Troublesome Creek (North Fork Kentucky River tributary)

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37°29′08″N83°20′46″W / 37.485647°N 83.346012°W / 37.485647; -83.346012

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Troublesome Creek in Hindman, Kentucky Troublesome Creek in Hindman, Kentucky.jpg
Troublesome Creek in Hindman, Kentucky

Troublesome Creek is a creek in Breathitt, Perry and Knott counties, Kentucky, a fork of the North Fork Kentucky River. [1] It is 41.46 miles (66.72 km) long with a gradient of 8.92 feet per mile (168.9 cm/km), normally free-flowing, and with banks that vary between tree-lined and open. [1]

Its headwaters are where its Left and Right Forks join at Hindman, the Knott County seat. [2] [1] The creek flows down to join the North Fork of the Kentucky River near Haddix in Breathitt County. [2] [1]

Tributaries and other locations

within Perry County

Of its total length, 18 miles (29 km) are in Perry County, where it has had ten post offices over the years. [2]

General

The Troublesome post office was established on 1882-05-01 by Joe C. Eversole. [57] Eversole's first choice of name was Boggs but this was not acceptable to the USPS, so Eversole named it after the Creek, [57] one of several things named after the Creek. It was originally located at the mouth of Balls Fork, and Eversole was not its postmaster, that being local storekeeper J. C. Boggs, from whom came the original choice of name. [57] Troublesome post office moved one mile down Troublesome Creek in 1910, to the mouth of Williams Branch, and closed in January 1914. [57]

The Tub post office was established on 1923-07-23 by postmaster George W. Allen. [57] His original choice of name had been Troy after his (then) 26-year-old son, and it is unknown where Allen got Tub from. [57] It was located at the head of the Pigeon Roost Branch in several places over the years, and closed in 1933. [57]

In 1918 Mowbray and Robinson had a mine in Upper Beaver Dam Branch, [22] Floyd Campbell had one in Cat Hollow, [22] and Green Campbell one on a minor fork of Troblesome 16.75 miles (26.96 km) upstream. [23] Hays and Campbell had a mine 0.5 miles (0.80 km) up Francis Branch. [58] Walter Campbell had a mine on a minor fork of Williams Branch, 0.25 miles (0.40 km) upstream. [30]

Lee Allen had a mine 18 miles (29 km) upstream on Troublesome, [59] and S. M. Holliday had one at head of a minor fork 19.5 miles (31.4 km) upstream. [26] J. Smith had a mine on a minor fork of Left Fork of Tom's Branch, [28] and Richard Smith had one at the head of Left Fork of McJilton Branch. [30] William Smith had one on a minor branch of the Left Fork of Pigeon Roost. [37] and Lark Smith had one 0.125 miles (0.201 km) upstream on Pigeon Roost itself. [36]

Jack Dobson's mine was 22.5 miles (36.2 km) upstream on Troublesome, [30] and a Mr Ashley had a mine one a minor fork of Buck Fork, 0.125 miles (0.201 km) upstream. [31]

Preston Williams's mine was on Williams Branch, 1.75 miles (2.82 km) upstream. [32]

Both of Samuel Bush's mines were on minor forks of Left Fork Pigeon Roost, [37] and William Brewer's was 2 miles (3.2 km) upstream on Left Fork. [60]

Dwarf

a 21st-century postmark of Dwarf post office Dwarf, Kentucky Postmark.jpg
a 21st-century postmark of Dwarf post office

The earliest of the post offices, Tunell Hill was established on 1878-07-24 by postmaster Joseph Hall. [2] It was named after the tunnel that Combs brothers Sam and Felix had cut for an aqueduct to their mill, and was at the mouth of Combs Branch. [2] It closed in 1881, and was re-stablished as Dwarf on 1883-07-13 by postmaster Thomas W. Gibson. [2] This name was another Combs association, this time with another Combs brother, Jeremiah, who was called "Short Jerry" because of his height. [2] The Dwarf post office still exists today, and is located a short distance up Combs Branch from Troublesome Creek. [2]

George Combs had a mine 0.75 miles (1.21 km) up Coles Branch. [38] Wade Combs's mine was on a minor fork of Left Fork of Combs Branch. [44] C. C. Combs's mine was 29.25 miles (47.07 km) upstream on Troublesome itself, [61] and Jerry Combs's mine was in a minor branch of Troublesome 29.75 miles (47.88 km) upstream. [44]

