Tropical Storm Tammy

Last updated
Tropical Storm Tammy
Tropical storm (SSHWS/NWS)
Tammy 2005-10-05 1625Z.jpg
Tropical Storm Tammy at peak intensity near landfall in Florida on October 5
FormedOctober 5, 2005
DissipatedOctober 6, 2005
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 50 mph (85 km/h)
Lowest pressure1001 mbar (hPa); 29.56 inHg
Fatalities10 indirect
Damage$30 million (2005 USD)
Areas affected Bahamas, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina
Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Tammy was a short-lived tropical storm during October in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season which caused minor damage to the southeastern United States. More significant, however, were its remnants, which contributed to the Northeast U.S. flooding of October 2005.

Contents

Tropical Storm Tammy formed from a non-tropical system off the Florida coast on October 5. It moved north just offshore before making landfall later that day. The tropical storm rapidly weakened as it moved overland and dissipated the next day. Its remnant circulation moved south towards the Gulf of Mexico, while the moisture was absorbed by a northeasterly moving cold front. There were no fatalities directly related to Tammy; however, ten people were killed by the remnants of the storm in combination with the remnants of Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two. Total damages from the storm were $30 million.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Tammy 2005 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A tropical wave left the western coast of Africa on September 24 and crossed the Atlantic without any development. The wave began to develop on October 2 north of the Lesser Antilles when it encountered an upper-level trough. It strengthened as it passed through the Bahamas and early on October 5 a vigorous tropical disturbance formed. [1] As the system already had tropical-storm force winds, it was immediately named Tropical Storm Tammy. Upon being classified, the system was poorly organized, with deep convection only persisting to the northeast of the center of circulation. Tropical storm-force winds were presumed to be located underneath the convection as ship reports nearby the system only reported winds up to 35 mph (55 km/h). Tammy quickly tracked towards the northwest in a southerly flow between a mid to upper-level low over the Gulf of Mexico and a ridge located over the western Atlantic Ocean. [2] Later that day, a reconnaissance flight into the storm recorded flight level winds of 61 mph (98 km/h), which corresponds to surface winds of 50 mph (85 km/h). However, small areas of 60 mph (95 km/h) to 65 mph (100 km/h) were reported by the crew members of the aircraft. [3] At 6:30 pm EST (2300 UTC), the storm made landfall with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) near Atlantic Beach, Florida. [1] The tropical storm then moved inland over Georgia [4] and into southeastern Alabama near Ozark, [5] where it lost its circulation on October 6. [1]

The remnant low drifted south towards the Gulf of Mexico before being absorbed by a cold front (which also picked remnants of Subtropical Depression Twenty-two), and moving northeast. This cold front, of which Tammy's remnants were a part, affected much of the Northeastern United States over the next few days. [1] [6]

Preparations

Radar image of Tropical Storm Tammy, 1834Z 5 October 2005. Tammy-radar.gif
Radar image of Tropical Storm Tammy, 1834Z 5 October 2005.

Tropical Storm Tammy surprised forecasters when it formed on October 5. [1] Because they had not expected the disturbance to develop, warnings were not issued until about 12 hours before the storm made landfall. [7] [8] Despite the short warning, tourists and business travelers cancelled flights as the storm neared landfall. [9] Upon the storm developing, a tropical storm warning was immediately issued for the coast from Cocoa Beach, Florida to the Santee River, South Carolina. [7]

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's U.S. Coast Guard, 7th District issued an advisory to mariners, warning them to prepare for the storm and avoid the ocean if possible. [10] In Georgia, the National Park Service evacuated the residents of Cumberland Island and closed the ferry which services it. The Glynn County Emergency Operations Agency monitored and prepared for Tropical Storm Tammy's landfall, however the poor warning hampered their efforts. Residents all over the state expressed frustration at the lack of time they had to prepare. [11] When Tammy moved inland 12 hours later [8] the southern end of the warning zone moved north to Altamaha Sound, Georgia before all warnings were discontinued on October 6. [1]

Impact

Rainfall totals from Tammy Tammy 2005 rainfall.gif
Rainfall totals from Tammy

Tropical Storm Tammy caused minor damage. Its highest sustained winds were 50 mph (80 km/h) and its strongest recorded wind gust was 60 mph (97 km/h). [1] The winds produced no significant damage, but did disrupt power to 16,500  utility customers [12] and delayed the Trysail College Regatta. [13] Lightning produced by a thunderstorm in Broward County, Florida struck three teenagers during a football game in Coconut Creek, killing one and injuring the other two. [14]

