|Tropical Storm (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||October 19, 2018|
|Dissipated||October 23, 2018|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained:50 mph (85 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||1002 mbar (hPa); 29.59 inHg|
|Damage||$7.05 million (2018 USD)|
|Areas affected||Central America, Southwestern Mexico|
|Part of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season|
Tropical Storm Vicente was a weak and small tropical cyclone affected the southwestern Mexico in late October 2018, causing deadly flooding and mudslides. The twenty-first named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Vicente originated from a trough of low pressure that formed within a large area of disturbed weather near Central America early on October 19. Around midday, the disturbance organized into a tropical depression, which prompted the National Hurricane Center to begin issuing advisories. Later in day, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm and was assigned the name Vicente. Despite having only been a weak tropical storm, Vicente developed an intermittent eye-like feature. Unfavorable conditions prevented strengthening until late on October 20. At that time, Vicente peaked with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar (29.59 inHg). A day later, Vicente began to weaken due increasing wind shear before slightly restrengthening early on October 22. On October 23, Vicente weakened into a tropical depression. Later in the day, Vicente degenerated into a remnant low after making landfall in southwestern Mexico, before dissipating soon afterward.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record in the Eastern Pacific basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.
Vicente brought heavy rains in Mexico, which caused flooding and mudslides and killed 16 individuals.
Tropical Storm Vicente originated from a tropical wave located over the Central America on October 16. On October 17, the wave emerged into the Pacific, and deep convection increased as it moved along a monsoon trough.The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that an elongated low-pressure area developed to the south of Guatemala later that day. The original low continued to moved west-northwestward an ultimately became Hurricane Willa. Early on October 19, a new trough of low pressure developed to the east of the original low, within a broad area of disturbed weather. The convection became more organized as it moved slowly west-northwestward. At 06:00 UTC, the low developed into a tropical depression. Twelve hours later, the depression intensified to a tropical storm and was assigned the name Vicente. At that time, the NHC noted that although Vicente was a tiny tropical cyclone, it had well-defined convective banding.
Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.
Central America is located on the southern tip of North America, or is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas, bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The combined population of Central America has been estimated to be 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.
Atmospheric convection is the result of a parcel-environment instability, or temperature difference layer in the atmosphere. Different lapse rates within dry and moist air masses lead to instability. Mixing of air during the day which expands the height of the planetary boundary layer leads to increased winds, cumulus cloud development, and decreased surface dew points. Moist convection leads to thunderstorm development, which is often responsible for severe weather throughout the world. Special threats from thunderstorms include hail, downbursts, and tornadoes.
Soon afterward, Vicente's circulation was disrupted by moderate northwesterly wind shear as it paralleled to the Guatemalan coast. The NHC noted that Vicente's low-level circulation center was almost completely exposed. 29 °C (84 °F) allowed Vicente to slowly intensity. Late on October 20, Vicente accelerated and turned to the west under the influence of the Gulf of Tehuantepec gap wind and a strong subtropical ridge. The storm reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar (29.59 inHg) at 18:00 UTC, while passing within 115 mi (185 km) south of the Oaxaca–Chiapas border. Vicente remained a compact tropical cyclone, as its tropical storm-force winds extended outwards just 25 mi (40 km) from the center.Despite this, Vicente occasionally displayed an eye-like feature, and sea surface temperature of
Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City.
The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.
Vicente turned to the south-southwest on October 21. mph (45 km/h). Vicente dissipated later that day, over the mountain terrain of Mexico.The storm began to weaken later that day, due to increasing north-northeasterly wind shear, and the low-level circulation center was exposed. Vicente slightly strengthened on October 22, after developed a burst of deep convection developed and a curved banding features. At the same time, Vicente turned to the north-northwest, as the storm moved along the southwestern side of a mid-level ridge. However, this strengthening trend was short-lived, as the outflow from larger circulation of Hurricane Willa to the west produced strong northeasterly wind shear. The deep convection were limited and sporadic, and the storm became disorganized. At 06:00 UTC on October 23, Vicente weakened to a tropical depression, as the convection continued to deteriorate. At 13:30 UTC, the poorly organized system made landfall near Playa Azul in the Mexican state of Michoacán, with winds of 30
Outflow, in meteorology, is air that flows outwards from a storm system. It is associated with ridging, or anticyclonic flow. In the low levels of the troposphere, outflow radiates from thunderstorms in the form of a wedge of rain-cooled air, which is visible as a thin rope-like cloud on weather satellite imagery or a fine line on weather radar imagery. Low-level outflow boundaries can disrupt the center of small tropical cyclones. However, outflow aloft is essential for the strengthening of a tropical cyclone. If this outflow is undercut, the tropical cyclone weakens. If two tropical cyclones are in proximity, the upper level outflow from the system to the west can limit the development of the system to the east.