The headwaters of Combs Branch are across a small ridge from Trace Fork. [42]

Engle family mines and the Left Fork of Combs Branch

Albert Engle's two mines were on a minor fork of Laurel Lick, 0.375 miles (0.604 km) upstream. [39] and 26.625 miles (42.849 km) upstream on Troublesome itself. [39] William Engle's was on a minor fork of Left Fork of Combs Branch. [42] Martha Cornett's was on a minor fork, 0.125 miles (0.201 km) upstream, of the same Left Fork, [42] J. B. Stamper's two mines were one on another minor fork of Left Fork 0.625 miles (1.006 km) upstream [43] and another 1.875 miles (3.018 km) upstream on Left Fork. [43] George Fugate had a mine 0.125 miles (0.201 km) upstream also on Left Fork itself. [43]

Ary

The Ary post office was established on 1906-02-13 by postmaster Killus Combs. [57] Its original location is uncertain but was likely at the mouth of Pigeon Roost Branch. [57] Its original name was to be Dory after one of Killus's contemporaries in the Combs family, but this was rejected, and the origin of the name Ary is not known. [57] It moved several times between 1910 and World War 2, for short distances, finally moving 1 mile (1.6 km) down from Pigeon Roost to Balls Fork in 1946, where it still exists today. [57]

Rowdy and Stacy

The Stacy post office was established on 1890-06-30 by postmaster Ira Allen. [62] Allen had wanted the name Noble because the post office was located at the mouth of Noble Branch, but that name had been already taken by another post office on Troublesome Creek. [62] (See Lost Creek for the adjacent Noble farm on its Cockerell's Branch.)

Ira Allen was also the postmaster of another post office simultaneously. [62] This was the Rowdy post office which he established on 1890-07-18. [62] It was located at the mouth of the Rowdy Branch and closed the same year on 1890-10-02. [62] The name of the branch and post office were, according to local lore, because of the "rowdy" nature of the inhabitants of the Branch. [62]

In 1918 Anderson Hays had prospected Noble Branch, Mary Allen had a mine 0.5 miles (0.80 km) up its left fork, [24] and the Campbell heirs had a mine just up another minor branch 0.625 miles (1.006 km) upstream. [63] Andrew and Samuel Noble had a mine on Noble itself, 0.25 miles (0.40 km) upstream. [24]

Stacy, in the meanwhile, lasted until its closure in 1933. [62] It was, however, re-established in 1944 by postmaster Pearlie Neace. [62] The environs had remained named Stacy, locally, after the post office closure, but the re-opened one used the name Rowdy. [62] It was still open in 2000. [62]

Stacy family mines

George Stacy had a mine 0.125 miles (0.201 km) up the Right Fork of Beech Branch, [33] and Jasper Stacy had one 23.375 miles (37.618 km) upstream on Troublesome itself. [33] and another on a minor fork of Little Ball Fork. [35] Joseph Stacy had a mine 0.5 miles (0.80 km) upstream on the Coalstone Branch; [35] and James Stacy had three, one on the Right Fork of Pigeon Roost Branch, [37] and two (one on each side) 1.25 miles (2.01 km) upstream on the Right Fork of Combs Branch. [41] Elkannah Stacy's mine was on a minor branch of Pigeon Roost. [37]

within Breathitt County

General

The Hardshell post office was established on 1917-08-11 by postmaster Garvey Noble. [64] The name came from a local church, of Hardshell Baptists, and the post office was located in several places between Clayhole post office (see below) and Noble Branch over its lifespan. [64] It became a rural branch of Lost Creek post office in 1959, located at the mouth of Caney Creek, and finally closed in 1994. [64]

At the top of Russell Branch is Flint Ridge, 780 feet (240 m) higher than Troublesome Creek. [30] A. C. Russell was a local landowner at Russell Branch, [65] and on its Right Fork Elisha Miller had a coal mine. [13] John E. Miller had a mine at Miller's Branch, [14] and A. Raliegh had a mine 0.125 miles (0.201 km) upstream just up what was then known as Bear Branch, 2.75 miles (4.43 km) upstream from the mouth of Miller's Branch. [66]

Robert Fugate had a mine on Troublesome itself, 8.875 miles (14.283 km) upstream, [67] with J. B. Noble's mine at 9.5 miles (15.3 km) upstream, [67] and William Ellis' mine a little further along at 10.75 miles (17.30 km) upstream.

