|Severe tropical storm (JMA scale)|
|Category 1-equivalent typhoon (SSHWS)|
|Formed||November 1, 1988|
|Dissipated||November 6, 1988|
|Highest winds|| 10-minute sustained: 110 km/h (70 mph)|
1-minute sustained: 120 km/h (75 mph)
|Lowest pressure||975 hPa (mbar); 28.79 inHg|
|Fatalities||123 confirmed, 600 presumed|
|Damage||$22.38 million (1988 USD)|
|Areas affected||Philippines, Vietnam|
|Part of the 1988 Pacific typhoon season|
Tropical Storm Tess known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Welpring was the second of three tropical cyclones to directly impact the Philippines in a two-week time frame in 1988. An area of disturbed weather near the Philippines was first observed on November 1. Following an increase in organization, the disturbance was designated as a tropical cyclone on November 4. Moving west, Tess steadily strengthened due to favorable conditions aloft. During the evening of November 5, Tess was estimated to have achieved its highest intensity, with winds of 115 km/h (70 mph). Rapid weakening then ensured as Tess neared Vietnam, and after making landfall in the country on November 6, Tess dissipated the next day.
Tropical Storm Tess and its precursor disturbance brought extensive flooding to much of the central Philippines. In Cebu, eight people were killed, and many homes and bridges were destroyed. The province of Palawan, a geographically isolated island from the rest of the country, suffered severe damage due to mudslides and flooding. There, 75 people were confirmed to have died, and 600 others were later presumed to have perished. In the suburbs of the capital city of Manila, 3,000 people were forced to flee their homes due to rising floodwaters. In all, there were a total of 686 deaths in the country. Nationwide, 144,136 people were evacuated to shelter, and 86 homes were destroyed, with 430 others receiving damage. Damage in the country totaled $11.38 million (1988 USD). In addition to the impact on the Philippines, Tess killed 37 people and inflicted $11 million in damage in Vietnam.
In what would later become the second of two tropical cyclones to form within the basin during November 1988, 1. Six hours later, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) started following the system. The same day, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration also started to track the storm and assigned it with the local name Welpring. Over the next three days, the disturbance tracked southwest while embedded within the northeasterly flow of the winter monsoon. After passing through the Visayas island group and emerging into the open water of the Sulu Sea, the system began to increase in organization. At 17:30 UTC on November 3, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. At 00:00 UTC the next day, the JTWC classified the system as a tropical depression, citing satellite intensity estimates of 55 km/h (35 mph), while the JMA upgraded it to tropical storm intensity. At this time, the tropical cyclone was centered 620 km (385 mi) south of Manila.an area of disturbed weather was first noted by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) early on November
Almost immediately after the upgrades, the storm's track shifted from southwestward to westward in response to a trough weakening to the north; this also weakened the pressure gradient between the trough and a nearby ridge starting on November 4. In turn, wind shear decreased and allowed the storm to intensify. Following an increase in satellite intensity estimates, the JTWC upgraded the depression into a tropical storm, and named it Tess, at 06:00 UTC. As the storm tracked over the South China Sea, strengthening continued. On November 5, the JMA upgraded Tess into a severe tropical storm. At midday, the JTWC estimated that Tess attained typhoon intensity, which was also its maximum intensity of 120 km/h (75 mph). At 18:00 UTC on November 5, the JMA reported that Tess attained winds of 115 km/h (70 mph) and a barometric pressure of 975 mbar (30 inHg), its peak intensities in terms of both winds and pressure. Data from the JTWC suggests the storm weakened rapidly as it approached Vietnam. At 00:00 UTC on November 6, the JTWC stopped tracking the system; however, intensity estimates from the JMA had only decreased slightly during this time, and continued to classify Tess as a severe tropical storm. Tess then moved across the Mekong River delta, moving ashore midday about 240 km (150 mi) east-northeast of Ho Chi Minh City. By early November 7, the JMA stopped tracking the system.
