|Severe tropical storm (SWIO scale)|
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Formed||March 9, 2010|
|Dissipated||March 15, 2010|
|Highest winds|| 10-minute sustained:100 km/h (65 mph)|
1-minute sustained:85 km/h (50 mph)
|Lowest pressure||985 hPa (mbar); 29.09 inHg|
|Fatalities||85 dead, 35 missing|
|Part of the 2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season|
Severe Tropical Storm Hubert was a destructive tropical cyclone that killed 85 people throughout Madagascar early March 2010. Forming out of a slow-moving area of low pressure on March 9, Hubert quickly developed within a region favoring tropical development. Situated off the coast of Madagascar, the storm attained peak winds of 100 km/h (65 mph) just hours before making landfall on March 10 near Mananjary in Fianarantsoa Province. Rapid weakening took place once over land, with the storm losing gale-force winds late on March 11. The remnants of Hubert persisted for several more days, eventually dissipating off the southern coast of Madagascar on March 15.
Throughout much of central Madagascar, Hubert produced heavy rains, measured up to 137.5 mm (5.41 in) in Mananjary, that caused widespread flooding. Thousands of structures were destroyed by the ensuing floods and more than 66,000 people were left homeless.
Severe Tropical Storm Hubert was first identified as an area of low pressure off the northeastern coast of Madagascar on March 5, 2010. Slowly tracking south-southwestward, the system paralleled the eastern shore of Madagascar for several days. On March 9, the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the South-West Indian Ocean basin, Météo-France, classified the low as a tropical depression, the 13th of the season. Situated in a region of weak steering currents, the depression was quasi-stationary and environmental conditions, low wind shear and good divergence, favored gradual development. Within hours of this, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert for the depression. The formation of convective banding features took place throughout the day and intensification into a moderate tropical storm was anticipated. Though convection tended to fluctuate, a general organizing trend was apparent. Early on March 10, the JTWC classified the system as Tropical Cyclone 18S as deep convection consolidated around the storm's center.
Around 1200 UTC on March 10, Météo-France upgraded the system to a moderate tropical storm and assigned it with the name Hubert. This corresponded with the early stages of eye formation, as the storm's outer bands wrapped tightly around the center of circulation. Previously quasi-stationary, Hubert gained a southwesterly track in response to a ridge to its south. Rapid intensification ensued in the hours before the cyclone made landfall in Madagascar. Just six hours after being named, Hubert attained its peak intensity as a severe tropical storm with winds of 100 km/h (65 mph) along with a barometric pressure of 985 mbar (hPa; 29.09 inHg). At this time, the storm's radius of maximum winds was 17 km (11 mi). The JTWC assessed the system to have been slightly weaker, reporting peak winds of 85 km/h (50 mph). Around 2100 UTC, the center of Hubert moved onshore near the city of Mananjary in Fianarantsoa Province. Once overland, the storm abruptly turned northwestward and rapidly weakened as sustained winds dropped below gale-force.
During the latter part of March 11, Hubert resumed a southwesterly track along the northwestern edge of the ridge to its south. Operational advisories on the storm indicated that Hubert would continue to deteriorate over Madagascar before moving over the Mozambique Channel where it could regenerate. This forecast never verified as the remnants of the storm failed to redevelop. The circulation remained over Madagascar through March 13 before it moved offshore near the southern tip of the island. Once over water, the system temporarily had a more westerly tracking component before it turned southeastward. The remnants of Hubert were last noted on March 15 to the south of Madagascar.
Upon making landfall in Madagascar, Tropical Storm Hubert unleashed heavy rains and hurricane-force winds. A peak gust of 145 km/h (90 mph) was recorded in Manajary. The highest 24‑hour rainfall of 137.5 mm (5.41 in) was recorded in the same city. Seven districts in the country were significantly affected by the storm, with thousands of residents cut off from outside areas as roads were washed away. Numerous bridges were destroyed and land access to many towns was impossible months after the storm passed. Wells were contaminated by the floods, prompting fears that an ongoing outbreak of Chikungunya would spread more rampantly. At least 85 people are known to have been killed by the storm and another 35 listed as missing. Additionally, 132 people sustained storm-related injuries. According to reports in early April, an estimated 66,000 people were left homeless by the storm.
