Tropical Storm Rachel (1990)

Last updated

Tropical Storm Rachel
Tropical Storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Rachel90bajalandfall.JPG
Satellite image of Tropical Storm Rachel over Baja California Sur
Formed September 27, 1990
Dissipated October 3, 1990
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:65 mph (100 km/h)
Lowest pressure 994 mbar (hPa); 29.35 inHg
Fatalities 18 direct
Areas affected Baja California Sur, Mainland Mexico, Texas
Part of the 1990 Pacific hurricane season

Tropical Storm Rachel was the only tropical cyclone to make landfall during the 1990 Pacific hurricane season. The twenty-fourth tropical depression and eighteenth named storm, Rachel developed on September 27 from a tropical wave southwest of mainland Mexico. After becoming a tropical depression, the system tracked slowly southwestward and eventually curved northwestward. The depression intensified into a tropical storm after three days and was named Rachel by the National Hurricane Center. Rachel continued to steadily strengthen, and peaked as a strong 65 mph (100 km/h) tropical storm on October 2. After attaining peak intensity, Rachel re-curved to make a landfall in southern Baja California Sur and again in the Mexican Mainland on October 3. The storm produced heavy rainfall across northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States. Thousands of people were left homeless and 18 fatalities were reported.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

1990 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1990 Pacific hurricane season was a very active season which observed 21 named storms within the basin. The season also produced the fourth highest ACE index value on record. The season was officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were slightly exceeded when Hurricane Alma formed on May 12.

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Contents

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Rachel 1990 track.png
Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

The origins of Rachel can be traced back to a tropical wave that moved off the west coast Africa in mid-September 1990. [1] It moved westward into the Caribbean Sea without significant development. [2] Poorly organized, the wave entered the Eastern Pacific on overnight September 22. The thunderstorm activity became more concentrated two days later. Dvorak classifications, a technique used to estimate a tropical cyclone's intensity, began late September 25. [1]

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

Caribbean Sea A sea of the Atlantic Ocean bounded by North, Central, and South America

The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America.

Pacific hurricane mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Early on September 27, the twenty-fourth tropical depression of the season had developed; [1] however, operationally it was not warned upon until the system was located 540 mi (870 km) south of Baja California Sur on September 30. [3] Post-analysis later confirm that Rachel was already a minimal tropical storm by that time. Although convection initially remained displaced from the center, Rachel steadily intensified. [1] Early on September 30, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) operationally upgraded the depression into Tropical Storm Rachel. [4] While intensifying, an upper-level trough over California allowed Rachel to re-curve towards Mexico. [1] On October 2, it reached its peak intensity of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 994  mbar (hPa; 29.35  inHg). [5]

Baja California Sur State of Mexico

Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Atmospheric convection

Atmospheric convection is the result of a parcel-environment instability, or temperature difference layer in the atmosphere. Different lapse rates within dry and moist air masses lead to instability. Mixing of air during the day which expands the height of the planetary boundary layer leads to increased winds, cumulus cloud development, and decreased surface dew points. Moist convection leads to thunderstorm development, which is often responsible for severe weather throughout the world. Special threats from thunderstorms include hail, downbursts, and tornadoes.

National Hurricane Center division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

After maintaining its intensity for 24 hours, Rachel made landfall at peak intensity near the southern tip of Baja California Sur. [1] [6] Strong wind shear prevented additional intensification, despite moving into the warm waters of the Gulf of California. [7] After weakening slightly, [6] Rachel made a second landfall midway between Las Mochis and Culiacán. Upon moving inland, the system rapidly weakened [1] as the forward speed increased. Rachel dissipated several hours later on October 3. By that time, the winds had decreased to 30 mph (45 km/h). [6] The remnants of Rachel entered the United States, and were last noted over Texas. [1]

Wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Gulf of California A gulf of the Pacific Ocean between the Baja peninsula and the Mexican mainland

The Gulf of California is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa with a coastline of approximately 4,000 km (2,500 mi). Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Fuerte, Mayo, Sinaloa, Sonora, and the Yaqui. The gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi). Depth soundings in the gulf have ranged from fording depth at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) in the deepest parts.

Culiacán Place in Sinaloa, Mexico

Culiacán is a city in northwestern Mexico. It is the largest city in and the capital of the state of Sinaloa. It is also the seat of Culiacán Municipality. It had an urban population of 785,800 in 2015 while 905,660 lived in the entire municipality. While the municipality has a total area of 4,758 km2 (1,837 sq mi), the city itself is considerably smaller, measuring only 65 km2 (25 sq mi).