By moving across the central Philippines in its formative phases, Tess became the second tropical cyclone to impact the island group within two weeks; people homeless. Eight of those deaths occurred in Cebu. There, the storm brought flash flooding that destroyed numerous bridges and homes. Palawan Island, a rugged, sparsely populated island chain isolated from the rest of the country, sustained widespread destruction from Tess, primarily due to flooding and landslides. On the island, the town of Rizal sustained the worst damage from the storm. There, 23 fatalities occurred. The island's north-south coastal road was covered in 7.5 ft (2.3 m) of water. By November 10, 75 people were confirmed to have been killed throughout Palawan, with 600 others subsequently listed as missing by the Philippine Red Cross. The missing were presumed dead by December 14. In part because the water level was already 5.5 ft (1.7 m) above normal due to Ruby, Laguna Lake, situated on the southeastern side of the capital city of Manila, overflowed its banks. This forced 3,000 people, mainly in the suburbs of Pasig, Taguig and Pateros, to evacuate their homes. Outside Palawan Island, Tess only resulted in 11 fatalities only in the island chain, all due to flooding.the first was Typhoon Ruby. At least nine people were killed in the provinces of Cebu and Bukidnon, where the storm also rendered 600
Nationwide, the storm was blamed for 686 deaths. Additionally, 144,136 people or 28,824 families were evacuated to shelters as a result of the flooding. A total of 86 homes were destroyed and 430 others were damaged. Furthermore, damage to private property totaled $7.58 million (1988 USD). In addition, the storm caused $3.8 million in damage to agriculture. Overall, the nation suffered $11.38 million damage due to the cyclone.
Even though the storm had weakened drastically by this time, Tess killed 37 people in Vietnam, destroyed thousands of homes, and inflicted $11 million in damage. Following Tess, Philippine President Corazon Aquino visited the provinces of Pangasinan and Pampanga, both situated to the north of Manila to tour damaged areas, distribute relief, aid and inaugurate an infrastructure project. A mere few days after Tess, Typhoon Skip became the third cyclone to hit the archipelago in two weeks.
Typhoon Mike, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ruping, of 1990 was the strongest typhoon to hit the Philippines since Typhoon Irma in 1981. Forming from an area of persistent convection over the Caroline Islands, Mike was first designated on November 6, 1990 and moved generally westward. Later that day, the depression strengthened to Tropical Storm Mike near Yap. Mike became a typhoon early on November 9, and subsequently entered a period of rapid deepening. Late on November 10, the typhoon reached its maximum intensity of 115 mph (185 km/h), as estimated by the Japanese Meteorological Agency. After weakening slightly, Mike made landfall in the central Philippines, after weakening slightly. The storm weakened considerably due to land interaction, only to briefly re-intensify on November 14. Typhoon Mike turned west-northwest and later north-northwest, avoiding land interaction with Vietnam. Vertical wind shear increased, and on November 15, Mike weakened below typhoon intensity. Early the next day, the storm passed over western Hainan Island, and degraded to a tropical depression that night. After briefly emerging into the Gulf of Tonkin, Mike passed over Northern Vietnam and southern China, where it dissipated on November 18.
Typhoon Ike was the second deadliest tropical cyclone in the 20th century in the Philippines, where it was known as Typhoon Nitang. Ike originated from an area of disturbed weather southeast of Guam on August 21, 1984, and five days later, developed into a tropical depression. Following an increase in organization, the depression attained tropical storm intensity on August 27. Initially tracking west-southwest, the storm gradually gained strength as wind shear resulted relaxed and Ike became a typhoon on August 30. Continuing to rapidly intensity, Ike turned west and attained peak intensity on September 1, with the Japan Meteorological Agency estimating winds of 170 km/h (105 mph). At around 14:00 UTC that day, Ike made landfall on the northeastern tip of Mindanao. The cyclone emerged into the South China Sea on September 3 as a tropical storm before re-intensifying into a typhoon and moving onshore Hainan. Ike then struck the Chinese mainland as a tropical storm in the Guangxi and dissipated on September 6.
Typhoon Nina, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Sisang, was the most intense typhoon to strike the Philippines since Typhoon Irma in 1981. Typhoon Nina originated from an area of convection near the Marshall Islands in mid-November 1987. It gradually became better organized, and on November 19, was first classified as a tropical cyclone. Moving west-northwest, Nina attained tropical storm intensity that evening. Late on November 20, Nina passed through the Chuuk Lagoon. After a brief pause in intensification, Nina intensified into a typhoon on November 22. Two days later, the typhoon intensified suddenly, before attaining its peak 10 minute intensity of 165 km/h (105 mph). During the afternoon of November 25, Nina moved ashore in southern Luzon at the same intensity. It gradually weakened over land, before entering the South China Sea and turning to the north. By November 30, Nina dissipated.