The 1995–96 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a moderately active season that included Cyclone Bonita, which was the first known tropical cyclone to cross from the southern Indian Ocean into the southern Atlantic Ocean. Tropical activity lasted for about six months from the middle of November 1995 to early May 1996. The first storm, Intense Tropical Cyclone Agnielle, formed in the adjacent Australian basin on November 16 and later reached peak winds in the south-west Indian Ocean. The next named storm after Agnielle was Bonita, which formed in early January and killed 42 people. The basin was most active in February, with two tropical cyclones, or the equivalent of a minimal hurricane, as well as a severe tropical storm. The first of these three was Doloresse, which killed 67 people due to a shipwreck in the Comoros. The next storm was Cyclone Edwige, which caused heavy crop damage on Mauritius before looping along the east coast of Madagascar. In March, both Cyclone Flossy and Tropical Storm Guylianne passed near the Mascarene Islands, producing heavy rainfall and gusty winds.
The 2007–08 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was the third most active tropical cyclone season, along with the 1985–86 season and behind the 1993–94 season and the 2018–19 season, with twelve named tropical cyclones developing in the region. It began on November 15, 2007, and ended on April 30, 2008, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, which ended May 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.
The 2006–07 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season featured the second-most intense tropical cyclones for a season in the tropical cyclone basin, only behind the 2018–19 season. The basin contains the waters of the Indian Ocean south of the equator and west of 90°E. Météo-France's meteorological office in Réunion (MFR), the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the South-West Indian Ocean, tracked 15 tropical disturbances, of which eleven attained gale-force winds. The season began in October 2006 with a short-lived tropical disturbance, followed by Anita in November, which was the first named storm of the season. Cyclone Bondo was the first of six intense tropical cyclones, which took a rare track through the southern Seychelles before making landfall on northwest Madagascar, killing 11 people. Severe Tropical Storm Clovis lasted from December 2006 to January 2007; it struck eastern Madagascar, killing four people.
The 2005–06 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was the fifth least-active on record. The Météo-France office on the island of Réunion tracked 13 tropical disturbances, of which six intensified into a moderate tropical storm. Three of these systems proceeded to attain tropical cyclone status – reaching 10 minute maximum sustained winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph). The American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center also tracked eight storms in the basin. Activity was below normal due to a powerful Walker circulation, which increased convection over the neighboring Australian basin, but suppressed activity in the western Indian Ocean. As a result, most of the storms developed near or entered from the Australian basin, crossing 90°E to enter the South-West Indian Ocean.
The 2002–03 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was one of the longest lasting and the third-most active season in the South-West Indian Ocean. Storms during the season impacted the Mascarene Islands, Seychelles, Madagascar, and countries in southeastern Africa. The season began early when an unnamed tropical storm struck Seychelles in September, becoming the most damaging storm there in 50 years. The next system, Atang, was the first named storm of the season, but was only a tropical depression; it was named due to the threat to an outer island of Mauritius. Atang later struck Tanzania in a climatologically unusual area in November, resulting in unconfirmed deaths of fishermen. The first named storm to reach tropical storm intensity was Boura, which brushed the Mascarene Islands with gusty winds and rainfall. In December, Cyclone Crystal threatened to strike Mauritius but instead veered eastward, and later, Tropical Storm Delfina lasted from late December through early January 2003. Delfina damaged or destroyed thousands of houses in Mozambique and Malawi, killing 54 people.
The 2001–02 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season had the earliest named storm since 1992. Many storms formed in the north-east portion of the basin, and several more originated around Australia. The basin is defined as the waters of the Indian Ocean west of longitude 90°E to the coast of Africa and south of the equator. Eleven tropical storms formed, compared to an average of nine. Tropical systems were present during 73 days, which was significantly higher than the average of 58 for this basin.
Cyclone Elita was an unusual tropical cyclone that made landfall on Madagascar three times. The fifth named storm of the 2003–04 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season, Elita developed in the Mozambique Channel on January 24, 2004. It strengthened to tropical cyclone status before striking northwestern Madagascar on January 28; it was the first storm to strike western Madagascar at that intensity since Cyclone Cynthia in 1991. Elita weakened to tropical depression status while crossing the island, and after exiting into the southwest Indian Ocean, it turned to the west and moved ashore in eastern Madagascar on January 31. After once again crossing the island, the cyclone reached the Mozambique Channel and re-intensified. Elita turned to the southeast to make its final landfall on February 3 along southwestern Madagascar. Two days later, it underwent an extratropical transition; the remnant system moved erratically before dissipating on February 13.