To most areas in north Florida and southern Georgia, Tammy brought 3 to 5 in (76 to 127 mm) of rain, though some isolated areas received 10 inches (250 mm). [15] In Georgia, flooding damaged over 30 homes in Brunswick. [16] Several dirt and coastal roads were washed out, [15] and sewers overflowed as far north as Baltimore County, Maryland. [17] Two small pond dams burst, including a 173-year-old wooden dam, but new stone dams were constructed in place before the old ones failed. [12] Conversely, Tammy's rains were beneficial in South Carolina, where they helped alleviate dry conditions [18] after a rainless September. [19]

Tammy's storm surge was approximately 2 to 4 ft (0.61 to 1.22 m) and caused salt-water flooding along the coast of northeastern Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. [20] The surge damages boardwalks along the coast, and wave action causes over 2 feet (0.6 m) of beach erosion. [1] In addition to the flooding, Tropical Storm Tammy spawned one tornado. [21] Rated an F0 tornado, it touched down near Brunswick, Georgia where it snapped trees and caused moderate roof damage along its 2 mi (3.2 km) path. [22] The storm's total damage was estimated at around $30 million (2005 USD). [1] The outer bands of Tammy brought heavy rains, peaking around 7 in (180 mm) in places, [23] and caused significant beach erosion. Winds along the coastline gusted up to 59 mph (95 km/h), downing numerous trees. The worst damage occurred in Beaufort County where 30 trees were downed, one of which fell on a home. Rough seas undermined several beach homes and caused one to be condemned. [24] Casualties in New England included seven people in New Hampshire and three people in Connecticut.

Aftermath and records

A Red Cross shelter at Seldon Park, Brunswick, Georgia, opened for two days following the storm to temporarily house those whose houses were flooded. [25] Tammy's remnant low was absorbed a larger extratropical low which tracked north and contributed to the Northeast U.S. flooding of October 2005, which killed ten people and caused significant damage. [1] As a result of the flooding, the Federal Emergency Management Agency paid $44 million in losses. [26]

Shrimpers in the Carolinas blamed high fuel prices and the disruption of Tropical Storm Tammy for some of the troubles facing the shrimping industry in 2005. Rising fuel prices and dwindling demand has already created tough conditions that year, but the disruption of several days' fishing due to Tammy escalated the situation. [27]

When Tammy formed on October 5, it became the earliest in the season that the twentieth storm formed, a distinction it held until 2020, when Tropical Storm Vicky formed on September 14. [28]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Hilda

Hurricane Hilda was an intense tropical cyclone that ravaged areas of the United States Gulf Coast, particularly Louisiana. In addition to its damage inland, the hurricane greatly disrupted offshore oil production, and at its time was the costliest tropical cyclone for Louisiana's offshore oil production. Due in part to flights made by the National Hurricane Research Laboratory, Hilda became one of the most well-documented storms meteorologically in the Atlantic. Lasting for seven days as a tropical cyclone, Hilda caused US$126 million in damage and 38 deaths. It was the tenth named storm, sixth hurricane, and the fourth major hurricane of the 1964 Atlantic hurricane season.

Hurricane Edith (1971) Category 5 Atlantic hurricane

Hurricane Edith was the strongest hurricane to form during the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season and formerly the southernmost landfalling Category 5 hurricane on record in the Atlantic until 2007. Edith also stands as one of the only Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes to not have its name retired, next to 1953's Hurricane Carol, 1961's Hurricane Esther, 2005's Hurricane Emily, and 2019’s Hurricane Lorenzo. Edith developed from a tropical wave on September 5 and quickly strengthened into a hurricane in the Caribbean Sea. Edith rapidly intensified on September 9 and made landfall on Cape Gracias a Dios as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Being a category 5 hurricane, Edith peaked at only 943 mbar (hPa), making Edith the least intense category 5 Atlantic hurricane on record. It quickly lost intensity over Central America and after briefly entering the Gulf of Honduras it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. After moving across the Gulf of Mexico a trough turned the storm to the northeast and Edith, after having restrengthened while accelerating towards the coast, made landfall on Louisiana with winds of 105 mph (170 km/h) on September 16. Edith steadily weakened over land and dissipated over Georgia on September 18.

Hurricane Cindy (2005) Category 1 hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Cindy was a tropical cyclone that briefly reached minimal hurricane strength in the Gulf of Mexico during July in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and made landfall in Louisiana. It was the third named storm and first hurricane of the season. Cindy was originally thought to have been a tropical storm at peak strength, but was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane in the post-season analysis. Cindy formed on July 3 just east of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The depression soon made landfall on the peninsula and weakened before reemerging in the Gulf of Mexico on July 4. The storm strengthened as it moved north becoming a hurricane just before making landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana, on July 5. The storm weakened as it moved overland and became extratropical on July 7.