Playa Azul is a beachside town in the Mexican State of Michoacán. The city lives from tourism and fishing.
Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. The State is divided into 113 municipalities and its capital city is Morelia. The city was named after José María Morelos, one of the main heroes of the Mexican War of Independence.
On October 23, between 8:00–8:30 a.m. CDT (13:00–13:30 UTC), Vicente made landfall as a tropical depression near Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán. municipalities, 21 of which were isolated by flood waters. At least 13 people died throughout the state, 6 of whom died in a landslide in San Pedro Ocotepec. Four other persons traveling from San Juan Metaltepec disappeared during a landslide. The Mexican Army and Navy alongside State Police deployed 10,000 personnel to assist in recovery efforts.The system quickly degenerated into a remnant low after moving ashore. The system brought heavy rainfall to the region, particularly in Oaxaca, that caused widespread flooding and mudslides. Multiple rivers in the state overtopped their banks and inundated nearby communities. A landslide in Santiago Choapam destroyed three homes. Emergency declarations were issued for 167
The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
Lázaro Cárdenas is a port city that with its surrounding municipality is located in the southern part of the Mexican state of Michoacán. It was formerly known as Los Llanitos, but changed its name as a tribute to Lázaro Cárdenas del Río, a Michoacán-born politician who was president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940.
Oaxaca, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 are governed by the system of usos y costumbres with recognized local forms of self-governance. Its capital city is Oaxaca de Juárez.
Fringe effects from the storm triggered flooding in Veracruz, leaving three people dead.Agricultural loss in Colima were about MX$136 million (US$7.05 million). Due to the unsettled weather produced by Vicente and the nearby Hurricane Willa, numerous oil tankers were unable to unload fuel at ports in Manzanillo and Tuxpan. Combined with the closure of a major pipeline that transports petroleum to Guadalajara, this caused a fuel shortage in Jalisco, with some 500 gas stations being affected.
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with the Mexico city, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez.
Colima, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Colima, is one of the 32 states that make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It shares its name with its capital and main city, Colima.
The Mexican peso is the currency of Mexico. Modern peso and dollar currencies have a common origin in the 15th–19th century Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign, "$". The Mexican peso is the 10th most traded currency in the world, the third most traded currency from America, and the most traded currency from Latin America.
Around the same time, Vicente and Willa together forced the Norwegian Bliss cruise ship to divert to San Diego, California.
The 2000 Atlantic hurricane season was the first Atlantic hurricane season without a tropical cyclone in the month of July since 1993. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was slightly above average due to a La Niña weather pattern although most of the storms were weak. The first cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed in the southern Gulf of Mexico on June 7 and dissipated after an uneventful duration. However, it would be almost two months before the first named storm, Alberto, formed near Cape Verde; Alberto also dissipated with no effects on land. Several other tropical cyclones—Tropical Depression Two, Tropical Depression Four, Chris, Ernesto, Nadine, and an unnamed subtropical storm—did not impact land. Five additional storms—Tropical Depression Nine, Florence, Isaac, Joyce, and Leslie—minimally affected land areas.
The 2007 Pacific hurricane season was a below-average Pacific hurricane season, featuring one major hurricane. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the region. The first tropical cyclone of the season, Alvin, developed on May 27, while the final system of the year, Kiko, dissipated on October 23. Due to unusually strong wind shear, activity fell short of the long-term average, with a total of 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 1 major hurricane. At the time, 2007 featured the second-lowest value of the Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index since reliable records began in 1971. Two tropical cyclones – Cosme and Flossie – crossed into the central Pacific basin during the year, activity below the average of 4 to 5 systems.