The Fugate Fork was location of Isaac Miller's mine (on a minor fork) 0.25 miles (0.40 km) upstream, [17] Henry Hudson's mine (also on a minor fork) 0.375 miles (0.604 km) upstream, [17] and Jackson Miller's mine. [68] On Laurel Fork off Fugate, Thomas Ellis had a mine 0.25 miles (0.40 km) upstream, [18] and Isaac Miller another mine 0.75 miles (1.21 km) upstream. [19] Miller had a third mine 1.75 miles (2.82 km) upstream along Fugate's Left Fork, [19] and a fourth 0.125 miles (0.201 km) along a minor branch off Left Fork at 0.75 miles (1.21 km) upstream of Left.

The heirs of John Jones had a mine 11.75 miles (18.91 km) upstream on Troublesome itself, [20] where now remains the Jones cemetery. And Andrew Noble had a mine on a minor branch of Troublesome, 12.75 miles (20.52 km) upstream, [69] where now remains the Noble cemetery.

The USGS gaging-station (number 3-2785) for the North Fork Kentucky River at Noble is maintained at at 37°26′35″N83°13′06″W / 37.44306°N 83.21833°W / 37.44306; -83.21833 (USGS gaging-station number 3-2785) on the left 14 miles (23 km) upstream from the mouth of Troublesome and 0.2 miles (0.32 km) downstream from Buckhorn Creek. [70]

Clayhole

The Clayhole post office was established on 1899-04-05 by postmaster Dulana L. Allen. [71] It was originally located 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream from the mouth of Riley Branch, and was reportedly named for the "sticky blue clay" in the stream bed. [71] It moved from Riley onto the main Creek in 1918, and after moving several more times to the mouth of Russell Branch, to the mouth of Barge Creek, and to the area downstream of Riley, it ended up in its present location at the mouth of Riley Branch. [71]

Haddix

The town of Haddix was founded with the arrival of the railroad at the mouth of Troublesome Creek. [72] It had a railway station and a post office, established on 1916-07-08 by postmaster Floyd Russell, both named Haddix. [72] It is generally agreed by local historians that the railroad company named the town, station, and post office for the Haddix family, a family of settlers and local landowners that included amongst its number blacksmith Samuel Haddix and 1830s salt well and later 1850s coal miner William Haddix. [72] However, family member Tom Haddix claimed that they were all named after him in particular, as he had been the person who had done the surveys through Perry and Breathitt counties on behalf of the L&E railways, and owned the land that the railways used for right of way. [72]

The Haddix post office was closed in November 1990, postal services being transferred to the Lost Creek post office. [72]

within Knott County

General

The Mink post office was established on 1898-10-31 by Silas E. Boggs. [73] He had wanted the name Boggs, but that was rejected. [73] The post office was likely just downstream of Lick Branch, Boggs's country store being 3 miles (4.8 km) upstream of Emmalena (see below). [73] It closed after just a year in August 1899. [73]

In 1918 the Engle heirs had a mine on a minor fork of Trace Branch, 0.5 miles (0.80 km) upstream. [44] Alexander Francis's was in a minor fork of Long Branch of Clear Creek, 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream. [46] Bayliss Gearheart's mine was on a minor fork of Shop Hollow, 0.375 miles (0.604 km) upstream. [45] E. H. Gearheart's was on a minor fork of Montgomery Branch, 2 miles (3.2 km) upstream. [74]

R. L. Morgan had a mine on Troublesome itself, 34.125 miles (54.919 km) upstream. [75] D. L. Fuller's mine was at the head of Short Branch, 0.875 miles (1.408 km) upstream. [50] N. W. Simpson had a mine at the mouth of Right Fork of Big Branch. [53] Bud Newland's mine was on Pushback Branch, 0.25 miles (0.40 km) upstream, [54] and Asa Dickenson's was on a minor fork of Pushback, 0.75 miles (1.21 km) upstream. [76] Joseph Tignor had a mine on Troublesome, 41.875 miles (67.391 km) upstream. [76]