Typhoon Dot, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Saling, was the strongest storm of the 1985 season. Dot originated from a small area of thunderstorm activity in early to mid October. The system was first classified on October 11, and steadily intensified over the next few days. Dot attained typhoon strength on October 15, and subsequently entered a period of explosive deepening, which was not anticipated by forecasters. The next day the intensification rate slowed, but that evening, Dot attained its maximum intensify. A steady weakening trend began on October 17, though the system maintained typhoon intensity through the passage of the Philippines. After entering the South China Sea late on October 18, Dot briefly re-intensified, only to weaken as it approached Vietnam. On October 21, Dot struck Vietnam while still a typhoon, but dissipated the next day over the high terrain of the nation.
Typhoon Ruby, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Unsang, was the strongest typhoon to strike the Philippines in 18 years. The tenth typhoon of the 1988 Pacific typhoon season, Ruby formed from an area of low pressure situated east of the Philippines on October 20. The storm steadily intensified as it moved west, and then west-northwest. After developing an eye, Ruby attained typhoon intensity on October 23 and began to strengthen at a brisker clip. Ruby reached maximum intensity later that day, before moving ashore along the central portion of Luzon early on October 24. The storm steadily weakened over land and this trend only continued after Ruby entered the South China Sea. On October 27, Ruby made a second landfall as a tropical storm on Hainan Island before dissipating the next day.
Typhoon Alex, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Etang, affected the Taiwan, China, and South Korea during July 1987. Typhoon Alex developed from the monsoon trough that spawned a tropical disturbance late on July 21 southwest of Guam which organized into a tropical depression shortly thereafter. The system steadily became better organized, and the next day, a tropical depression had developed. Satellite intensity estimates gradually increased, and on July 23, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Alex. After initially tracking west-northwest, Tropical Storm Alex started tracking northwest. An eye developed on July 24, and on the next day, Alex was classified as a typhoon, when Alex attained its peak intensity of 120 km/h (75 mph) and a minimum barometric pressure of 970 mbar (29 inHg). Alex weakened while tracking more northward, though interaction with Taiwan resulted in a more westward track starting on July 27. The storm struck near Shanghai as a tropical storm, and weakened over land, although it remained identifiable through August 2.
Typhoon Amy was the second typhoon to strike China in a week during mid-July 1991. An area of convection was first observed on July 13 within the vicinity of Yap. A tropical depression developed the next day. While initially tracking westward, the system slowly deepened, becoming Tropical Storm Amy on July 16. After briefly turning northwestward, Amy intensified into a typhoon on July 17. Continuing to intensify as it tracked through the Luzon Strait, Amy reached its peak intensity of 175 km/h (110 mph) on July 18. That evening, the typhoon began to show signs of weakening, although it was still believed to have been a typhoon when it made landfall in the province of Guangdong on July 19, becoming the strongest tropical cyclone to hit the province in 22 years. Once inland, the storm rapidly weakened, and by late on July 20, had dissipated completely.
Typhoon Clara, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rubing, left flooding in the northern Philippines and southern China during September 1981. An area of disturbed weather was first detected on September 11 near Ponape. After moving westward, the system gradually became better organized and thunderstorm activity increased. On September 16, the system attained tropical storm status. Two days later, Clara attained typhoon intensity and subsequently began to deepen at a faster rate. On September 19, Clara reached maximum intensity, before making landfall along the northern tip of Luzon. Clara steadily weakened after interacting with land, but by late on September 20, Clara leveled off in intensity over the South China Sea. The next day, Clara moved ashore to the east-northeast of Hong Kong while still at typhoon intensity before rapidly dissipating over land.
Typhoon Irma, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Daling, affected the Philippines in late June 1985. Typhoon Irma originated from a monsoon trough situated near Guam in the Western Pacific Ocean. It slowly developed, with insufficient organization delaying classification as a tropical cyclone. By June 24, organization improved as the system encountered favorable conditions aloft and the disturbance attained tropical storm intensity the next day. Moving west, Irma gradually deepened, and on June 28, it was believed to have attained typhoon intensity. On the morning of June 27, Irma was upgraded into a typhoon. After passing northeast of the Philippines, Typhoon Irma attained its peak intensity on June 29. Accelerating to the north and then the northeast, Irma steadily weakened as it encountered significantly less favorable conditions. The typhoon made landfall in central Japan on June 30. Irma weakened below typhoon intensity the next day, and later on July 1, Irma transition into an extratropical cyclone. The remnants of the cyclone were tracked until July 7, when it merged with an extratropical low south of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Typhoon Nepartak, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Weng, was a modest tropical cyclone that struck the central Philippines and the southern China island of Hainan in November 2003. Forming as a tropical depression on November 11 between Yap and Guam, the system moved westward and slowly intensified. It received the name Nepartak midday on November 12 from the Japan Meteorological Agency, becoming the 20th named storm of the 2003 Pacific typhoon season. On November 13, Napartak struck Samar in the Philippines and bisected the island chain. Up to four million people lost power, and transportation ground to a halt; over 5,000 individuals became stranded on ships forced to stay in port during the tropical storm. It was reported that 13 individuals lost their lives to the storm in the Philippines.