Hurricane Danny (1997) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane

Hurricane Danny was the only hurricane to make landfall in the United States during the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season, and the second hurricane and fourth tropical storm of the season. The system became the earliest-formed fifth tropical or subtropical storm of the Atlantic season in history when it attained tropical storm strength on July 17, and held that record until the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season when Tropical Storm Emily broke that record by several days. Like the previous four tropical or subtropical cyclones of the season, Danny had a non-tropical origin, after a trough spawned convection that entered the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Danny was guided northeast through the Gulf of Mexico by two high pressure areas, a rare occurrence in the middle of July. After making landfall on the Gulf Coast, Danny tracked across the southeastern United States and ultimately affected parts of New England with rain and wind.

Hurricane Allison (1995) Allison, First storm of the 1995 Atlantic Hurricane Season.

Hurricane Allison was the first named storm and first hurricane of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. It was an early season hurricane that delivered heavy rains and caused minor damage, primarily across Cuba, Florida and Georgia.

Tropical Storm Arlene (2005) Atlantic tropical storm in 2005

Tropical Storm Arlene was an unusually large and early-forming tropical storm, being the first of twenty-eight different storms during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, which would become the second most active season on record. Tropical Storm Arlene formed near Honduras on June 8 and moved northwards. It crossed western Cuba on June 10 and strengthened to just under hurricane strength before making its final landfall on the Florida Panhandle the next day. The storm weakened as it continued to move north over the United States, becoming extratropical on June 13. Arlene was responsible for only one death and minor damage.

Hurricane Earl (1998) Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 1998

Hurricane Earl was an atypical, disorganized, and short-lived Category 2 hurricane that caused moderate damage throughout the Southeast United States. It formed out of a poorly organized tropical disturbance over the southwest Gulf of Mexico late on August 31, 1998. Tracking towards the northeast, the storm quickly intensified into a hurricane on September 2 and made landfall early the next day near Panama City, Florida. Rapidly tracking towards Atlantic Canada, the extratropical remnants of Earl significantly intensified before passing over Newfoundland on September 6. The remnants were absorbed by former Hurricane Danielle two days later.

Hurricane Gabrielle (2001) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2001

Hurricane Gabrielle was a North Atlantic hurricane that caused flooding in both Florida and Newfoundland in September 2001. It developed in the Gulf of Mexico on the same day as the September 11 attacks; after the attacks, flights were canceled nationwide for two days, and when Gabrielle struck Florida on September 14, it caused a day of additional cancellations. The storm moved ashore with winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) near Venice, a city located south of the Tampa Bay area. The combination of the winds and heavy rainfall, which peaked at 15.1 in (380 mm) in Parrish, left 570,000 customers without power along the west coast and 126,000 customers without power on the east coast. The storm caused about $230 million (2001 USD) in damage in Florida. In the Gulf of Mexico, high waves contributed to two deaths, one of which was indirect; there was also a death due to flooding in Winter Haven.

Tropical Storm Fay (2002) Atlantic tropical storm in 2002

Tropical Storm Fay was the sixth named storm of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season; it was a moderate tropical storm which caused flooding in parts of Texas and Northern Mexico. It formed from a trough of low pressure that moved south into the Gulf of Mexico, and became stationary. A low pressure center developed along this trough, and on September 5, a Hurricane Hunter aircraft reported that the system had gained sufficient organization to be classified a tropical depression, 95 miles (153 km) southeast of Galveston. The depression drifted south-southwest while strengthening, reaching its peak strength of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) on the morning of September 6. The system then made an abrupt turn to the west-northwest, and remained steady in strength and course until landfall the next day, near Matagorda. The system weakened rapidly after landfall degenerating into a remnant low on September 8, but the storm's circulation survived for another three days.

Tropical Storm Bill (2003) Atlantic tropical cyclone

Tropical Storm Bill was a tropical storm that affected the Gulf Coast of the United States in the summer of 2003. The second storm of the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season, Bill developed from a tropical wave on June 29 to the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. It slowly organized as it moved northward, and reached a peak of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) shortly before making landfall in south-central Louisiana. Bill quickly weakened over land, and as it accelerated to the northeast, moisture from the storm, combined with cold air from an approaching cold front, produced an outbreak of 34 tornadoes. Bill became extratropical on July 2, and was absorbed by the cold front later that day.