J. S. Boggs's mine was on Troublesome, 35.75 miles (57.53 km) upstream, and S. E. Boggs's mine was on a minor branch of Troublesome, 36.25 miles (58.34 km) upstream. [77]

The gap at the head of Dicks Fork (altitude 1,398 feet (426 m)) connects to the Big Fork of Lotts Creek. [78] The gap at the head of Clear Creek (altitude 1,751 feet (534 m)) connects to the Youngs Fork of Lotts Creek. [77] The gap at the head of Ogden Branch (altitude 1,430 feet (440 m)) connects to the Trace Branch of Balls Fork. [54] The gap at the head of Trace Branch (altitude 1,218 feet (371 m)) connects to the Roaring Branch of Balls Fork. [45]

Hindman

The city of Hindman is the county seat of Knotts County, and is located where Troublesome Creek separates into its Left and Right forks. [79] Its original name, before its establishment as the seat of the county, was The Forks of Troublesome. [79]

Emmalena

The Emmalena post office was established on 1894-10-05 by postmaster Orlena Combs (a.k.a. Mrs Robert) Morgan. [80] It was, and still is, located on Troublesome Creek 8.5 miles (13.7 km) west of Hindman, and was established to serve an already existing small hamlet of roughly 300 people that had a store, church camp, and consolidated school. [80] The name is a portmanteau of postmaster, and local storekeeper, Morgan's first name Orlena with the first name of Emma Thurman, who was the wife of an interant schoolteacher who had also applied for the postmastership. [80] Orlena Combs Morgan was the great-granddaughter of early settler of the area Jeremiah "Long Jerry" Combs, and the post office has been run by Morgan family members since then. [80]

Fisty

The Fisty post office was established on 1906-08-18 by postmasters Margarate and Joseph R. Ritchie. [81] It was named after a branch of the sprawling local Combs family, headed by "Fisty Sam" Combs. [81] It was, and still is, located at the mouth of Clear Creek. [81]

Carrie

The Carrie post office was established on 1912-02-06 by postmaster Henry Combs. [82] It was named after his wife Carrie, who was also a Combs family member. [82] It was, and still is, located midway between Hindman and Emmalena. [82]

Richie/Ritchie family mines and post offices

The Ritchie post office was established on 1900-01-12 by postmaster Abbie Ritchie. [83] It was originally located 3 miles (4.8 km) upstream of Clear Creek, and moved over its history to several places down the creek until finally ending at a point 5.25 miles (8.45 km) southwest of Emmalena and 2.5 miles (4.0 km) from Troublesome post offices. [83] It was named for the local Ritchie family, and was operate by family members until it closed in 1974. [83]

Benjamin Richie had a mine in a minor fork of Cockerel Trace, 0.625 miles (1.006 km) upstream. [46] Joseph Richie's mine was on a minor fork of Dicks Branch, 1.375 miles (2.213 km) upstream. [47] Edward Richie's two mines were one at the head of a minor fork of Clear Creek, 3.25 miles (5.23 km) upstream, which had a trail connecting to the Short Branch of Troublesome, [78] and another on Pushback Branch, 0.375 miles (0.604 km) upstream. [54] David Richie's mine was on Clear Creek, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) upstream. Samuel Smith's two mines on Dicks Branch were one 1.875 miles (3.018 km) upstream, beside a school house, and the other 2 miles (3.2 km) upstream.

Combs family mines

Jordan Combs had a mine on another minor fork of Trace, 0.75 miles (1.21 km) upstream. [44] B. J. Combs's mine was on a minor fork of the Right Fork of Show Hollow, 0.125 miles (0.201 km) upstream. [45] William Combs's two mines were one on a minor fork of Clear Creek, 4.25 miles (6.84 km) upstream, and the other on Clear itself, 4.375 miles (7.041 km) upstream; [78] [77] Cleveland Combs's was on another minor fork of Clear, 4.5 miles (7.2 km) upstream; [77] and Jerry Comb's was on a third minor fork, 5.125 miles (8.248 km) upstream. [77]

Samuel Combs's two mines were one on a minor fork of Troublesome itself, 31.25 miles (50.29 km) upstream, and the second at the head of another minor fork, 32 miles (51 km) upstream. [75] J.R. Combs had a mine on a minor branch of Troublesome, 33.75 miles (54.32 km) upstream. [75]

Everidge/Everage family mines and post offices

The Tina post office was established on 1905-11-10 by postmaster Wiley A. Combs. [83] It was named for Clementina, the wife of John Wesley Combs, a state senator in the 1870s who lived on Irishman Creek. [83] It was originally located 2.5 miles (4.0 km) upstream on Montgomery Creek, but moved back and forth along Montgomery at least ten times. [83] The first move was 1 mile (1.6 km) downstream in 1910.

