# Tropical monsoon climate

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An area of tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am". Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) in every month of the year and a dry season. [1] :200–1 Tropical monsoon climates is the intermediate climate between the wet Af (or tropical rainforest climate) and the drier Aw (or tropical savanna climate).

Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. Some of the meteorological variables that are commonly measured are temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, and precipitation. In a broader sense, climate is the state of the components of the climate system, which includes the ocean and ice on Earth. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents.

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

A tropical rainforest climate is a tropical climate usually found within 10 to 15 degrees latitude of the equator, and has at least 2 inches of rainfall every month of the year. Regions with this climate are typically designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. A tropical rainforest climate is typically hot, very humid and wet.

## Contents

A tropical monsoon climate, however, has its driest month seeing on average less than 60 mm, but more than ${\textstyle 100-\left({\frac {Total\ Annual\ Precipitation\ (mm)}{25}}\right)}$. [1] This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical savanna climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation and also less than ${\textstyle 100-\left({\frac {Total\ Annual\ Precipitation\ (mm)}{25}}\right)}$ of average monthly precipitation. In essence, a tropical monsoon climate tends to either see more rainfall than a tropical savanna climate or have less pronounced dry seasons. Additionally, a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator. [1]

## Versions

There are generally two versions of a tropical monsoon climate:

• Less pronounced dry seasons. Regions with this variation of the tropical monsoon climate typically see copious amounts of rain during the wet season(s), usually in the form of frequent thunderstorms. However, unlike most tropical savanna climates, a sizeable amount of precipitation also falls during the dry season(s). In essence, this version of the tropical monsoon climate generally has less pronounced dry seasons than tropical savanna climates.
• Extraordinarily rainy wet seasons and pronounced dry seasons. This variation features pronounced dry seasons similar in length and character to dry seasons observed in tropical savanna climates. However, this is followed by a sustained period (or sustained periods) of extraordinary rainfall. In some instances, up to (and sometimes in excess of) 1,000 mm of precipitation is observed per month for two or more consecutive months. Tropical savanna climates generally do not see this level of sustained rainfall.

## Distribution

Tropical monsoon climates are most commonly found in South and Central America. However, there are sections of South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa (particularly West and Central Africa), the Caribbean, North America, and Australia that also feature this climate.

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics.

Central America is a region found in the southern tip of North America and is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas. This region is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. The combined population of Central America is estimated to be between 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.

South Asia or Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia.

## Factors

The major controlling factor over a tropical monsoon climate is its relationship to the monsoon circulation. The monsoon is a seasonal change in wind direction. In Asia, during the summer (or high-sun season) there is an onshore flow of air (air moving from ocean towards land). In the “winter” (or low-sun season) an offshore air flow (air moving from land toward water) is prevalent. The change in direction is due to the difference in the way water and land heat.

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains.

Changing pressure patterns that affect the seasonality of precipitation also occur in Africa though it generally differs from the way it operates in Asia. During the high-sun season, the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) induces rain. During the low-sun season, the subtropical high creates dry conditions. The monsoon climates of Africa, and the Americas for that matter, are typically located along tradewind coasts.

## Notable cities with a Tropical monsoon climate

Cairns is a city in the Cairns Region, Queensland, Australia. It is on the east coast of Far North Queensland. The city is the 5th-most-populous in Queensland and ranks 14th overall in Australia.

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh. The city has a population of more than 2.5 million while the metropolitan area had a population of 4,009,423 in 2011, making it the second-largest city in the country. It is the capital of an eponymous District and Division. The city is located on the banks of the Karnaphuli River between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal. Modern Chittagong is Bangladesh's second most significant urban center after Dhaka.

## Charts of selected cities

Chittagong
Climate chart (explanation)
 J F M A M J J A S O N D 5  2613 28  2815 64  3119 150  3223 264  3224 533  3125 597  3025 518  3024 320  3124 180  3123 56  2918 15  2614 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: BBC [2]
Conakry
Climate chart (explanation)
 J F M A M J J A S O N D 1  3219 1  3320 3  3321 22  3422 137  3321 396  3220 1130  3020 1104  3021 617  3121 295  3120 70  3221 8  3220 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: HK [3]
Manaus
Climate chart (explanation)
 J F M A M J J A S O N D 260  3123 288  3023 314  3123 300  3123 256  3123 114  3123 88  3123 58  3323 83  3324 126  3324 183  3224 217  3124 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: WMO [4] HK [5]
Miami
Climate chart (explanation)
 J F M A M J J A S O N D 51  2415 53  2516 61  2618 72  2820 158  3022 237  3124 145  3225 193  3225 194  3124 143  2922 68  2719 47  2516 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: WMO [6]

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## References

1. McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN   978-0-13-020263-5.
2. "Average Conditions - Chittagong, Bangladesh". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 11 March 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
3. "Climatological Normals of Conakry". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
4. "Weather Information for Manaus". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
5. "Climatological Information for Manaus, Brazil". Hong Kong Observatory. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
6. "Weather Information for Miami, Florida". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 25 June 2018.