Tropical Storm Josephine (1996) Atlantic tropical storm in 1996

Tropical Storm Josephine was an unusual Atlantic tropical storm that moved from west to east across the Gulf of Mexico in October 1996. It formed on October 4 as a tropical depression from the remnants of a cold front. Early in its duration, the system interacted with a ridge over the central United States, which produced strong winds and high tides along the Texas coast. The outer rainbands caused flooding rainfall in southern Texas, and in Louisiana, high tides flooded roads and stranded residents on Grand Isle. Moving generally to the east due to a trough, the depression intensified into a tropical storm on October 6, and the next day reached peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) while approaching the west coast of Florida. Josephine made landfall in Taylor County near peak intensity early on October 8, and soon after became extratropical. While moving ashore, the storm produced a high storm surge reaching 9.3 ft (2.8 m) in Suwannee. High tides flooded about 3,600 houses along the west coast. Josephine also produced heavy rainfall, which flooded hundreds of homes, and high winds, which left 400,000 people without power. The storm also spawned at least 16 tornadoes, one of which damaged 130 homes.

Tropical Storm Alberto (2006) Atlantic tropical cyclone

Tropical Storm Alberto was the first tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming on June 10 in the northwestern Caribbean, the storm moved generally to the north, reaching a maximum intensity of 70 mph (110 km/h) before weakening and moving ashore in the Big Bend area of Florida on June 13. Alberto then moved through eastern Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia as a tropical depression before becoming extratropical on June 14.

Hurricane Bob (1985) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane

Hurricane Bob was the first of six hurricanes to strike the United States during the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season. The second tropical storm and first hurricane of the year, Bob developed from a tropical wave on July 21 in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Bob began moving east, making landfall southwestern Florida as a weak tropical storm. The storm then turned to the north and quickly intensified to hurricane status on July 24. The next day, it made landfall near Beaufort, South Carolina, becoming one of a record-tying six hurricanes to hit the United States during a single season. Bob quickly weakened over land, and was absorbed by a frontal trough over eastern West Virginia on July 26.

Hurricane Humberto (2007) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2007

Hurricane Humberto was a Category 1 hurricane that formed and intensified faster than any other North Atlantic tropical cyclone on record, before landfall. The ninth named storm and third hurricane of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Humberto developed on September 12, 2007, in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico,. The tropical cyclone rapidly strengthened and struck High Island, Texas, with winds of about 90 mph (150 km/h) early on September 13. It steadily weakened after moving ashore, and on September 14, Humberto began dissipating over northwestern Georgia as it interacted with an approaching cold front.

Tropical Storm Fay (2008) Atlantic tropical storm in 2008

Tropical Storm Fay was a strong and unusual tropical storm that moved erratically across the state of Florida and the Caribbean Sea. The sixth named storm of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season, Fay formed from a vigorous tropical wave on August 15 over the Dominican Republic. It passed over the island of Hispaniola, into the Gulf of Gonâve, across the island of Cuba, and made landfall on the Florida Keys late in the afternoon of August 18 before veering into the Gulf of Mexico. It again made landfall near Naples, Florida, in the early hours of August 19 and progressed northeast through the Florida peninsula, emerging into the Atlantic Ocean near Melbourne on August 20. Extensive flooding took place in parts of Florida as a result of its slow movement. On August 21, it made landfall again near New Smyrna Beach, Florida, moving due west across the Panhandle, crossing Gainesville and Panama City, Florida. As it zigzagged from water to land, it became the first storm in recorded history to make landfall in Florida four times. Thirty-six deaths were blamed on Fay. The storm also resulted in one of the most prolific tropical cyclone related tornado outbreaks on record. A total of 81 tornadoes touched down across five states, three of which were rated as EF2. Damage from Fay was heavy, estimated at $560 million.

Effects of Hurricane Katrina in Florida

The effects of Hurricane Katrina in Florida were in both in the southern portion of the state and in the panhandle. After developing on August 23, Katrina made landfall near the border of Broward and Miami-Dade counties with 80 mph (130 km/h) winds on August 25. While it was crossing the state, the hurricane's convection was asymmetrical, primarily located to the south and east of the center. As a result, high rainfall totals occurred in the Miami area, peaking at 16.43 in (417 mm) in Perrine. The rains caused flooding, and the combination of rains and winds downed trees and power lines, leaving 1.45 million people without power. Damage in South Florida was estimated at $523 million (2005 USD), mostly as a result of crop damage. Further south, the hurricane spawned a tornado in the Florida Keys. In the island chain, Katrina dropped heavy rainfall and gusty winds.