Typhoon Kim, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Osang, was the second typhoon in a week to directly affect the Philippines during July 1980. Like Typhoon Joe, Kim formed from the near equatorial monsoon trough in the northwestern Pacific Ocean on July 19. The disturbance tracked quickly westward-northwest underneath a subtropical ridge, reaching tropical storm strength on the July 21 and typhoon strength on July 23. After developing an eye, Kim began to rapidly intensify, and during the afternoon of July 24, peaked in intensity as a super typhoon. Several hours later, Kim made landfall over the Philippines, but the storm had weakened considerably by this time. Throughout the Philippines, 40 people were killed, 2 via drownings, and 19,000 others were directly affected. A total of 12,000 homes were destroyed and 5,000 villages were flooded. Less than a week earlier, the same areas were affected by Joe; however, Kim was considered the more damaging of the two typhoons. Land interaction took its toll on Kim, and upon entering the South China Sea, the storm was down below typhoon intensity. Kim continued northwestward but its disrupted circulation prevented re-intensification, and it remained a tropical storm until hitting southern China July 27 to the northeast of Hong Kong, where only slight damage was reported. Later that day, Kim dissipated.
Typhoon Skip, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Yoning, was the final of three tropical cyclones in 1988 to directly impact the Philippines in a two-week time frame. Several areas of disturbed weather developed within the monsoon trough around November 1. One area situated to the south of Guam gradually became better organized, and by late November 3, the system was upgraded into a tropical depression, and a tropical storm later that day. Steady deepening ensued as Skip veered west and the cyclone was upgraded into a typhoon on November 5. The next day, Skip attained its maximum intensity of 145 km/h (90 mph). Shortly after its peak, weakening ensued as the storm tracked across the Philippines. This trend continued once the cyclone entered the South China Sea, initially as a severe tropical storm late on November 7. Slowing down in forward motion, Skip briefly turned west-northwest, then west and finally turned west-southwest before dissipating on November 12.
Typhoon Gerald, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Neneng, affected the Philippines, Taiwan, and China during September 1987. A tropical depression developed on September 4, and within 24 hours, intensified into a tropical storm. After initially moving erratically within the Philippine Sea, Gerald moved west-northwest and then northwest while steadily deepening. Gerald obtained typhoon intensity on September 8, and the following day, attained maximum intensity. Shortly thereafter, the typhoon skirted southwestern Taiwan, which resulted in a steady weakening trend. On September 10, Gerald moved ashore north of Hong Kong near Amoy. Gerald dissipated the next day.
Typhoon Cary, known as Typhoon Ising in the Philippines, was the second of two tropical cyclones to affect Vietnam in a week. An area of disturbed weather developed southwest of Pohnpei on August 6, 1987. The system initially remained disorganized, but by August 14, Cary had attained tropical storm intensity. After initially moving north-northwest, Cary turned west-northwest, although intensification was slow to occur. On August 15, Cary was upgraded into a typhoon, and on August 17, the typhoon peaked in intensity. Typhoon Cary then made landfall in northern Luzon while at peak intensity. Across the Philippines, 954 houses were damaged and an additional 89 were destroyed, which left 55,567 people, or 13,247 families that were either homeless or otherwise sought shelter. Five people died in the country while damage totaled $5.58 million (1987 USD), including $1.45 million from agriculture and $4.13 million from infrastructure. The storm weakened over land, but re-intensified into a typhoon over the South China Sea. On August 21, Typhoon Cary passed just south of Hainan, where hundreds of homes were damaged but no fatalities occurred, and subsequently entered the Gulf of Tonkin. The storm weakened as it approached Vietnam, and on August 23, the storm dissipated inland over Laos. Across Vietnam, almost 40,000 ha of land were flooded or destroyed. Twenty people were killed and many others were injured.