The next was when it was re-established, on 1920-09-04 by postmaster Elvira Everage, after it had closed in January 1914. [83] Several members of the Everage family were postmasters who relocated it to several different spots. [83] It ended up 3.5 miles (5.6 km) upstream on Montgomery, and closed in October 1978, because of Kentucky Route 80. [83]

Sarah Everidge had a mine on a minor branch of Cy Everidge Branch, 0.25 miles (0.40 km) upstream. [55]

Cornett family mines

Andrew Cornett had a mine on a minor branch of Mill Creek, 1.375 miles (2.213 km) upstream; [51] Jefferson Cornett's mine was on Sweet Gum Branch, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) upstream; [84] Green Cornett's was also on Sweet Gum, 2.25 miles (3.62 km) upstream; [84] and Susan Cornett's was on Troublesome itself, 39.75 miles (63.97 km) upstream. [53]

Hydrology

The whole Kentucky River Basin is subject to regular flooding, caused by high rainfall, and because the banks of its various tributaries are generally steep, flood damage is usually to buildings, towns, and roads that are on the courses of the creeks. [85] The generally rocky terrain of the area causes rainwater to run off into many ephemeral creeks, that feed into the perennial ones, rather than being absorbed into the soil. [86] Much of the built environment in the area is along the creek beds, meaning that damage is mainly to it rather than to agricultural areas. [86]

Although the former mines along Troublesome may have contributed to the risk of flooding, by compacting the soil and making it further less able to absorb rainwater, they however also have flattened out parts of the terrain providing areas where there is less runoff channelled into ephemeral creeks. [86]

Troublesome Creek along with other Kentucky River tributaries suffered a major flood in January and February 1957, although that did not exceed the highest on record for Troublesome itself at that point, which had been the flood of February 1939. [85]

A further major flood occurred, again because of high rainfall over the preceding three days, on 2022-07-28, killing 39 people. [86] There was property damage in many locations along the Creek including at Fisty, Carrie, and Lost Creek post offices. [86] Three of the deaths were in Hindman city, which was entirely underwater. [86]

A reservoir on Troublesome for containing floodwaters was considered in 1958, but the idea was rejected because it wouldn't be large enough. [87] Ongoing reforestation projects at former mine sites along the creek have the aim of ameliorating the effects of rainfall, as their tree canopy and root systems absorb water. [86] The mines themselves also had retention basins, diversion ditches, and sediment ponds to catch rainfall run-off, although these are, like the considered reservoir, not large enough to ameliorate major floods. [86]

Dredging the Creek is prohibited by rules for preserving endangered species like the local arrow fish, and may not be as effective as the creeks' own natural systems of self-regulation, and in any case the bedrock is not far below the creek bed and there is not much scope for dredging. [86] More significant effects may result from changing the land use practices, the construction of roads, deforestation, and farming, which increase sediment levels and raise the creek beds, leading to increased outflow during floods to the surrounding flood plains. [86]

The drainage of the basin covered by the aforementioned USGS gaging-station for the North Fork Kentucky River at Noble is 177 square miles (460 km2). [70] The station is at 768.5 feet (234.2 m) above mean sea level (datum as of 1929) and its highest historic recording was approximately 29 feet (8.8 m) in the February 1939 flood, with a record of 37.54 feet (11.44 m) and a discharge rate of 47,800 cubic feet per second (1.35 Ml/s) on 1957-01-29. [70]

Things named after the creek

The Creek's own name was, anecdotally, given to it by early settler Colby Haddix; it appears in the 1820 Act of the state legislature that created Perry County. [88] It is likely simply named for how "troublesome" it is to navigate, with its many bends. [88] Several things, in addition to Hindman's original name and the aforementioned former Troublesome post office, are named after it:

James Still's book On Troublesome Creek is a collection of short stories. [89]

