The Truce of Andrusovo (Polish : Rozejm w Andruszowie, Russian : Андрусовское перемирие, Andrusovskoye Pieriemiriye, also sometimes known as Treaty of Andrusovo) established a thirteen-and-a-half year truce, signed in 1667 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which had fought the Russo-Polish War since 1654 over the territories of modern-day Ukraine and Belarus.
Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin (for Russia) and Jerzy Chlebowicz (for the Commonwealth) signed the truce on 30 January/9 February 1667 in the village of Andrusovo not far from Smolensk. Representatives of the Cossack Hetmanate were not allowed.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Russia (Muscovy) agreed on the following terms:
The transfer of Kiev to the Russian tsardom had far-reaching consequences. Kiev, situated in the Greek-orthodox part of the Lithuanian Grand Duchy before the Union of Lublin (1569) and in the Polish kingdom thereafter, was the seat of the orthodox metropolitan, who, despite being formally placed under the Roman pope since the Union of Brest (1596), retained authority over the Orthodox population in Poland-Lithuania's eastern territories. Prior to Andrusovo, Kiev had been an orthodox counterweight to the Moscow patriarchate, founded in 1589, and since the metropolitanship of Petro Mohyla hosted the Mohyla Academy, that opened orthodoxy to Western influence. The transfer of Kiev to Russia came only days after patriarch Nikon, who reformed the rites within the Muscovite patriarchate, had won the upper hand over his adversary Avvakum, resulting in an intra-Russian schism ( raskol ) between the Reformed Orthodoxy and the Old Believers.
Kiev now supplied the Russian patriarch with an academy (after Mohyla's offer to found an academy in Moscow had been rejected) on whose scholars Nikon had relied already for his reforms. Nikon himself, having proposed to replace the Russian simfonia (the traditional balance of ecclesiastical and secular power) by a more theocratic model, was banned upon his success, effectively shifting the power balance to the Romanov tsars ruling Russia since the end of the Great Smuta (1613). As the see of the metropolitan, Kiev furthermore granted Moscow influence on the Orthodox population in Poland-Lithuania. "Protection" of the Orthodox population thus became a future argument for Romanov influence over eastern Poland-Lithuania.
In Ukraine, the treaty is often viewed as leading to the partition of the Hetmanate state between its more powerful neighboring states.
From the Polish point of view the treaty is considered a significant mistake that tipped the balance of power in the region and replaced Poland as the dominant state by the emerging Russian Empire.
Aleksey Mikhaylovich was the Tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, and the major Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. Nevertheless, at the time of his death Russia spanned almost 2,000,000,000 acres (8,100,000 km2).
The Pereiaslav Agreement, was an official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Russia in the town of Pereiaslav, in central Ukraine, in January 1654. The ceremony took place concurrently with ongoing negotiations that started on the initiative of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky to address the issue of the Cossack Hetmanate with the ongoing Khmelnytsky Uprising against Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and which concluded the Treaty of Pereiaslav. The treaty itself was finalized in Moscow in April 1654.
A Treaty of Perpetual Peace between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was signed on 6 May 1686 in Moscow by Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth envoys: voivod of Poznań Krzysztof Grzymułtowski and chancellor (kanclerz) of Lithuania Marcjan Ogiński and Russian knyaz Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn. These parties were moved to cooperate after a major geopolitical intervention in Ukraine on the part of the Ottoman Empire.
Right-bank Ukraine is a historical and territorial name for a part of modern Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, as well as the western parts of Kyiv and Cherkasy. It was separated from the left bank during the Ruin.
Left-bank Ukraine is a historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left (East) bank of the Dnieper River, comprising the modern-day oblasts of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy as well as the eastern parts of Kyiv and Cherkasy.
Hetman of Zaporizhian Cossacks is a historical term that has multiple meanings.
Czernihów (Chernihiv) Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from 1635 until Khmelnytsky Uprising in 1648. Also it was used as a fictitious title in the Commonwealth until the Partitions of Poland in 1772/1795. In 1635, Marcin Kalinowski was the first voivode (governor) of the Chernihiv Voivodeship.
Hlukhiv or Glukhov is a small historic town on the Esman River. It is a city of regional significance in the Sumy region of Ukraine, just south of the Russian border. Hlukhiv is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Hlukhiv Municipality includes Hlukhiv and the village of Sliporod. Hlukhiv also serves as administrative center of Hlukhiv Raion but does not belong to the raion. Population: 32,248
The Cossack Hetmanate, officially known as the Zaporizhian Host was a Ukrainian Cossack state in the region of what is today Central Ukraine between 1648 and 1764.
The Treaty of Hadiach was a treaty signed on 16 September 1658 in Hadiach between representatives of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Zaporozhian Cossacks. It was designed to elevate the Cossacks and Ruthenians to the position equal to that of Poland and Lithuania in the Polish–Lithuanian union and in fact transforming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into a Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth.
The Russo–Polish War of 1654–1667, also called the Thirteen Years' War and the First Northern War, was a major conflict between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Between 1655 and 1660, the Swedish invasion was also fought in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and so the period became known in Poland as "The Deluge" or Swedish Deluge.
The Ruin is a historical term introduced by the Cossack chronicle writer Samiilo Velychko (1670–1728) for the political situation in Ukrainian history during the second half of the 17th century.
The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus', also externally referenced as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter I in 1721.
Pavlo Teteria (1620s–1670) was Hetman of Right-bank Ukraine (1663–1665). His real name is Pavlo Morzhkovsky. Before his hetmancy he served in a number of high positions under Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and Ivan Vyhovsky.
Sylvester Kossów, Kosiv or Kosov was a Ruthenian Orthodox metropolitan of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Polish-Ruthenian writer. He served as metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and all Ruthenia (1647–1657) during the Khmelnytsky uprising. His official title was Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and All-Ruthenia.
Jerzy Niemirycz or Yuriy Nemyrych was a Polish-Lithuanian magnate and politician of Ruthenian stock and Cossack Hetmanate official and diplomat.
The Battle of Podhajce was fought in the town of Podhajce in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the area surrounding it as part of the Polish-Tartar War and the Great Turkish War. The army of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth under John III Sobieski, totaling around 9,000 men, defeated Tatar and Cossack forces under Petro Doroshenko and Adil Giray, which totaled around 35,000 men.
Ottoman Ukraine, Khan Ukraine, Hanshchyna is a historical term for right-bank Ukraine also known after its Turkic name Yedisan. The first mentioned records are traced to 1737 when the Russian secret agent Lupul was urging to attack Ottoman Ukraine.
Kiev Governorate, or the Government of Kiev, was an administrative division of the Tsardom of Russia and then the Russian Empire. The government was established in December 1708 as one of the eight guberniyas first created during the reforms of Peter the Great.
Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host is a former historic government office and political institution of the Cossack Hetmanate that was its head of state. The office was liquidated on the edict of Russian Governing Senate of 17 November 1764.