Trouvelot (Martian crater)

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Trouvelot Crater
TrouvelotMartianCrater.jpg
Topographic map of the location of Trouvelot Crater
Planet Mars
Coordinates 16°12′N13°06′W / 16.2°N 13.1°W / 16.2; -13.1 Coordinates: 16°12′N13°06′W / 16.2°N 13.1°W / 16.2; -13.1
Quadrangle Oxia Palus quadrangle
Diameter 148.77 km
Eponym Étienne Léopold Trouvelot, a French astronomer (1827–1895)

Trouvelot is a crater on Mars, located in the Oxia Palus quadrangle at 16.2° north latitude and 13.1° west longitude near the crustal dichotomy in the circum-Chryse region. It is roughly located along the dichotomy between Arabia Terra to the northeast and the southernmost of the circum-Chryse outflow channels to the southwest. Trouvelot crater measures approximately 149 kilometers in diameter and was named after Étienne Léopold Trouvelot, a French astronomer (1827–1895). The naming was adopted by IAU's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature in 1973. [1]

Contents

Description

Impact craters generally have a rim with ejecta around them, in contrast volcanic craters usually do not have a rim or ejecta deposits. As craters get larger (greater than 10 km in diameter) they usually have a central peak. [2] The peak is caused by a rebound of the crater floor following the impact. [3]

There is a part of Trouvelot that displays many thin, light-toned layers; these may be evidence that a lake was present in the past. Many craters once contained lakes. [4] [5] [6] Because some crater floors show deltas, we know that water had to be present for some time. Dozens of deltas have been spotted on Mars. [7] Deltas form when sediment is washed in from a stream entering a quiet body of water. It takes a bit of time to form a delta, so the presence of a delta is exciting; it means water was there for a time, maybe for many years. Primitive organisms may have developed in such lakes; hence, some craters may be prime targets for the search for evidence of life on the Red Planet. [8]

Many places on Mars show rocks arranged in layers. Rock can form layers in a variety of ways. Volcanoes, wind, or water can produce layers. [9] Sometimes the layers are of different colors. Light-toned rocks on Mars have been associated with hydrated minerals like sulfates. The Mars Rover Opportunity examined such layers close-up with several instruments. Some layers are probably made up of fine particles because they seem to break up into fine dust. Other layers break up into large boulders, so they are probably much harder. Basalt, a volcanic rock, is thought to be present in the layers that form boulders. Basalt has been identified on Mars in many places. Instruments on orbiting spacecraft have detected clay (also called phyllosilicate) in some layers. Recent research with an orbiting near-infrared spectrometer, which reveals the types of minerals present based on the wavelengths of light they absorb, found evidence of layers of both clay and sulfates in many places, especially craters. [10] This is exactly what would appear if a large lake had slowly evaporated. [11] Moreover, since some layers contain gypsum, a sulfate which forms in relatively fresh water, life could have formed in some craters. [12]

Scientists are excited about finding hydrated minerals such as sulfates and clays on Mars because they are usually formed in the presence of water. [13] Places that contain clays and/or other hydrated minerals would be good places to look for evidence of life. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Memnonia quadrangle

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Arabia Terra

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Eberswalde (crater)

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Terby (crater)

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Becquerel (Martian crater)

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Arabia quadrangle

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Lunae Palus quadrangle Quadrangle map in Mars

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Oxia Palus quadrangle

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Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle

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Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle

The Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle is also referred to as MC-19. The Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle covers the area from 0° to 45° west longitude and 0° to 30° south latitude on Mars. Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle contains Margaritifer Terra and parts of Xanthe Terra, Noachis Terra, Arabia Terra, and Meridiani Planum.

Vernal (Martian crater)

Vernal is a crater on Mars, located at 6° north latitude and 355.5° east longitude in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. It is measures approximately 55.5 kilometers in diameter and was named after Vernal, Utah, United States. Structures resembling springs on Earth were found in Vernal crater.

Wislicenus (crater)

Wislicenus is an impact crater on Mars, located in the Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle at 18.4° south latitude and 348.6° west longitude. It measures approximately 140 kilometers in diameter and was named after German astronomer Walter Wislicenus (1859–1905). The name was adopted by the IAU in 1973.