Hurricane Dora was one of few tropical cyclones to track across all three north Pacific basins. The fourth named storm, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 1999 Pacific hurricane season, Dora developed on August 6 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. Forming as a tropical depression, it gradually strengthened and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dora later that day. Thereafter, Dora began heading in a steadily westward, before becoming a hurricane on August 8. Under warm sea surface temperatures (SST's) and low wind shear, the storm continued to intensify, eventually peaking as a 140 mph (220 km/h) Category 4 hurricane on August 12. While passing south of Hawaii, Dora significantly fluctuated in intensity, ranging from peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane to a low-end Category 1 hurricane. While crossing the International Dateline on August 20, Dora weakened to a tropical storm. After weakening to a tropical depression on August 22, Dora dissipated on August 23 while centered several hundred miles north of Wake Island.
Hurricane Wilma was the most intense tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin on record, with an atmospheric pressure of 882 hPa. Wilma's destructive journey began in the second week of October 2005. A large area of disturbed weather developed across much of the Caribbean Sea and gradually organized to the southeast of Jamaica. By late on October 15, the system was sufficiently organized for the National Hurricane Center to designate it as Tropical Depression Twenty-Four.
The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active Pacific hurricane season that saw an unusually high number of tropical cyclones pass west of the Baja California Peninsula. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta on May 14 the season slightly exceeded these bounds.
The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was the costliest Pacific hurricane season on record, with a total of about $4.2 billion in damages. The season produced above normal activity; however, the majority of the storms were weak. The season officially began on May 15, 2013 in the Eastern Pacific and started on June 1, 2013 in the Central Pacific. Both ended on November 30, 2013. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. However, the formation of a storm is possible at any time.
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Hurricane Adrian was an intense, albeit short-lived early-season category 4 hurricane that took part during the 2011 Pacific hurricane season. Adrian originated from an area of disturbed weather which had developed during the course of early June, off the Pacific coast of Mexico. On June 7, it acquired a sufficiently organized structure with deep convection to be classified as a tropical cyclone, and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated it as Tropical Depression One-E, the first one of 2011. It further strengthened to be upgraded into a tropical storm later that day. Adrian moved rather slowly; briefly recurving northward after being caught in the steering winds. After steady intensification, it was upgraded into a hurricane on June 9. The storm subsequently entered a phase of rapid intensification, developing a distinct eye with good outflow in all quadrants. Followed by this period of rapid intensification, it obtained sustained winds fast enough to be considered a major hurricane and reached its peak intensity as a category 4 hurricane that evening.
The 2012 Pacific hurricane season was an above-average year in which seventeen named storms formed. The hurricane season officially began on May 15 with the formation of Tropical Storm Aletta in the East Pacific—defined as the region east of 140°W—and on June 1 in the central Pacific—defined as the region west of 140°W to the International Date Line—and ended on November 30 in both basins. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when most tropical cyclones form. The final cyclone of the year, Tropical Storm Rosa, dissipated on November 3.
The 2013 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average season, featuring the fewest hurricanes since 1982. Although Tropical Storm Andrea formed on June 5, the season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's final storm, an unnamed subtropical storm, dissipated on December 7.
Hurricane Cosme caused flooding along the Pacific coast of Mexico in June 2013. The third named tropical cyclone of the 2013 Pacific hurricane season, the storm system formed from a tropical wave south of Manzanillo, Colima, on June 23. The cyclone intensified into a tropical storm on June 24, and soon after strengthened into a hurricane on June 25. Early the following day, Cosme attained its peak intensity as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 980 mbar. However, Cosme then began to encounter stable air and lower sea surface temperatures, causing the system to weaken to a tropical storm late on June 26. The system continued to weaken and degenerated into a remnant low pressure surface trough about 690 mi (1,110 km) west-southwest of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico, on June 27. The remnants persisted until dissipating well east-southeast of the Hawaiian Islands on July 1.