The "Blue Fugates", nickamed the "Blue People of Troublesome Creek" by Cathy Trost in 1982, a family so-called because some of them had blue skin from inheriting methemoglobinemia, lived in the area in the 19th and 20th centuries. [90] [91]

The Troublesome Creek Times is a weekly newspaper for Knotts County that is published in Hindman, and the first charter member of the Associated Press's Newsfinder service for Kentucky. [92]

See also

Cross-reference

  1. 1 2 3 4 Maccracken 2017, p. 296.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rennick 2000a, p. 4.
  3. Hodge 1918, p. 14.
  4. Hodge 1918, p. 164.
  5. Rennick 2000a, p. 6.
  6. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 15.
  7. Hodge 1918, p. 16.
  8. Hodge 1918, p. 17.
  9. Hodge 1918, p. 18.
  10. Hodge 1918, p. 19.
  11. Hodge 1918, p. 20.
  12. Hodge 1918, p. 21.
  13. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 23.
  14. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 24.
  15. Hodge 1918, p. 28.
  16. Hodge 1918, p. 29.
  17. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 31.
  18. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 33.
  19. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 34.
  20. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 37.
  21. Hodge 1918, p. 40.
  22. 1 2 3 4 Hodge 1918, p. 54.
  23. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 55.
  24. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 57.
  25. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 58.
  26. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 61.
  27. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 62.
  28. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 63.
  29. Hodge 1918, p. 64.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hodge 1918, p. 65.
  31. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 66.
  32. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 67.
  33. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 68.
  34. Hodge 1918, p. 69.
  35. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 98.
  36. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 99.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 Hodge 1918, p. 100.
  38. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 102.
  39. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 103.
  40. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 104.
  41. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 105.
  42. 1 2 3 4 Hodge 1918, p. 106.
  43. 1 2 3 4 Hodge 1918, p. 107.
  44. 1 2 3 4 5 Hodge 1918, p. 109.
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hodge 1918, p. 110.
  46. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hodge 1918, p. 111.
  47. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 112.
  48. Hodge 1918, p. 116.
  49. Hodge 1918, p. 118.
  50. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 119.
  51. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 120.
  52. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 121.
  53. 1 2 3 4 5 Hodge 1918, p. 123.
  54. 1 2 3 4 Hodge 1918, p. 124.
  55. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 126.
  56. Hodge 1918, p. 127.
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Rennick 2000a, p. 5.
  58. Hodge 1918, p. 56.
  59. Hodge 1918, p. 60.
  60. Hodge 1918, p. 101.
  61. Hodge 1918, p. 108.
  62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rennick 2000a, pp. 5–6.
  63. Hodge 1918, p. 579.
  64. 1 2 3 Rennick 2000b, p. 28.
  65. Hodge 1918, p. 22.
  66. Hodge 1918, p. 26.
  67. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 27.
  68. Hodge 1918, p. 32.
  69. Hodge 1918, p. 39.
  70. 1 2 3 Pitts et al. 1961, p. 75.
  71. 1 2 3 Rennick 2000b, p. 27.
  72. 1 2 3 4 5 Rennick 2000b, pp. 27–28.
  73. 1 2 3 4 Rennick 2000c, pp. 21–22.
  74. Hodge 1918, p. 117.
  75. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 115.
  76. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 125.
  77. 1 2 3 4 5 Hodge 1918, p. 114.
  78. 1 2 3 Hodge 1918, p. 113.
  79. 1 2 Rennick 2000c, p. 4.
  80. 1 2 3 4 Rennick 2000c, p. 21.
  81. 1 2 3 Rennick 2000c, pp. 22–23.
  82. 1 2 3 Rennick 2000c, p. 23.
  83. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Rennick 2000c, p. 22.
  84. 1 2 Hodge 1918, p. 122.
  85. 1 2 USACE 1958, p. 40.
  86. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Horn 2022.
  87. USACE 1958, p. 58.
  88. 1 2 Rennick 2000b, p. 24.
  89. Olson 2009, pp. 5–6.
  90. Donaldson James 2012.
  91. Trost 1982.
  92. Daley 2014, p. 901.

Sources

Further reading

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Big Creek is a stream in Perry County, Kentucky in the United States. It a tributary of the North Fork Kentucky River that joins it 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream of Typo and 5 miles (8.0 km) downstream of Hazard, at an altitude of 810 feet (250 m). It is nearly 10 miles (16 km) long, and is paralleled by Kentucky Route 80 for some of its length.