Typhoon Agnes, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Undang, was the final tropical cyclone to affect the Philippines during the 1984 Pacific typhoon season. An area of disturbed weather developed near the equator and the Caroline Islands on October 28. Following an increase in organization, the cyclone was designated a tropical storm on October 31. After tracking northwest initially, Agnes turned west-northwest the next day, a course that the system would maintain for the rest of its lifetime. Agnes intensified into a typhoon on November 2, and on November 4, attained peak intensity. The storm then made landfall on Samar Island, part of the Philippines, at that intensity. The storm weakened over land, but re-intensified over the South China Sea; Agnes obtained a secondary peak intensity on November 6. The next day, Typhoon Agnes moved ashore Vietnam while still at typhoon intensity. The storm rapidly deteriorated over land and dissipated by November 8 over Thailand.
Typhoon Betty, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Aring, was the strongest typhoon to strike the Philippines in ten years. An area of disturbed weather developed on October 27, 1980, near Truk Atoll. After turning east from south, the disturbance was classified as a tropical storm on October 29 as it passed near Guam, causing only minor damage. Following a turn to the west-northwest, Betty attained typhoon intensity the next day. On November 4, Betty peaked in intensity. Later that day, Betty moved ashore over Luzon, introducing a rapid weakening trend. Over land, Betty then began to turn north due to a weakening subtropical ridge to its north and a trough offshore Taiwan. By November 8, Betty, after moving offshore, had completed its transition into an extratropical cyclone, and dissipated that same day.
Typhoon Faith, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Norming, struck both the Philippines and Vietnam during December 1998. A tropical disturbance developed within the vicinity of the western Caroline Islands during early December. At midday on December 8, the system developed into a tropical depression. Tracking northwest at a brisk pace, the depression gradually intensified, and was upgraded into a tropical storm at noon on December 9. Quickly intensifying, Faith turned to the west-northwest, and after tracking near Samar Island on the evening of December 10, Faith attained typhoon intensity. After clipping the northern tip of Palawan Island, the typhoon entered the South China Sea at peak intensity. Across the Philippines, 33 people were killed, with 30 others wounded and 36 others listed missing. A total of 6,423 homes were damaged and 3,234 houses were destroyed, leaving more than 20,000 homeless. Damage was estimated at $25.9 million, with $6.82 million from crops, $15.9 million from public infrastructure, and $3.37 million from private infrastructure.
Typhoon Warren, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Huaning, struck the Philippines and China during July 1988. An area of disturbed weather developed within the vicinity of the Caroline Islands during the second week of July. A tropical depression developed southeast of Guam on July 12, and on the next day, intensified into a tropical storm. Tracking generally west-northwest, Warren deepened into a typhoon on July 14. The storm subsequently entered a period of rapid intensification, commencing with Warren reaching its highest intensity on July 16. The following evening, the typhoon brushed Luzon, resulting in a weakening trend, although Warren was still a typhoon when it made landfall near Shantou. Warren rapidly dissipated inland.
Typhoon Ofelia, known as Typhoon Bising in the Philippines, was the first of two typhoons in 1990 to directly affect the Philippines within a week. Typhoon Ofelia originated from an area of disturbed weather embedded in the monsoon trough situated near the Caroline Islands. Slowly organizing, the disturbance tracked westward, and was designated a tropical depression on June 15. After an increase in convection, the depression was upgraded into a tropical storm on June 17. On June 19, Ofelia turned northwest and after development of a central dense overcast, Ofelia was upgraded into a typhoon late on June 20. After turning north, Ofelia obtained its maximum intensity following the development of an eye. The typhoon skirted past the northeastern tip of Luzon and near the east coast of Taiwan, commencing a rapid weakening trend. On the evening on June 23, Ofelia struck the southern portion of Zhejiang. The storm then began to track north, recurving towards the Korean Peninsula. The storm tracked through the province of Jiangsu, and at 00:00 UTC on June 24, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, only to merge with a frontal zone on June 25.
Typhoon Eli, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Konsing, struck the Philippines and Hainan during mid-July 1992. A weak low pressure system developed in the Philippines Sea on July 7, which became a tropical depression on the next day. The depression tracked west-northwest and strengthened into a tropical storm on July 10. After turning more westward, Eli steadily intensified, and obtained typhoon intensity that evening. The storm attained its highest intensity of 130 km/h (80 mph) early on July 11 before striking northern Luzon. After entering the South China Sea, the storm maintained most of its intensity as it approached Hainan, although agencies disagree on how precisely strong it was. After passing through Hainan late on July 13, Eli passed through the Gulf of Tonkin on the next day before striking Vietnam, where Eli quickly dissipated.