Preparations and impact

Rainfall map of Tropical Storm Rachel Rachel 1990 rainfall.gif
Rainfall map of Tropical Storm Rachel

Prior to the arrival of Rachel, the Mexican government issued a tropical storm watch for southern Baja California Sur, encompassing areas south of La Paz on October 1. As Rachel moved closer to the area, the watch was replaced with a tropical storm warning. In the mainland, a tropical storm watch was issued for the state of Sinaloa south of Los Mmochis. Six hours later, the watches was replaced with a tropical storm warning. By the end of October 2, all the watches and warnings were discontinued. [8]

Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.

La Paz, Baja California Sur City in Baja California Sur, Mexico

La Paz is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur and an important regional commercial center. The city had a 2015 census population of 244,219 inhabitants, making it the most populous city in the state. Its metropolitan population is somewhat larger because of the surrounding towns, such as El Centenario, Chametla and San Pedro. It is in La Paz Municipality, which is the fourth-largest municipality in Mexico in geographical size and reported a population of 290,286 inhabitants on a land area of 20,275 km2 (7,828 sq mi).

Sinaloa State of Mexico

Sinaloa, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

The two highest rainfall totals were 9.85 in (250 mm) and 6.5 in (170 mm) at Santa Anita and San Jose Del Cobe, near the southern tip of Baja California Sur. Two weather stations in Mexico reported barometric pressure of 1005 and 1006 mbar (hPa; 29.68 and 29.71 inHg) during the passage of Rachel. In all, precipitation was measured at 996 different places across the country. [1] [2] Throughout northern Mexico, significant flooding was reported with the worst effects felt in the states of Nuevo Leon, Coahuila and Durango. Thousands were homeless, and 18 people died. In Monterrey, rescue workers freed dozens of trapped people. [9]

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Coahuila State of Mexico

Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Durango State of Mexico

Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is a state in northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur. The city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria.

The moisture associated with the Rachel and a cold front produced rainfall in Arizona, New Mexico, and western Texas, while it was located southwest of Baja California Sur. After Rachel had dropped heavy rains, a flash flood watch was issued for several counties in New Mexico on October 1, where rainfall had reportedly been 2 in (51 mm) since the last day of September. [10] The remnants of the storm produced additional precipitation across the state. [11] Heavy rains fell on almost all of western Texas, and a flash flood warning had been issued after some areas experienced rainfall over 1 in (25 mm). [12] With heavy rains falling in the western portion of Texas, some roads were washed out, [6] especially in Big Bend National Park and Lubbock; several car accidents were also reported on the roads. Several locations in Texas measured at least 0.5 in (13 mm) of rain, and the highest amount of rainfall was 1.5 in (38 mm) in Lubbock. [13]

Related Research Articles

1990 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1990 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season since 1969. It officially began on June 1, 1990, and lasted until November 30, 1990. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. One tropical depression did form before the season officially started, however.

1998 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 1998 Pacific hurricane season was a below average Pacific hurricane season. It had six major hurricanes, which was well above average. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in that region. The first tropical cyclone developed on June 11, about ten days later than the normal start of the season. The final storm of the year, Hurricane Madeline, dissipated on October 20. Storm activity in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's warning zone was low, with just one tropical depression observed in the region. Two tropical cyclones from the eastern Pacific also entered the central Pacific; the former did so as a hurricane.

1995 Pacific hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 1995 Pacific hurricane season was the least active Pacific hurricane season since 1979. Of the eleven tropical cyclones that formed during the season, four affected land, with the most notable storm of the season being Hurricane Ismael, which killed at least 116 people in Mexico. The strongest hurricane in the season was Hurricane Juliette, which reached peak winds of 150 mph (240 km/h), but did not significantly affect land. Hurricane Adolph was an early-season Category 4 hurricane. Hurricane Henriette brushed the Baja California Peninsula in early September.

1993 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1993 Pacific hurricane season was a slightly above-average Pacific hurricane season with seven named storms directly impacting land. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone developed on June 11, over a month after the traditional start of the season. The final named storm of the season, Tropical Storm Norma, dissipated on October 14. The Central Pacific Ocean saw very little tropical activity, with only one cyclone, Hurricane Keoni, developing in that particular region. However, many storms out of the season crossed the threshold into the Central Pacific, many as hurricanes, and even major hurricanes.

1992 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1992 Pacific hurricane season was the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, behind only the 2013 season. The season also produced the second-highest ACE value on record in the basin, surpassed by the 2018 season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.

1989 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1989 Pacific hurricane season officially started on May 15, 1989, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 17 storms and 9 hurricanes formed, which was near long-term averages. Four hurricanes reached major hurricane status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

1987 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1987 Pacific hurricane season was the last year in which the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center was the primary warning center for tropical cyclones in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The season officially started May 15, 1987, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1987, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1987. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when the vast majority of tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

1986 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1986 Pacific hurricane season saw several tropical cyclones contribute to significant flooding to the Central United States. The hurricane season officially started May 15, 1986, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1986 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1986 in both regions. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of 17 named storms and 9 hurricanes developed during the season; this is slightly above the averages of 15 named storms and 8 hurricanes, respectively. In addition, 26 tropical depressions formed in the eastern Pacific during 1986, which, at the time, was the second most ever recorded; only the 1982 Pacific hurricane season saw a higher total.