Spallanzani (Martian crater)

Spallanzani is a crater on Mars, located in the Hellas quadrangle at 58.0° south latitude and 86.4° east longitude. It measures approximately 72 kilometers in diameter and was named after Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799). The name was adopted by IAU's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature in 1973.

Tikhonravov (crater)

Tikhonravov is a large, eroded crater in the Arabia quadrangle of Mars. It is 344 kilometres (214 mi) in diameter and was named after Mikhail Tikhonravov, a Russian rocket scientist. Tikhonravov is believed to have once held a giant lake that drained into the 4500 km long Naktong-Scamander-Mamers lake-chain system. An inflow and outflow channel has been identified. Many craters once contained lakes.

Flammarion (Martian crater)

Flammarion is an impact crater in the Syrtis Major quadrangle on Mars at 25.2 ° N and 48.3 ° E. It is 173.0 km in diameter. Its name was approved in 1973, and refers to French astronomer Camille Flammarion. There may have been a lake in the crater in the past because a channel is visible on the rim in the picture below and layers are visible in one of the pictures.

Danielson (crater)

Danielson Crater is an impact crater in the Oxia Palus quadrangle on Mars at 7.93° N and 7.11° W. and is 66.7 km in diameter, and is north of the Meridiani Planum, south of Arabia Terra and west of the planet's meridia. Its name was approved in 2009, and it was named after American engineer G. Edward Danielson.

Rutherford (Martian crater)

Rutherford is an impact crater on Mars. It is located the Oxia Palus quadrangle inside Arabia Terra at 19.2° N and 10.7° W. and measures approximately 107 kilometers in diameter. The crater was named after British physicist Ernest Rutherford in 1973.

Crommelin (Martian crater)

Crommelin Crater is an impact crater in the Oxia Palus quadrangle of Mars, located at 5.1°N latitude and 10.2°W longitude. It is 113.9 km in diameter. It was named after British astronomer Andrew Crommelin (1865–1939), and the name was approved in 1973 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN).

Lakes on Mars

In summer 1965, the first close-up images from Mars showed a cratered desert with no signs of water. However, over the decades, as more parts of the planet were imaged with better cameras on more sophisticated satellites, Mars showed evidence of past river valleys, lakes and present ice in glaciers and in the ground. It was discovered that the climate of Mars displays huge changes over geologic time because its axis is not stabilized by a large moon, as Earth's is. Also, some researchers maintain that surface liquid water could have existed for periods of time due to geothermal effects, chemical composition or asteroid impacts. This article describes some of the places that could have held large lakes.

References

  1. "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature | Trouvelot". usgs.gov. International Astronomical Union . Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  2. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/stones/
  3. Hugh H. Kieffer (1992). Mars. University of Arizona Press. ISBN   978-0-8165-1257-7 . Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  4. Cabrol, N. and E. Grin. 2001. The Evolution of Lacustrine Environments on Mars: Is Mars Only Hydrologically Dormant? Icarus: 149, 291-328.
  5. Fassett, C. and J. Head. 2008. Open-basin lakes on Mars: Distribution and implications for Noachian surface and subsurface hydrology. Icarus: 198, 37-56.
  6. Fassett, C. and J. Head. 2008. Open-basin lakes on Mars: Implications of valley network lakes for the nature of Noachian hydrology.
  7. Wilson, J. A. Grant and A. Howard. 2013. INVENTORY OF EQUATORIAL ALLUVIAL FANS AND DELTAS ON MARS. 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.
  8. Newsom H. , Hagerty J., Thorsos I. 2001. Location and sampling of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits in martian impact craters. Astrobiology: 1, 71-88.
  9. "HiRISE | High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment". Hirise.lpl.arizona.edu?psp_008437_1750. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
  10. Cabrol, N. and E. Grin (eds.). 2010. Lakes on Mars. Elsevier.NY.
  11. Wray, J. et al. 2009. Columbus Crater and other possible plaelakes in Terra Sirenum, Mars. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 40: 1896.
  12. "Martian "Lake Michigan" Filled Crater, Minerals Hint". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
  13. "Target Zone: Nilosyrtis? | Mars Odyssey Mission THEMIS". Themis.asu.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
  14. "HiRISE | Craters and Valleys in the Elysium Fossae (PSP_004046_2080)". Hirise.lpl.arizona.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-04.