|Tropical storm (JMA scale)|
|Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)|
|Formed||December 26, 2001|
|Dissipated||January 1, 2002|
|Highest winds|| 10-minute sustained:85 km/h (50 mph)|
1-minute sustained:120 km/h (75 mph)
|Lowest pressure||1006 hPa (mbar); 29.71 inHg|
|Damage||$3.6 million (2001 USD)|
|Areas affected||Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia|
|Part of the 2001 Pacific typhoon season |
and the 2001 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
Tropical Storm Vamei (also known as Typhoon Vamei) was a Pacific tropical cyclone that formed closer to the equator than any other tropical cyclone on record. The last storm of the 2001 Pacific typhoon season, Vamei developed on December 26 at 1.4° N in the South China Sea. It strengthened quickly and made landfall along extreme southeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Vamei rapidly weakened into a remnant low over Sumatra on December 28, and the remnants eventually re-organized in the North Indian Ocean. Afterward, the storm encountered strong wind shear once again, and dissipated on January 1, 2002.
Though Vamei was officially designated as a tropical storm, its intensity is disputed; some agencies classify it as a typhoon, based on sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph) and the appearance of an eye. The storm brought flooding and landslides to eastern Peninsular Malaysia, causing $3.6 million in damage (2001 USD, $5.09 million2019 USD) and five deaths.
On December 19, a small low-level circulation was located along the northwest coastline of Borneo; at the same time a plume of cold air progressed southward through the South China Sea on the southeastern periphery of a ridge over the Far East. The vortex drifted southwestward, reaching open water by December 21. The northerly air surge was deflected after interacting with the circulation, and at the same time a portion of the air surge crossed the equator. The southerly flow turned eastward, then northward, and in combination with the northerly flow it wrapped into the vortex, resulting in rapid development of the low-level circulation, just a short distance north of the equator. km (230 mi) east of Singapore within an area of low wind shear, in association with the low-level circulation. Continuing slowly westward, the convection deepened and organized further, and at 1200 UTC on December 26 the disturbance developed into a tropical depression about 230 km (145 mi) east of Singapore, or 156 km (97 mi) north of the equator. This was the first recorded occurrence of a tropical cyclone near the equator.By December 25, an area of scattered convection persisted about 370
The depression strengthened further and officially attained tropical storm status at 0000 UTC on December 27, based on the analysis by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), though the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) unofficially classified it as a tropical storm six hours prior. Shortly thereafter, an eye with a 39 km (24 mi) diameter became apparent on satellite imagery, along with rainbands extending southward to the opposite side of the equator. At 0600 UTC, the JMA first classified the system as Tropical Storm Vamei, about 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Singapore, and the agency estimated the storm attained peak winds of 85 km/h (50 mph) at the same time. However, the JTWC upgraded Vamei to typhoon status with peak winds of 120 km/h (75 mph) (though the JTWC operationally assessed the storm's peak winds to have been 140 km/h (85 mph)), based on a United States Navy ship report from within the eye; a second ship reported wind gusts of 195 km/h (120 mph) in the southern portion of the eyewall. The storm was small and compact, with gales extending about 45 km (30 mi) from its center. At about 0830 UTC on December 27, Vamei made landfall approximately 60 km (35 mi) northeast of Singapore, in the southeastern portion of the Malaysian state of Johor. Initially, the Malaysian Meteorological Department (MetMalaysia) classified the cyclone as a tropical storm, though it was later re-assessed as a typhoon at landfall.