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Tropical Storm Carlotta was a tropical cyclone that caused flooding within several states in southwestern and central Mexico. Carlotta formed as the result of a breakdown in the Intertropical Convergence Zone to the south of Mexico. On June 12, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) reported that a broad area of low pressure had formed several hundred miles south of southeastern Mexico. The NHC continued to track the disturbance over the next couple of days as it drifted northward. Following an increase in organization, the system was designated as a tropical depression on June 14 and was upgraded to tropical storm status the following evening. On June 16, Carlotta unexpectedly stalled within a favorable environment, which led to more intensification than originally anticipated. Early on June 17, Carlotta reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph and a minimum central pressure of 997 mbar. Soon after, Carlotta began to interact with land and experience wind shear, which resulted in the system weakening to tropical depression status later in the day. Carlotta weakened to a remnant low early on June 19 and dissipated several hours later.
Hurricane Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Olivia formed southwest of Mexico on September 1. The depression slowly organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on the next day. Olivia then began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak on September 5. Soon after, Olivia began a weakening trend, before re-intensifying on September 6. On the next day, Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, with winds of 130 mph and a minimum central pressure of 951 mbar. Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. On September 9, Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin. Over the next couple of days, Olivia prompted the issuance of Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings for Hawaii County, Oahu, Maui County, and Kauai County. Olivia weakened into a tropical storm on September 11, before making brief landfalls in northwest Maui and Lanai on the next day, becoming the first tropical cyclone to impact the islands in recorded history. Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Torrential rains affected the same area from September 11 to 13, causing flash flooding. Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. Olivia was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while continuing to head west. Due to wind shear disrupting Olivia's convection, the system weakened into a remnant low on September 14. Olivia crossed into the West Pacific Basin on September 19 as a remnant low, before dissipating later that day.
Hurricane Rosa was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Baja California since Nora in 1997. The seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and seventh major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Rosa originated from a broad area of low pressure that the National Hurricane Center began monitoring on September 22. The disturbance moved westward and then west-northwestward for a few days, before developing into a tropical depression on September 25. Later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Rosa. One day later, Rosa became a hurricane. On September 27, Rosa began a period of rapid intensification, ultimately peaking as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph and a minimum central pressure of 936 mbar on the next day. Over the next couple of days, Rosa turned towards the northeast. By September 29, Rosa had weakened into a Category 2 hurricane due to ongoing structural changes and less favorable conditions. Later on the same day, Rosa re-intensified slightly. On September 30, Rosa resumed weakening as its core structure eroded. Early on October 1, Rosa weakened into a tropical storm. On October 2, Rosa weakened to a tropical depression and made landfall in Baja California. Later in the day, Rosa's remnants crossed into the Gulf of California, with its surface and mid-level remnants later separating entirely. The mid-level remnants of Rosa continued to travel north, reaching northeast Arizona late in the day. On October 3, Rosa's remnants were absorbed into an upper-level low situated off the coast of California.
Hurricane Willa was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Sinaloa since Lane in 2006. The twenty-second named storm, thirteenth hurricane, tenth major hurricane, and record-tying third Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Willa originated from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center (NHC) first began monitoring for tropical cyclogenesis in the southwestern Caribbean Sea, on October 14. The system subsequently crossed over Central America into the East Pacific, without significant organization. The NHC continued to track the disturbance until it developed into a tropical depression on October 20, off the coast of southwestern Mexico. Later in the day, the system became a tropical storm as it began to rapidly intensify. On October 21, Willa became a Category 4 major hurricane, before strengthening further to Category 5 intensity on the next day. Afterward, a combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and increasing wind shear weakened the hurricane, and early on October 24, Willa made landfall as a marginal Category 3 hurricane, in Sinaloa of the northwestern Mexico. Following landfall, Willa rapidly weakened, dissipating later on the same day over northeastern Mexico.
Tropical Storm Ileana was a tropical cyclone that affected Western Mexico, causing multiple deaths and flooding. The ninth named storm of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Ileana originated from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center began monitoring on July 26 as it left the west coast of Africa. The wave travelled across the Atlantic Ocean with no thunderstorm activity, before crossing into the Eastern Pacific Ocean on August 4. The disturbance quickly and unexpectedly organized into a tropical depression later in the day. Initially, the depression was well defined, but it soon degraded due to unfavorable conditions. It began to strengthen on August 5, becoming Tropical Storm Ileana. On August 6, Ileana peaked with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) and a pressure of 998 mbar. Ileana began to develop an eyewall structure soon after, but became intertwined with nearby Hurricane John. John disrupted Ileana and ultimately absorbed it on August 7.
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