Lotts Creek is a creek in Perry County and Knott County, Kentucky in the United States. It a tributary of the North Fork Kentucky River that joins it at Darfork 3 miles (4.8 km) downstream of Hazard at an altitude of 820 feet (250 m). It is 8.5 miles (13.7 km) long from its mouth to where it splits into the Young's and Kelly Forks.

Sibert is a coal town and rail depot, and was a post office, in Clay County, Kentucky, United States located below the mouth of the Paw Paw Branch of the Horse Creek tributary of the Goose Creek river, half a mile above Hima. The town, depot, and postoffice were all named after a local family who were descendants, through William and Milton Siebert, of pioneers Daniel and Sarah (Sallie) Siebert.

Horse Creek is a creek a tributary of Goose Creek river in Clay County, Kentucky. It is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) upstream of Manchester on Goose at an altitude of 800 feet (240 m).

Sexton's Creek is a creek in Clay County, Kentucky that is a tributary of the South Fork Kentucky River in neighbouring Owsley County, Kentucky. It is 24 miles (39 km) long.

Trace Fork or Trace Branch is a creek in Perry County, Kentucky in the United States. It a fork of Lotts Creek 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream from the latter's mouth at an altitude of 825 feet (251 m).

Big Creek is a 4.5 miles (7.2 km) long creek in Kentucky, United States whose headwaters are in Leslie County and that flows into the Red Bird River in Clay County. A postoffice and village are named for it. Its own name is likely purely descriptive of its frequent flooding and high water levels, as it is not otherwise one of the biggest tributaries of Red Bird River.

Goose Creek is a creek in Clay County, Kentucky. It is one of two tributaries at the head of the South Fork of the Kentucky River, the other being the Red Bird River. It is 40 miles (64 km) long.

Bear Creek is a creek that is a tributary of the Red Bird River in Clay County, Kentucky.

Little Goose Creek is a tributary of Goose Creek river in Clay County with headwaters in Laurel County in the U.S. state of Kentucky. It is 16.5 miles (26.6 km) long with its confluence with Goose just north of Manchester, at an altitude of 795 feet (242 m).

Collins Creek, also known as Collins Fork, is a creek that is a fork of Goose Creek in Knox County and Clay County, Kentucky. It is 19 miles (31 km) long; is named for its first settler James Collins, a salt maker and hunter; joins Goose just south of Garrard; and is paralleled by road and railway for most of its course.

Martins Creek is creek that is a tributary of Goose Creek in Clay County, Kentucky that used to have a Martins Creek post office. It is 4.5 miles (7.2 km) long and named for early settler Salathiel Martin.

Beech Creek is a tributary of Goose Creek in Clay County, Kentucky. It is just under 6 miles (9.7 km) long and joins the Goose approximately 12 mile (0.80 km) below the mouth of Laurel Creek.

Lost Creek is a creek that is mainly in Breathitt County, Kentucky in the United States. It a tributary of the Troublesome Creek tributary of the North Fork Kentucky River that it joins over the county line in Perry County slightly more than 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream of the mouth of Troublesome, at an altitude of 810 feet (250 m). It is 10 miles (16 km) long. The junction of Kentucky Route 476 with Kentucky Route 15 about 6 miles (9.7 km) south-southeast of Jackson is nearby.

The Forks of Troublesome, more simply The Forks, are the Left Fork and Right Fork tributaries of Troublesome Creek in what is now Knott County, Kentucky. This was the name of the place where they met until the city of Hindman was established as the county seat in April 1884, and the name used in the Act of the Kentucky General Assembly that established Knott County. At the time, The Forks was in Letcher County, Kentucky.

Balls Fork is a stream that is mainly in Knott County, Kentucky in the United States. It a fork of the Troublesome Creek tributary of the North Fork Kentucky River that it joins over the county line in Perry County. It is 19.5 miles (31.4 km) long.

The North Fork Kentucky River has several tributary creeks at, or in the immediate vicinity of, the city of Hazard, Kentucky. They were surveyed by the Kentucky Geological Survey in 1918. Most still exist, although some have since been eliminated by mining and the subsequent expansion of the city, and the post-World War 2 construction of the Daniel Boone Parkway.