Vamei weakened quickly as it crossed the extreme southern portion of the Malay Peninsula, and late on December 27, the JMA downgraded it to tropical depression status before the cyclone emerged into the Straits of Malacca. UTC, the JMA classified the storm as dissipated. However, convection persisted near the circulation over land, believed to have been caused by the process known as upper-level diffluence. On December 29, what was originally believed to be a separate system reached the southeastern Bay of Bengal. In a post-season re-evaluation, the JTWC classified the system as a continuation of Vamei, based on analysis of satellite imagery that indicated the circulation of Vamei crossed Sumatra without dissipating. Convection re-developed, and late on December 30, the JTWC classified the cyclone as a tropical storm about 390 km (245 mi) west-southwest of the northwestern tip of Sumatra; initially, due to being treated as a separate system, it was classified as Tropical Cyclone 05B. Vamei quickly developed good outflow and organization, though increased wind shear on December 31 rapidly weakened the storm; by late that day, the center was exposed, and Vamei quickly dissipated on January 1, 2002.The JTWC initially maintained it as a minimal tropical storm, though the agency downgraded the storm to depression status as the storm's center again approached land. Early on December 28, Vamei moved ashore on northeastern Sumatra, and at 0600
Vamei formed and reached tropical storm strength at 1.5º N, only 156 km (97 mi) from the equator. This broke the previous record of Typhoon Sarah in the 1956 Pacific typhoon season, which reached tropical storm strength at 2.2º N. Due to a lack of Coriolis effect near the equator, the formation of Vamei was previously considered impossible. However, a study by the Naval Postgraduate School indicated that the probability for a similar equatorial development was at least once every four centuries.
Vamei developed in a vortex that appears every winter along the northwest coast of Borneo and is maintained by the interaction between monsoonal winds and the local topography. Often, the vortex remains near the coastline, and in an analysis of 51 winters, only six reported the vortex as being over the equatorial waters for four days or more. As the area in the South China Sea between Borneo and Singapore is only 665 km (415 mi) wide, a vortex needs to move slowly to develop. A persistent northerly wind surge for more than five days, which is needed to enhance the vortex, is present, on average, nine days each winter. The probability for a pre-existing tropical disturbance to develop into a tropical cyclone is between 10–30 percent. Thus, the conditions which resulted in the formation of Vamei are believed to occur once every 100–400 years.
Four days prior to Vamei moving ashore, the Malaysian Meteorological Department (MetMalaysia) issued storm advisories for potentially affected areas. Subsequently, the agency issued warnings for heavy rainfall, high winds, and rough seas.However, few citizens knew of the passage of the rare storm.
Offshore of Malaysia, two U.S. Navy ships in Vamei's eyewall were damaged by strong winds. mm (8 in) in Senai. Additionally, monsoonal moisture, influenced by the storm, produced moderate to heavy precipitation across various regions of peninsular Malaysia. The passage of the cyclone resulted in flooding and mudslides, which forced the evacuation of more than 13,195 people in Johor and Pahang states into 69 shelters. Along Gunung Pulai, the rainfall caused a landslide which destroyed four houses and killed five people. River flooding was also reported, as a result of the precipitation from Vamei as well as previous rainfall. Damage from the flooding was estimated at RM13.7 million (2001 MYR, $3.6 million 2001 USD). About 40 percent of the damage occurred to crops at a farm in Kota Tinggi. Moderate damage to transportation, education, and health-care facilities was also reported. The Malaysian government provided affected families up to RM5,000 (2001 MYR, $1,300 2001 USD) in assistance for food, clothing, and repairs. Vamei also brought heavy rainfall to Singapore, which caused air traffic disruptions at the Singapore Changi Airport. The passage of the cyclone resulted in many downed trees.Upon moving ashore, the storm brought storm surge damage to portions of southeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Vamei brought strong winds and heavy rainfall to portions of Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, and Selangor as well as to Johor, where rainfall reached over 200
In 2004, the name "Vamei" was retired and replaced with "Peipah", becoming the first retired name since the Japan Meteorological Agency began naming Pacific typhoons in 2000. Vamei was one of seven tropical cyclones in the current naming list that was retired without attaining typhoon status; the others were Tropical Storm Yanyan in 2003, Tropical Storm Bilis in 2006, Tropical Storm Washi in 2011, Tropical Storm Sonamu in 2013, Tropical Storm Kai-tak in 2017, and Tropical Storm Rumbia in 2018.