Tropical Storm Gordon (2018) Atlantic tropical storm in 2018

Tropical Storm Gordon was a strong tropical storm that caused damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States in early September 2018. The seventh named storm of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season, Gordon developed from a tropical wave that was first monitored in the Caribbean Sea on August 30. The wave moved west-northwestward toward the east coast of Florida while gradually organizing. The disturbance was marked as Potential Tropical Cyclone Seven on September 2 while near the Bahamas, and early the next day, it became Tropical Storm Gordon. The system made landfall on the southwest coast of Florida shortly afterwards. Steady intensification began after it moved off the coast of Florida and into the Gulf of Mexico. Gordon reached its peak intensity as a high-end tropical storm late on September 4 before making landfall just east of Pascagoula, Mississippi shortly afterwards. Gordon then rapidly weakened as it tracked inland, and degenerated into a remnant low on September 6. Gordon's remnants lingered over Arkansas for two days, before opening up into a low-pressure trough on September 8. At least three deaths were attributed to the storm, and Gordon caused approximately $200–250 million in damages, making it the third-costliest tropical cyclone in the United States for the 2018 season.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Stacy R. Stewart (2006-01-28). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Tammy" (PDF). National Hurricane Center . Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  2. Knabb (October 5, 2005). "Tropical Storm Tammy Special Discussion One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
  3. Franklin (October 5, 2005). "Tropical Storm Tammy Discussion Three". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
  4. Knabb (2005-10-06). "Tropical Storm Tammy Advisory Number 5". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  5. Franklin (2005-10-06). "Tropical Storm Tammy Advisory Number 6". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  6. National Hurricane Center. "Discussion for Tropical Storm Tammy, 11 a.m. EDT, October 6, 2005". NOAA. Retrieved May 10, 2006.
  7. 1 2 Knabb (2005-10-05). "Tropical Storm Tammy Special Advisory Number 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
  8. 1 2 Avila (2005-10-05). "Tropical Storm Tammy Intermediate Advisory Number 3A". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
  9. "Tropical Storm Tammy Slams Into Florida". Fox News. Associated Press. October 5, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
  10. Petty Officer Bobby Nash (2005-10-05). "Coast Guard Urges Mariners to Prepare for Tammy". Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Coast Guard Seventh District. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
  11. Staff Writer (2005-10-05). "Ga. Residents, Officials Brace For Tammy". News 4 Georgia. Archived from the original on 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
  12. 1 2 Staff Writers (2008-10-22). "Tammy recap". Palm Beach Post. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  13. Marcy Trenholm (2008-10-11). "Tropical Storm Tammy Challenges Trysail College Regatta". Larchmont Gazette. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  14. "NCDC Event Report: Florida Lightning". National Climatic Data Center. 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2009.[ permanent dead link ]
  15. 1 2 Russ Bynum (2005-10-06). "Tropical Storm Tammy brings heavy rain, gusts to Georgia". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  16. "Tammy causes flooding in south Georgia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 2005-10-07. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  17. Staff Writer (2008-10-09). "Sewers Overwhelmed by Tropical Storm Tammy". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  18. Rowland Alston (2005-10-16). "Dry Gardens Finally get a Soaking". The State. p. G3. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  19. Computer Generated (2005-10-01). "History for KSCCLEMS1". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  20. "NCDC Event Report: Georgia Tropical Storm". National Climatic Data Center. 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2009.[ permanent dead link ]
  21. Tom Grazulis; Bill McCaul (2007). "List of Known Tropical Cyclones Which Have Spawned Tornadoes". The Tornado Project. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  22. "NCDC Event Report: Georgia Tornado". National Climatic Data Center. 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2009.[ permanent dead link ]
  23. David M. Roth (2005). "Tropical Storm Tammy Rainfall". Hydrometeorlogical Prediction Center. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
  24. "NCDC Event Report: South Carolina Tropical Storm". National Climatic Data Center. 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2009.[ permanent dead link ]
  25. "Flooding Continues Two Days After Tropical Storm Moves On". News4Jax. Associated Press. October 7, 2005. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
  26. FEMA (August 11, 2008). "FEMA: Significant Flood Events". FEMA. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2008.
  27. Kelly Marshall (October 9, 2008). "Experts: Local shrimpers face another tough year". The Sun News. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
  28. Michals, Chris (September 14, 2020). "Sally takes aim at the Gulf Coast; only one name left for hurricane season". wsls.com. Roanoke, Virginia: WSLS-TV. Retrieved September 14, 2020.