Intense Tropical Cyclone Hondo was the strongest and longest lived tropical cyclone to develop during the 2007–08 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. The third tropical cyclone and first intense tropical cyclone of the season, Hondo developed out of a tropical disturbance in early February about 1,020 km (635 mi) east-southeast of Diego Garcia. The disturbance quickly strengthened, becoming a moderate tropical storm on February 4 and a severe tropical storm the following day. After a brief period of slower intensification, Hondo rapidly intensified into an intense tropical cyclone and reached its peak intensity with winds of 215 km/h on February 7. The cyclone gradually weakened over the next several days due to an increase in forward speed and a decrease in sea surface temperatures. On February 12, Hondo rapidly degenerated into a remnant-low pressure area. Over the following week, the remnant low traveled in a general west-northwest direction with no development. On February 20, about 2,780 km (1,725 mi) northeast of where the final advisories were issued, the storm began to regenerate. The next day, advisories were issued on Tropical Disturbance Ex-Hondo, which briefly strengthened into a tropical depression. However, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Hondo continued to strengthen and attained winds of 95 km/h before passing directly over Réunion. Interaction with the island caused the storm to weaken and degenerate into a remnant low once more. The storm dissipated on February 29 after executing a counterclockwise loop.
The 2008–09 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly above average event in tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 15, 2008, and officially ended on April 30, 2009, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2009. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical cyclones in this basin were monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.
Intense Tropical Cyclone Bondo was the first of a series of six tropical cyclones to impact Madagascar during the 2006–07 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. Bondo developed on December 15 in the central Indian Ocean, west of Diego Garcia. After strengthening into a moderate tropical storm on December 18, the storm rapidly intensified while moving westward, taking advantage of favorable atmospheric conditions. Within 18 hours of being named, Bondo intensified to tropical cyclone status, or the equivalent of a minimal hurricane. The Météo-France office on Réunion (MFR) estimated peak 10 minute sustained winds of 205 km/h (125 mph), although the American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center estimated stronger 1 minute winds of 250 km/h (155 mph). While near peak intensity, Bondo passed just south of Agaléga island, before weakening slightly and moving through the Farquhar Group of islands belonging to the Seychelles, becoming the strongest cyclone to affect that island group in decades. Bondo turned southwestward, and after brushing the northern coast of Madagascar, the cyclone made landfall near Mahajanga on December 25. The storm continued southward, and was last tracked by the MFR on December 28.
The 2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone season was a near average event in tropical cyclone formation. The season officially started on July 1, 2009, and ended on June 30, 2010, after incorporating the tropical cyclone season which ran from November 1 to April 30 for all areas except for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2010. In this basin which officially runs from 30 to 90E and is to the south of the equator, the main warning center is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center on La Reunion Island; however they delegate the naming of Cyclones to the Meteorological services of Mauritius and Madagascar.
The 2010–11 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was the least active cyclone season on record in the basin, tied with 1982–83, producing only four systems of gale intensity. This was due to cooler than normal water temperatures and the Walker circulation – a broad atmospheric circulation – causing unusually moist conditions in the eastern Indian Ocean and unusually dry conditions in the western Indian Ocean. The basin includes the waters of the ocean south of the equator and west of 90º E to the eastern coast of Africa.
Severe Tropical Storm Cyprien was a short-lived tropical cyclone that caused minor damage in Madagascar. Forming on December 30, 2001, Cyprien quickly strengthened in a slightly favorable environment. By January 2, the storm attained its peak intensity with winds of 100 km/h (65 mph) according to Météo-France and 95 km/h (60 mph) according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Later that day the storm made landfall in Morombe, at a weaker intensity, and dissipated early on January 3. Throughout the affected areas, Cyprien destroyed 957 structures, leaving 1.16 billion Malagasy franc in damages. No fatalities were reported; however two people were listed as missing.
The 1992–93 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season lasted longer than normal, with the first storm Aviona forming on September 27 and the final storm Konita not dissipating until May 7. It was an above-average season, with four tropical cyclones – the equivalent of a minimal hurricane – along with six tropical storms, one subtropical depression, and several depressions including one that was named. The basin is defined as the area west of 90°E and south of the Equator in the Indian Ocean, which includes the waters around Madagascar westward to the east coast of Africa. Tropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion (MFR), as well as by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC).