1984 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1984 Pacific hurricane season was a very active season, producing 21 named storms. When Fausto became a tropical storm on July 3, it was the earliest the sixth named storm was named. This record would be tied in 1985 and broken 34 years later. The season produced 26 tropical cyclones, of which 21 developed into named storms; 13 cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. The season officially started on May 15, 1984, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1984, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1984. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when the vast majority tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Douglas, which attained Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale in the open Pacific.

Hurricane Nora (1997) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 1997

Hurricane Nora was only the third tropical cyclone on record to reach Arizona as a tropical storm, and one of the rare cyclones to make landfall in Baja California. Nora was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone and seventh hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. The September storm formed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and aided by waters warmed by the 1997–98 El Niño event, eventually peaked at Category 4 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale.

Hurricane Lester (1992) Category 1 Pacific hurricane in 1992

Hurricane Lester was the first Pacific tropical cyclone to enter the United States as a tropical storm since 1967. The twelfth named storm and seventh hurricane of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, Lester formed on August 20 from a tropical wave southwest of Mexico. The tropical storm moved generally northwestward while steadily intensifying. After turning to the north, approaching the Mexican coast, Lester attained hurricane status. The hurricane reached peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) before making landfall on west-central Baja California. The system weakened while moving across the peninsula and then over northwestern Mexico. Not long after entering Arizona, Lester weakened to a tropical depression, and dissipated on August 24, 1992, over New Mexico.

Hurricane Fausto (1996) Category 3 Pacific hurricane in 1996

Hurricane Fausto was a Pacific hurricane that caused light damage to Baja California Sur in September 1996. On September 10, a tropical depression developed a short distance south-southeast of the Mexican Riviera. Slowly intensifying, Fuasto paralleled the coastline. It became a hurricane on September 12, and after briefly reaching major hurricane intensity, increasing wind shear resulted in a weakening trend. It moved ashore Baja California Sur on September 13 as minimal hurricane, and struck the mainland the next day. On September 15, the tropical cyclone was no more. While 15 in (380 mm) of rain was recorded, only one person was killed and damage was light.

Hurricane Norbert (2008) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 2008

Hurricane Norbert is tied with Hurricane Jimena as the strongest tropical cyclone to strike the west coast of Baja California Sur in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, seventh hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2008 hurricane season, Norbert originated as a tropical depression from a tropical wave south of Acapulco on October 3. Strong wind shear initially prevented much development, but the cyclone encountered a more favorable environment as it moved westward. On October 5, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Norbert, and the system intensified further to attain hurricane intensity by October 6. After undergoing a period of rapid deepening, Norbert reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, with maximum sustained winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 945 mbar. As the cyclone rounded the western periphery of a subtropical ridge over Mexico, it began an eyewall replacement cycle which led to steady weakening. Completing this cycle and briefly reintensifying into a major hurricane, a Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, Norbert moved ashore Baja California Sur as a Category 2 hurricane late on October 11. After a second landfall at a weaker intensity the following day, the system quickly weakened over land and dissipated that afternoon.

Hurricane Kiko (1989) Category 3 Pacific hurricane in 1989

Hurricane Kiko was one of the strongest tropical cyclones to have hit the eastern coast of Mexico's Baja California peninsula during recorded history. The eleventh named storm of the 1989 Pacific hurricane season, Kiko formed out of a large mesoscale convective system on August 25. Slowly tracking northwestward, the storm rapidly intensified into a hurricane early the next day. Strengthening continued until early August 27, when Kiko reached its peak intensity with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). The storm turned west at this time, and at around 0600 UTC, the storm made landfall near Punta Arena at the southern tip of Baja California Sur. The hurricane rapidly weakened into a tropical storm later that day and further into a tropical depression by August 28, shortly after entering the Pacific Ocean. The depression persisted for another day while tracking southward, before being absorbed by nearby Tropical Storm Lorena. Though Kiko made landfall as a Category 3 hurricane, its impact was relatively minor. Press reports indicated that 20 homes were destroyed and numerous highways were flooded by torrential rains.