The 2003 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average yearlong period of tropical cyclogenesis exhibiting the development of 45 tropical depressions, of which 21 became named storms; of those, 14 became typhoons. Though every month with the exception of February and March featured tropical activity, most storms developed from May through October. During the season, tropical cyclones affected the Philippines, Japan, China, the Korean Peninsula, Indochina, and various islands in the western Pacific.
The 2002 Pacific typhoon season was an active season, with many tropical cyclones affecting Japan and China. Every month had tropical activity, with most storms forming from July through October. Overall, there were 44 tropical depressions declared officially or unofficially, of which 26 became named storms; of those, there were 15 typhoons, which is the equivalent of a minimal hurricane, while 8 of the 15 typhoon intensified into super typhoons unofficially by the JTWC.
The 1987 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1987, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Tropical storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.
Severe Cyclonic Storm Agni was a tropical cyclone of the 2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season notable for its record proximity to the equator. It was the second North Indian Ocean cyclone to receive a name, after Onil earlier in the year. Agni formed on November 28 well to the southwest of India in the Arabian Sea, and steadily intensified as it tracked northwestward. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated peak 1 minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph), while the India Meteorological Department (IMD) estimated peak 3 minute sustained winds of 100 km/h (65 mph); the IMD is the official warning center for the north Indian Ocean. After peaking, it weakened due to wind shear, dry air, and cooler waters, and the JTWC issued its final advisory on December 3 as it approached the coast of Somalia. The remnants of Agni moved along the Somalian coastline until dissipating on December 5.
Typhoon Isa was the first of eleven super-typhoons to occur during the 1997 Pacific typhoon season. The second tropical cyclone of the season, Isa developed from a disturbance in the monsoon trough near the Caroline Islands on April 12. It moved erratically at first, though after attaining tropical storm status it curved westward due to the subtropical ridge to its north. Isa very gradually intensified, and on April 20 the typhoon reached peak 1-min winds of 270 km/h (165 mph), as reported by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Japan Meteorological Agency reported maximum 10-min winds of 155 km/h (100 mph). After turning northward, it accelerated to the northeast, and merged with a larger extratropical cyclone on April 24.
The 2001 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was fairly quiet, although activity was evenly spread between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. There were six depressions tracked by the India Meteorological Department (IMD), which is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the northern Indian Ocean. The agency also tracked four cyclonic storms, which have maximum winds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) sustained over 3 minutes. The American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) tracked an additional storm – Tropical Storm Vamei – which crossed over from the South China Sea at a record-low latitude.
Typhoon Neoguri, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ambo, was the earliest tropical cyclone on record to strike The People's Republic of China. The first named storm in the 2008 Pacific typhoon season, named after the Korean word for raccoon dog, it formed from a low pressure area on April 13 to the east of the Philippine island of Mindanao, and after crossing the island it intensified into a tropical storm in the South China Sea. Environmental conditions allowed for quick strengthening, with Neoguri attaining typhoon status on April 16. The typhoon reached its peak intensity on April 18 as it approached the island of Hainan, and subsequently it turned northward. Due to increased wind shear and cooler waters, Neoguri rapidly weakened and made landfall as a minimal tropical storm in southern China on April 19.
The 2009 Pacific typhoon season was a below average season that spawned only 22 named storms, 13 typhoons, and five super typhoons. It was also recognized as the deadliest season in the Philippines for decades. The first half of the season was very quiet whereas the second half of the season was extremely active. The season's first named storm, Kujira, developed on May 3 while the season's last named storm, Nida, dissipated on December 3.