This timeline documents all of the events of the 2009-10 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season which is the period that tropical cyclones formed in the Indian Ocean. Within the Indian Ocean most tropical cyclones form within the cyclone season which began on November 1 and will end on April 30. The scope of this article is limited to tropical cyclones that form in the Indian Ocean 30°E and 90°E to the south of the equator. When a zone of disturbed weather form or moves into the South-West Indian Ocean it is assigned a number and monitored by Météo-France who run the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) on Réunion Island. Should a tropical disturbance intensify and become a moderate tropical storm the two sub-regional tropical cyclone Advisory Centres in Mauritius and Madagascar in conjunction with RSMC La Réunion. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also issue warnings on tropical cyclones in this region assigning a number with an "S" suffix. When monitoring a tropical cyclone the Joint Typhoon Warning Center will assess the cyclones intensity on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale whilst RSMC La Réunion, Maurtius and Madagascar use the Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale to assess a tropical cyclones intensity.
Tropical Cyclone Bingiza was the only named storm to make landfall in the inactive 2010–11 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. The second of three storms, Bingiza developed on February 9 to the northeast of Madagascar. For a few days it meandered generally southwestward, failing to intensify significantly. On February 12, the storm began a steady westward track as environmental conditions became more favorable. In a 24‑hour period, Bingiza developed from a moderate tropical storm into an intense tropical cyclone with a well-defined eye. After attaining peak 10–minute sustained winds of 155 km/h (100 mph), the cyclone moved ashore in northeastern Madagascar on February 14 and quickly weakened as it crossed the country. Bingiza emerged into the Mozambique Channel as a weak tropical disturbance, and it turned southward to move across western Madagascar. Bingiza attained tropical storm status before making its final landfall near Morondava, degenerating into a remnant low on February 17, and dissipating two days later.
The 2012–13 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly above average event in tropical cyclone formation in the Southern hemisphere tropical cyclone year starting on July 1, 2012, and ending on June 30, 2013. Within this basin, tropical and subtropical disturbances are officially monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre on Réunion island, while the Mauritius and Madagascar weather services assign names to significant tropical and subtropical disturbances. The first tropical disturbance of the season developed on October 12 and rapidly developed into the earliest known intense tropical cyclone on record during October 14.
Tropical Cyclone Haruna was a deadly storm that produced widespread flooding and a disease outbreak in southwestern Madagascar. The ninth system of the season, Haruna developed in the Mozambique channel in the middle of February 2013 between Mozambique and southwestern Madagascar. Initially moving northward over Mozambique, the disturbance later moved slowly southward, gradually strengthening into the eighth named storm of the season and later into an intense tropical cyclone. The Météo-France office in Réunion (MFR) – the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in the basin – estimated the cyclone attained peak 10 minute sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 mph). Haruna made landfall near Morombe in southwestern Madagascar on February 22. It weakened significantly while crossing the country, and MFR discontinued advisories on February 24 after the storm had emerged into the Indian Ocean.
Cyclone Alibera was the second longest-lasting tropical cyclone on record in the south-west Indian Ocean, with a duration of 22 days. It formed on December 16, 1989, well to the northeast of Madagascar. For several days, it meandered southwestward while gradually intensifying. On December 20, Alibera intensified to tropical cyclone status with 10‑minute maximum sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph), or the equivalent of a minimal hurricane. That day, the Météo-France office in Réunion (MFR) estimated 10‑minute winds of 140 km/h (85 mph), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), an unofficial warning agency for the region, estimated peak 1‑minute winds of 250 km/h (150 mph). After drifting erratically for several days, the storm began a steady southwest motion on December 29 as a greatly weakened system. On January 1, Alibera struck southeastern Madagascar near Mananjary, having re-intensified to just below tropical cyclone status. It weakened over land but again restrengthened upon reaching open waters on January 3. The storm turned to the southeast, then to the southwest, and finally back to the southeast, dissipating on January 5.
Intense Tropical Cyclone Enawo was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike Madagascar since Gafilo in 2004, which killed at least 81 people of the country in March 2017. Forming as a moderate tropical storm on 3 March, Enawo initially drifted and intensified slowly. It strengthened into a tropical cyclone on 5 March and further an intense tropical cyclone on 6 March. Enawo made landfall over Sava Region on 7 March just after reaching peak intensity, and it emerged back into the Indian Ocean as a post-tropical depression late on 9 March, before dissipating two days later. Fifteen municipalities were severely affected, in the two most impacted districts of Antalaha and Maroantsetra.