tropical cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed on May 28, while the final storm, Hurricane Ida, dissipated on November 10. The most intense hurricane, Bill, was a powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that affected areas from the Leeward Islands to Newfoundland. The season featured the lowest number of tropical cyclones since the 1997 season, and only one system, Claudette, made landfall in the United States. Forming from the interaction of a tropical wave and an upper-level low, Claudette made landfall on the Florida Panhandle with maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (70 km/h) before quickly dissipating over Alabama. The storm killed two people and caused $228,000 in damage.

2012 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2012 Atlantic hurricane season was the final year in a consecutive string of three very active seasons, although many of the storms were weak and short-lived. It is tied with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2011 for the fourth-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, with 19 tropical storms. It was also the third-costliest season, behind 2005 and 2017. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period during each year in which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. However, Alberto, the first system of the year, developed on May 19 – the earliest date of formation since Tropical Storm Ana in 2003. A second tropical cyclone, Beryl, developed later that month. This was the first occurrence of two pre-season named storms in the Atlantic basin since 1951. It moved ashore in North Florida on May 29 with winds of 65 mph (105 km/h), making it the strongest pre-season storm to make landfall in the Atlantic basin. This season marked the first time since 2009 where no tropical cyclones formed in July. Another record was set by Hurricane Nadine later in the season; the system became the fourth-longest-lived tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic, with a total duration of 22.25 days. The final storm to form, Tony, dissipated on October 25 – however, Hurricane Sandy, which formed before Tony, became extratropical on October 29.

Hurricane Otto (2010) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2010

Hurricane Otto produced days of torrential rain over much of the northeastern Caribbean in October 2010. Otto originated as a subtropical cyclone lingering north of Puerto Rico on October 6, and transitioned into a tropical storm the next day, the fifteenth of the 2010 hurricane season. Accelerating toward the northeast, Otto strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale on October 8, attaining peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). The storm began weakening due to incompatible surroundings and became extratropical west of the Azores on October 10. Otto was the first Atlantic tropical cyclone on record to transition from a subtropical storm since Tropical Storm Laura in 2008.

Hurricane Epsilon (2005) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Epsilon was the 27th named tropical or subtropical storm and the final of 15 hurricanes in the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Originating from a cold front beneath an upper-level low, Epsilon formed on November 29 about 915 mi (1470 km) east of Bermuda, becoming the second tropical storm to do so in that area of the Atlantic within the span of a week. Initially, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecast the storm to transition into an extratropical cyclone within five days, due to conditions unfavorable for significant intensification. Epsilon continually defied forecasts, at first due to an unexpected loop to the southwest, and later due to retaining its strength despite cold waters and strong wind shear.

Post-tropical cyclone

A post-tropical cyclone is a former tropical cyclone that no longer possesses enough tropical qualities to be considered a tropical cyclone. The word may refer to a former tropical cyclone undergoing extratropical transition, a tropical cyclone degenerating into a remnant low, or a tropical cyclone degenerating into a trough. However, post-tropical cyclones can continue producing high winds and heavy rains.

The 1826 Canary Islands storm was the worst weather-related disaster in the history of the Canary Islands, claiming at least 298 lives. It was likely either a tropical cyclone or a storm system derived from a tropical cyclone.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 National Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Delta" (PDF). NOAA. Retrieved 2006-05-29.
  2. 1 2 3 Stewart (2005-11-23). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion 1". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  3. 1 2 Pasch (2005-11-23). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion 2". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  4. 1 2 Beven (2005-11-24). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 3". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  5. 1 2 3 4 National Hurricane Center (2005-11-24). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 4". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2005-11-28. Retrieved 2006-05-29.
  6. Stewart (2005-11-24). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 5". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  7. 1 2 Knabb (2005-11-24). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 6". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  8. Beven (2005-11-25). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 7". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  9. Stewart (2005-11-25). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 8". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  10. 1 2 Stewart (2005-11-25). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 9". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  11. Knabb (2005-11-25). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 10". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  12. Beven (2005-11-26). "Tropical Storm Delta Discussion Number 11". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  13. 1 2 Notimex (2005-11-29). "Al menos siete muertos deja tormenta en Islas Canarias" (in Spanish). El Universal online. Archived from the original on 2013-02-19. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Staff Writer (2005-11-28). "La tormenta tropical "Delta" un herido, cortes de tráfico y numeros daños en Canarias" (in Spanish). Libertad Digital. Archived from the original on 2007-06-16. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Staff Writer. "Delta force in the Canaries". Tenerife News. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-29.
  16. AFP (2005-11-29). "Tropical storm brings unprecedented damage to Canaries". My Wire. Archived from the original on 2014-01-02. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
  17. 1 2 Staff Writer. "Delta: impact and aftermath". Tenerife News. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-29.
  18. Instituto Nacional De Meteorología. "Tropical Storm Delta in the Canary Islands" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 December 2005. Retrieved 2006-05-29.
  19. 1 2 Staff Writer (2005-11-29). "Canary Islands storm hits power, communications". Reuters . Retrieved 2005-12-11.[ dead link ]
  20. JOSÉ MANUEL BUSTAMANTE (2005-11-29). "Gran Canaria pierde el 'Dedo de Dios'". El Mundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2014-01-02. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  21. Staff Writer (2007-11-03). "20 years for family man who went on knifing rampage". Tenerife News. Retrieved 2008-07-30.[ dead link ]
  22. Staff Writer (2005-12-27). "Residents raise hell over Corujera generators". Tenerife News. Retrieved 2008-07-30.[ dead link ]
  23. Staff Writer (July 13, 2006). "25 millones para reparar los daños causados por la tormenta tropical Delta en el Archipiélago Canario" (in Spanish). Geoscopio. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
  24. Staff Writer (December 2, 2005). "El Gobierno canario abre un expediente a Unelco-Endesa por no restablecer el suministro eléctrico". El Mundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
  25. Staff Writer. "Delta blamed for tuna drop". Tenerife News. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-29.
  26. AM (2005-12-20). "The Popular Party (PP) presents its proposals for 2006". Tenerife News. Retrieved 2008-07-30.[ dead link ]
  27. AW (2006-03-15). "Nimby alert!". Tenerife News. Retrieved 2008-07-30.[ dead link ]
  28. Staff Writer (2008-05-01). "Losing it - Receding coastline revelations". Tenerife News. Retrieved 2008-07-30.[ dead link ]
  29. Staff Writer (2007-01-01). "Running into tunnel trouble". Tenerife News. Retrieved 2008-07-30.[ dead link ]
  30. Discher, Emma (October 2, 2020). "Tropical Storm Gamma develops over Caribbean Sea; here's the latest forecast". nola.com. New Orleans, Louisiana. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  31. Masters, Jeff (October 19, 2020). "Tropical Storm Epsilon forms in the central Atlantic". New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Center for Environmental Communication, Yale School of the Environment. Retrieved October 19, 2020.