Tropical Storm Sonia

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The name Sonia has been used for two tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

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Cyclone large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low pressure

In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale. Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils lie within smaller mesoscale. Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclones have also been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars and Neptune. Cyclogenesis is the process of cyclone formation and intensification. Extratropical cyclones begin as waves in large regions of enhanced mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones. These zones contract and form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation closes and intensifies. Later in their life cycle, extratropical cyclones occlude as cold air masses undercut the warmer air and become cold core systems. A cyclone's track is guided over the course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the subtropical jet stream.

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

The name Alex has been used for a total of 11 tropical cyclones worldwide: Four in the Atlantic Ocean, four in the West Pacific Ocean and three in the South Indian Ocean.

The name Gabrielle has been used for five tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean; Gabrielle is one of the original names on the rotating six-year cycle of names used in the North Atlantic basin established in 1979.

The name Jose has been used for five tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean.

1985 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1985 Pacific hurricane season is the third-most active Pacific hurricane season on record. It officially started on May 15, 1985, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1985, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1985. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. At the time, the 1985 season was the most active on record in the eastern north Pacific, with 28 tropical cyclones forming. Of those, 24 were named, 13 reached hurricane intensity, and 8 became major hurricanes by attaining Category 3 status or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. At that time, the 24 named storms was a record; however, this record was broken seven years later in 1992, and was therefore recognized as the second busiest season within the basin, until it was surpassed exactly thirty years later by the 2015 season.

1984 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1984 Pacific hurricane season was a very active season, producing 21 named storms. When Fausto became a tropical storm on July 3, it was the earliest the sixth named storm was named. This record would be tied in 1985 and broken 34 years later. The season produced 26 tropical cyclones, of which 21 developed into named storms; 13 cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. The season officially started on May 15, 1984, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1984, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1984. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when the vast majority tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Douglas, which attained Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale in the open Pacific.

1983 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1983 Pacific hurricane season was the longest season ever recorded at that time, which was later surpassed by the 2015 and 2016 seasons. The 1983 Pacific hurricane season started on May 15, 1983 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1983 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1983. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. During the 1983 season, there were 21 named storms, which was slightly less than the previous season. Furthermore, eight storms reached major hurricane status, or Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS). The decaying 1982–83 El Niño event likely contributed to this level of activity. That same El Niño influenced a very quiet Atlantic hurricane season.

1979 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1979 Pacific typhoon season featured the most intense tropical cyclone recorded globally, Typhoon Tip. The season also experienced above-average tropical cyclone activity. The season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1979, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

1978 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1978 Pacific typhoon season was a very active season that lasted more than a year. It has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1978, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Tropical Storm Fay (2002) Atlantic tropical storm in 2002

Tropical Storm Fay was the sixth named storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season; it was a moderate tropical storm which caused flooding in parts of Texas and Mexico. In early September, a trough of low pressure moved south into the Gulf of Mexico, and became stationary. A low pressure center developed along this trough, and on September 5, a Hurricane Hunter airplane reported that the system had gained sufficient organization to be a tropical depression, 95 miles (153 km) southeast of Galveston. The depression drifted south-southwest while strengthening, reaching its peak strength of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) on the morning of September 6. The system then made an abrupt turn to the west-northwest, and remained steady in strength and course until landfall the next day, near Matagorda. The system weakened at a fast rate after landfall, but its circulation would not totally dissipate for three more days.

Tropical Storm Edouard (2002) Atlantic tropical storm in 2002

Tropical Storm Edouard was the first of eight named storms to form in September 2002, the most such storms in the North Atlantic for any month at the time. The fifth tropical storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, Edouard developed into a tropical cyclone on September 1 from an area of convection associated with a cold front east of Florida. Under weak steering currents, Edouard drifted to the north and executed a clockwise loop to the west. Despite moderate to strong levels of wind shear, the storm reached a peak intensity of 65 mph (100 km/h) on September 3, but quickly weakened as it tracked westward. Edouard made landfall on northeastern Florida on September 5, and after crossing the state it dissipated on September 6 while becoming absorbed into the larger circulation of Tropical Storm Fay.