Hurricane Raymond (1989) Category 4 Pacific hurricane in 1989

Hurricane Raymond was the strongest tropical cyclone of the 1989 Pacific hurricane season, peaking as a strong Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Forming out of a tropical wave on September 25, the tropical depression slowly tracked northwest before becoming nearly stationary the next day. Shortly after, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Raymond and took a general westward track. Gradually intensifying, Raymond attained hurricane-status on September 28 and attained its peak intensity on September 30, with winds of 145 mph (233 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 935 mbar. Steady weakening then took place and by October 3, Raymond turned northeast towards land. The storm continued to weaken as it accelerated and eventually made landfall on the Baja California Peninsula as a tropical storm late on October 4 and a second landfall in Sonora, Mexico. Shortly after, Raymond weakened to a depression as it tracked inland. The remnants of the system persisted until October 7 when it dissipated over the Central United States.

Hurricane Waldo Category 2 Pacific hurricane in 1985

Hurricane Waldo was a Pacific hurricane that caused significant flooding in Kansas during October 1985. After developing into a tropical depression on October 7, it steadily intensified, becoming a tropical storm within a day. Waldo reached hurricane intensity on October 8. After peaking as a moderate Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale, it re-curved to the east, making landfall at peak intensity near Culiacán. Afterward, it rapidly dissipated. In all, Waldo caused moderate damage in Sonora. The remnants of the storm combined with a cold front over the Great Plains. Significant flooding and one death was recorded in Kansas. Many rivers and creeks overflowed its banks.

Hurricane Hilary (1993) Category 3 Pacific hurricane in 1993

Hurricane Hilary was a Category 3 hurricane that caused significant flooding in the Midwestern United States in August 1993. A westward moving tropical depression gradually developed on August 17 south of the Mexican coast, attaining hurricane status two days later. The storm further intensified into a Category 3 hurricane, attaining peak winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). By August 23, the hurricane nearly stalled while interacting with Tropical Storm Irwin. Executing a small counter-clockwise loop, Hilary degraded to tropical storm intensity and took a northerly track for the remainder of its existence. The storm made two landfalls in Mexico, one in Baja California Sur on August 25 and one in Sonora the following day. Tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued for much of the southern Mexican coastline; however, they were later discontinued when the threat ended, but were issued again when the system posed a threat to the Baja California Peninsula. Hilary dropped in excess of 5 in (130 mm) rain along its path in some areas, and flash flooding in California and Iowa.

Hurricane Rosa (2018)

Hurricane Rosa was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Baja California since Nora in 1997. The seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and seventh major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Rosa originated from a broad area of low pressure that the National Hurricane Center began monitoring on September 22. The disturbance moved westward and then west-northwestward for a few days, before developing into a tropical depression on September 25. Later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Rosa. One day later, Rosa became a hurricane. On September 27, Rosa began a period of rapid intensification, ultimately peaking as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph and a minimum central pressure of 936 mbar on the next day. Over the next couple of days, Rosa turned towards the northeast. By September 29, Rosa had weakened into a Category 2 hurricane due to ongoing structural changes and less favorable conditions. Later on the same day, Rosa re-intensified slightly. On September 30, Rosa resumed weakening as its core structure eroded. Early on October 1, Rosa weakened into a tropical storm. On October 2, Rosa weakened to a tropical depression and made landfall in Baja California. Later in the day, Rosa's remnants crossed into the Gulf of California, with its surface and mid-level remnants later separating entirely. The mid-level remnants of Rosa continued to travel north, reaching northeast Arizona late in the day. On October 3, Rosa's remnants were absorbed into an upper-level low situated off the coast of California.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mayfield, Max (1990). "Tropical Storm Rachel Preliminary Report, Page 1". National Hurricane Center . Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  2. 1 2 Roth, David (April 26, 2007). "Tropical Storm Rachel - September 30-October 3, 1990". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center . Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  3. Mayfield, Max (September 30, 1990). "Tropical Depression Twenty-One-E Discussion Number One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  4. Mayfield, Max (September 30, 1990). "Tropical Storm Rachel Discussion Number Two". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  5. Mayfield, Max (1990). "Tropical Storm Rachel Preliminary Report, Page 3". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Mayfield, Max (1990). "Tropical Storm Rachel Preliminary Report, Page 2". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  7. Mayfield, Max (October 2, 1990). "Tropical Storm Rachel Discussion Number Six". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  8. Mayfield, Max (1990). "Tropical Storm Rachel Preliminary Report, Page 4". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  9. "Hurricane Klaus Downgraded". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. October 1, 1990.
  10. "Post flood watches through Southwest". The Bryan Times . October 2, 1990. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  11. "Post Flood Watches through Southwest". The Bryan Times. United Press International. 1990-10-01. Retrieved 2012-01-28.
  12. "Cloudy Skies Seen Across Most of State". The Victoria Advocate . October 3, 1990. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  13. "Rainfall covers state". The Bonham Daily Favorite. October 3, 1990. Retrieved January 16, 2011.

See also