Typhoon Maria was a minimal typhoon which brushed the southeastern coast of Japan during early August 2006. The seventh named storm of the 2006 Pacific typhoon season, Maria formed out of a tropical depression over the open waters of the western Pacific Ocean. On August 5, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) classified the depression as a tropical storm while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) kept it as a depression. The storm quickly strengthened into a typhoon the next day, reaching its peak intensity with winds of 130 km/h early on August 6. The storm gradually weakened as it began to recurve, causing it to parallel the southeastern coast of Japan. On August 9, Maria weakened into a tropical depression and later into an extratropical cyclone before dissipating on August 15. Maria had only minor effects in Japan, mainly heavy rains which were estimated to have peaked over 400 mm (15.7 in) on the Izu Peninsula. One person was killed after being struck by lightning and six others were injured.
Severe Tropical Storm Chanthu, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Gener, was a strong tropical storm that produced deadly flooding in Vietnam and Thailand. Originating from an area of low pressure on June 5, 2004, Chanthu was first declared a tropical depression near southern Leyte Island in the Philippines. Tracking west-northwestward, the depression intensified into a tropical storm over the central Philippines before entering the South China Sea. Once over the warm waters of the sea, the system quickly intensified, attaining its peak 10-minute winds of 110 km/h (70 mph) and 1-minute winds of 140 km/h (85 mph). On June 12, the storm made landfall in Vietnam before quickly weakening over land. By June 13, the system had weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated two days later.
The 2011 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season that produced a total of 21 named storms, 8 typhoons, and four super typhoons. This season was much more active than the previous season, although both seasons were below the Pacific typhoon average of 26. The season ran throughout 2011, though most tropical cyclone tend to develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Aere, developed on May 7 while the season's last named storm, Washi dissipated on December 19.
The 2014 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season, featuring 23 tropical storms, 11 typhoons, 8 super typhoons, and 7 Category 5 typhoons. The season's peak months August and September saw minimal activity caused by an unusually strong and a persistent suppressing phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The season ran throughout 2014, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season began with the development of Tropical Storm Lingling on January 18, and ended after Tropical Storm Jangmi which dissipated on January 1 of the next year.
Typhoon Alex, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Etang, affected the Taiwan, China, and South Korea during July 1987. Typhoon Alex developed from the monsoon trough that spawned a tropical disturbance late on July 21 southwest of Guam which organized into a tropical depression shortly thereafter. The system steadily became better organized, and the next day, a tropical depression had developed. Satellite intensity estimates gradually increased, and on July 23, the depression had become Tropical Storm Alex. After initially tracking west-northwest, Tropical Storm Alex started tracking northwest. An eye developed on July 24, and on the next day, Alex was classified as a typhoon, and attained its peak intensity of 120 km/h and a minimum barometric pressure of 970 mbar. Alex weakened while tracking more northward, though interaction with Taiwan resulted in a more westward track on July 27. The storm struck near Shanghai as a tropical storm, and weakened over land, although it remained identifiable through August 2.
Typhoon Cecil, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Loleng, was a mid-season tropical cyclone that affected Japan and South Korea during August 1982. An area of disturbed weather formed to the north of Truk on July 31 and over the next several days tracked westward. Following an increase in shower activity and a decrease in wind shear, a tropical depression developed on August 4. Two days later, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm. After turning northwestward and then northward, Ceil intensified into a typhoon on August 7, and then began to deepen at a rapid clip. On August 8, Cecil attained its maximum intensity as it brushed Taiwan. There, 19 people were killed, including 4 in Wugu District, where 2,800 families sough shelter. After pulling away from Taiwan, Typhoon Cecil moved northwestward, and then on August 10, turned to the north-northeast. Colder air, cooler waters, and higher shear contributed to a weakening trend, and Cecil was downgraded to a tropical storm on August 11. Although Cecil passed east of Japan, it came close enough to the country to drop heavy rains. Nation-wide, three people were killed and two were injured. A total of 2,100 households lost power in Hinokage. On August 14, Cecil turned east and struck South Korea as a minimal tropical storm before dissipating over the Sea of Japan. Throughout South Korea, 35 people were killed, 28 others were missing, and 28 others sustained injuries. Almost 1,300 houses were flooded, which resulted in 6,200 homeless. Damage was estimated at US$30 million.