Tropical Storm Kiko (2007) Pacific tropical storm in 2007

Tropical Storm Kiko was a strong tropical storm that capsized a boat off the western coast of Mexico, killing at least 15 people. The 15th and final tropical cyclone of the 2007 Pacific hurricane season, Kiko developed out of a tropical wave that formed off the coast of Africa on September 26 and traversed the Atlantic. The wave crossed over Central America and entered the Pacific Ocean on October 8, where it spawned Tropical Depression 15-E on October 15. The depression drifted to the south over the next day before briefly being declared Tropical Storm Kiko. It subsequently weakened into a tropical depression, but later reattained tropical storm intensity. By October 18, Kiko was forecast to make landfall along the western Mexican coastline as a moderate tropical storm. However, the cyclone turned to the west and reached its peak intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) on October 20. The tropical storm slowly weakened to a remnant low-pressure area by October 24 and completely dissipated on October 27 without making landfall.

Tropical Storm Lester (2004) Pacific tropical storm in 2004

Tropical Storm Lester was a weak tropical storm that paralleled the Mexican coastline in October 2004. The 16th tropical cyclone and 12th named storm of the 2004 Pacific hurricane season, Lester originated from an area of disturbed weather that persisted southwest of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. After organizing, the system was designated as a tropical depression on October 11. The depression was upgraded to a tropical storm the next day, and moved northwestward, just off the Mexican coastline. Due to the interaction with land among other factors, the storm degenerated on October 13. The storm dropped locally heavy rainfall, which caused minor flooding and mudslides. No fatalities or significant damage were reported.

Tropical Storm Cristobal (2008) Atlantic tropical storm in 2008

Tropical Storm Cristobal was the third named storm of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. It formed on July 19 from a trough of low pressure off the Southeast U.S. Coast. In a marginally favorable environment, it attained minimal tropical storm status later that day. The storm remained offshore, and peaked as a strong tropical storm on July 21 while it passed east of Cape Hatteras. It accelerated northeast parallel to the East Coast and became extratropical on July 23 near Nova Scotia. Because it was a weak storm and never made landfall, Cristobal's effects were mostly limited to moderate rainfall. The storm dropped 3.43 in (87 mm) of rain in Wilmington, North Carolina, where minor flooding was reported. Additionally, the extratropical remnants contributed to rainfall on Nova Scotia which caused some street and basement flooding.

Tropical Storm Hazel (1965) Pacific tropical storm in 1965

Tropical Storm Hazel was a weak East Pacific tropical cyclone that caused heavy damage in Mexico. The costliest storm of the 1965 Pacific hurricane season, it formed from a northward-moving disturbance that originated southeast of Socorro Island. After reaching tropical storm strength on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, the cyclone turned to the east-northeast. The storm made landfall near Mazatlán on September 26 and quickly transitioned an extratropical cyclone. Although fairly weak, the system was responsible for causing heavy damage to the Mexican economy. Flooding in Mazatlán washed out many houses and submerged others in muddy water. At least six people died with damages totaling $10 million and possibly higher. The name Hazel was retired following this storm, likely due to the Atlantic storm of the same name.

1983–84 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 1983–84 Australian region cyclone season was the most active season on record. It officially started on 1 November 1983, and officially ended on 30 April 1984.

Tropical Depression Winnie Pacific tropical depression in 2004

Tropical Depression Winnie was a weak, but catastrophic tropical cyclone that killed nearly 1,600 people after triggering widespread flooding in the Philippines.

2013 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was the costliest Pacific hurricane season on record, with a total of about $4.2 billion in damages. The season produced above normal activity; however, the majority of the storms were weak. The season officially began on May 15, 2013 in the Eastern Pacific and started on June 1, 2013 in the Central Pacific. Both ended on November 30, 2013. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. However, the formation of a storm is possible at any time.

Tropical Storm Jangmi (2014)

Tropical Storm Jangmi, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Seniang, was a weak but destructive tropical cyclone that impacted the Philippines during late December 2014. It produced heavy rainfall which caused serious flooding. Flooding in Philippines caused 66 deaths and at least $28.3 million damage.