Tropical monsoon climate

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Worldwide zones of tropical monsoon climate (Am). Koppen-Geiger Map Am present.svg
Worldwide zones of tropical monsoon climate (Am).

An area of tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am". Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) in every month of the year and a dry season. [1] :200–1 Tropical monsoon climates is the intermediate climate between the wet Af (or tropical rainforest climate) and the drier Aw (or tropical savanna climate).

Contents

A tropical monsoon climate, however, has its driest month seeing on average less than 60 mm, but more than . [1] This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical savanna climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation and also less than of average monthly precipitation. In essence, a tropical monsoon climate tends to either see more rainfall than a tropical savanna climate or have less pronounced dry seasons. Additionally, a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator. [1]

Versions

There are generally two versions of a tropical monsoon climate:

Distribution

Tropical monsoon climates are most commonly found in South and Central America. However, there are sections of South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa (particularly West and Central Africa), the Caribbean, North America, and Australia that also feature this climate.

Factors

The major controlling factor over a tropical monsoon climate is its relationship to the monsoon circulation. The monsoon is a seasonal change in wind direction. In Asia, during the summer (or high-sun season) there is an onshore flow of air (air moving from ocean towards land). In the “winter” (or low-sun season) an offshore air flow (air moving from land toward water) is prevalent. The change in direction is due to the difference in the way water and land heat.

Changing pressure patterns that affect the seasonality of precipitation also occur in Africa though it generally differs from the way it operates in Asia. During the high-sun season, the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) induces rain. During the low-sun season, the subtropical high creates dry conditions. The monsoon climates of Africa, and the Americas for that matter, are typically located along tradewind coasts.

Cities with a tropical monsoon climate

Charts of selected cities

Chittagong
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
5
 
 
27
15
 
 
28
 
 
30
19
 
 
64
 
 
35
24
 
 
150
 
 
39
26
 
 
264
 
 
35
24
 
 
533
 
 
34
25
 
 
597
 
 
38
26
 
 
518
 
 
33
24
 
 
320
 
 
33
24
 
 
180
 
 
32
23
 
 
56
 
 
32
17
 
 
15
 
 
24
14
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: BBC [2]
Conakry
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
1
 
 
32
19
 
 
1
 
 
33
20
 
 
3
 
 
33
21
 
 
22
 
 
34
22
 
 
137
 
 
33
21
 
 
396
 
 
32
20
 
 
1130
 
 
30
20
 
 
1104
 
 
30
21
 
 
617
 
 
31
21
 
 
295
 
 
31
20
 
 
70
 
 
32
21
 
 
8
 
 
32
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: HK [3]
Manaus
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
260
 
 
31
23
 
 
288
 
 
30
23
 
 
314
 
 
31
23
 
 
300
 
 
31
23
 
 
256
 
 
31
23
 
 
114
 
 
31
23
 
 
88
 
 
31
23
 
 
58
 
 
33
23
 
 
83
 
 
33
24
 
 
126
 
 
33
24
 
 
183
 
 
32
24
 
 
217
 
 
31
24
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO [4] HK [5]
Miami
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
51
 
 
24
15
 
 
53
 
 
25
16
 
 
61
 
 
26
18
 
 
72
 
 
28
20
 
 
158
 
 
30
22
 
 
237
 
 
31
24
 
 
145
 
 
32
25
 
 
193
 
 
32
25
 
 
194
 
 
31
24
 
 
143
 
 
29
22
 
 
68
 
 
27
19
 
 
47
 
 
25
16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO [6]

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The Climate of Cebu is a tropical wet and dry climate. There are two seasons in Cebu - the wet season and the dry season. Cebu has three different climates, based on the distribution of rainfall, with the most prevalent ones being Am and Af and a very minor area of Aw. Based on temperature, the warmest months of the year are March through October; the winter monsoon brings cooler air from November to February. May is the warmest month, and January, the coolest.

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The Hainan Island monsoon rain forests ecoregion covers mountainous interior of Hainan Island in China. The tropical forests receive over 1,000 mm/year of rain, heavily concentrated in the summer rainy season. The island has high levels of biodiversity, with over 4,200 plant species, 630 of which are endemic to the island. The region is under ecological pressure from deforestation for agriculture and timber extraction.

Miskito pine forests

The Miskito pine forests ecoregion covers lowland pine forests and savanna along much of the Mosquito Coast in northeastern Nicaragua and southeastern Honduras. Pines are adapted to grow in the poor soil, relative to the surrounding moist forest, and repeated burning have left one species – the Caribbean pine – dominant. Although the ecoregion receives high levels of rain, the hard soils, repeated burning, and exposure to hurricanes have left expanses of 'pine savanna' and seasonal wetlands. The area is thinly settled by humans and there is little crop agriculture.

References

  1. 1 2 3 McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types" . Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN   978-0-13-020263-5.
  2. "Average Conditions - Chittagong, Bangladesh". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 11 March 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  3. "Climatological Normals of Conakry". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
  4. "Weather Information for Manaus". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  5. "Climatological Information for Manaus, Brazil". Hong Kong Observatory. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  6. "Weather Information for Miami, Florida". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 25 June 2018.