Typhoon Mitag, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Basyang, was the first super typhoon on record in the month of March. The second storm of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Mitag developed from a trough near the equator on February 25 near the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). It moved westward through the archipelago and intensified into a typhoon before passing near Yap on March 2. High winds and heavy rainfall affected the state, resulting in an islandwide power outage and destroying hundreds of houses. Mitag caused severe crop damage that resulted in food shortages. The rainfall and storm surge flooded much of the coastline as well as Yap's capital, Colonia. Damage totaled $150 million, mostly from crop damage. There was one death related to the storm's aftermath.
Typhoon Rammasun, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Florita, was the first of four typhoons to contribute to heavy rainfall and deadly flooding in the Philippines in July 2002. The fifth tropical cyclone of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Rammasun developed around the same time as Typhoon Chataan, only further to the west. The storm tracked northwestward toward Taiwan, and on July 2 it attained its peak intensity with winds of 160 km/h (100 mph). Rammasun turned northward, passing east of Taiwan and China. In Taiwan, the outer rainbands dropped rainfall that alleviated drought conditions. In China, the rainfall occurred after previously wet conditions, resulting in additional flooding, although damage was less than expected; there was about $85 million in crop and fishery damage in one province.
Tropical Storm Vongfong affected China after a deadly flood season. The 14th named storm of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Vongfong developed as a tropical depression on August 10. Initially it was disorganized due to hostile conditions, and it failed to intensify significantly before crossing the Philippine island of Luzon. There, flooding forced 3,500 people to evacuate their homes. In the Philippines, the storm killed 35 people and caused $3.3 million in damage.
Typhoon Lupit, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Yoyoy, destroyed the food supply in several small islands in Yap State in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). It formed on November 18, 2003, from the monsoon trough to the west of the Marshall Islands. Early in its duration, it moved generally to the west or west-southwest. On November 21, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Lupit, the 21st storm named by the Japan Meteorological Agency of the 2003 Pacific typhoon season. Two days later, it strengthened into a typhoon and developed an eye. Lupit later began a prolonged movement to the northwest, during which it passed near several islands in Yap State. The typhoon reached peak intensity on November 26, with peak 10‑minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). It later weakened due to increasing wind shear and drier air, and after recurving to the northeast, Lupit became extratropical south of Japan on December 2.
Typhoon Wayne known in the Philippines as Typhoon Katring was an intense tropical cyclone that brought significant flooding to the Philippines in July 1983. The typhoon originated from an area of disturbed weather that formed far from land towards the end of July. Late on July 22, Wayne developed gale-force winds while moving west. The next day, it was estimated to have become a typhoon, and Wayne subsequently entered a period of rapid deepening. During the morning hours of July 24, the typhoon was estimated to have reached its peak intensity of 205 km/h (125 mph), but soon began to weaken due to interaction with land. By the time it moved ashore in southern China on July 25, Wayne had weakened considerably. After moving inland, Wayne weakened rapidly. The following day, Wayne was no longer a tropical cyclone.
Tropical Storm Podul, known in the Philippines as Tropical Depression Zoraida, was a weak but destructive tropical cyclone that affected the Philippines shortly after the devastating Typhoon Haiyan. The 31st named storm of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Podul developed as a tropical depression on November 11 between Palau and the Philippine island of Mindanao. The system moved west-northwestward and struck Davao Oriental in Mindanao on November 12, bringing heavy rainfall that killed two people and disrupted relief efforts following Haiyan. After crossing the Philippines, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Podul on November 14. Shortly thereafter, the storm struck southeastern Vietnam, and its circulation dissipated on November 15. In Vietnam, Podul produced heavy rainfall that resulted in severe flooding. The storm damaged or destroyed 427,258 houses, and overall damage was estimated at 1.5 trillion₫. Podul killed 42 people in the country and caused 74 injuries.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tropical Storm Vamei .|