|Male common blackbird (T. merula)|
|Genus:|| Turdus |
| Turdus viscivorus |
True thrushes are medium-sized mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Turdus of the wider thrush family, Turdidae. The genus name Turdus is Latin for "thrush".The term "thrush" is used for many other birds of the family Turdidae as well as for a number of species belonging to several other families.
The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. Several species have also colonised some oceanic islands, and two species have been introduced to New Zealand. Some New World species are called robins, the most well known of which is the American robin. Several species are migratory.
While some species are often split out of Turdus, the two small thrushes formerly separated in Platycichla by many authors have been restored to the present genus in recent years.
The genus Turdus was introduced by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae .The type species was subsequently designated as the mistle thrush. The name Turdus is the Latin word for a "thrush".
The genus contains 87 extant species and one recently extinct:
|Image||Common Name||Scientific name||Distribution|
|Groundscraper thrush||Turdus litsitsirupa||Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe|
|Ethiopian thrush||Turdus simensis||Ethiopia, Eritrea|
|Chinese thrush||Turdus mupinensis||China and far northern Vietnam|
|Song thrush||Turdus philomelos||Europe, North Africa and the Middle East|
|Mistle thrush||Turdus viscivorus||Europe and temperate Asia|
|African thrush||Turdus pelios||from Senegal and Gambia in the west to South Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea south to northwestern Zambia and western Angola|
|Príncipe thrush||Turdus xanthorhynchus||Príncipe|
|São Tomé thrush||Turdus olivaceofuscus||São Tomé|
|Abyssinian thrush||Turdus abyssinicus||Africa from South Sudan south to northern Mozambique|
|Taita thrush||Turdus helleri||Taita Hills in Kenya|
|Usambara thrush||Turdus roehli||Tanzania|
|Olive thrush||Turdus olivaceus||Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the north to the Cape of Good Hope|
|Kurrichane thrush||Turdus libonyana||Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe|
|Comoro thrush||Turdus bewsheri||Comoros Islands|
|Bare-eyed thrush||Turdus tephronotus||Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania|
|Karoo thrush||Turdus smithi||South Africa, where it is present in Little Namaqualand, the Karoo and Northern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and parts of the North West Province|
|Somali thrush or Somali blackbird||Turdus ludoviciae||Somalia|
|Chinese blackbird||Turdus mandarinus||south, central and east China|
|Redwing||Turdus iliacus||Europe and Asia, from Iceland south to northernmost Scotland, and east through Scandinavia, the Baltic States, northern Poland and Belarus, and through most of Russia to about 165°E in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug|
|Common blackbird||Turdus merula||temperate Eurasia, North Africa, the Canary Islands, and South Asia|
|Yemen thrush||Turdus menachensis||Middle East|
|Taiwan thrush||Turdus niveiceps||Taiwan|
|Grey-winged blackbird||Turdus boulboul||south-eastern Asia from the Himalayas to northern Vietnam|
|Indian blackbird||Turdus simillimus||India and Sri Lanka|
|Tickell's thrush||Turdus unicolor||Himalayas, and peninsular India|
|Black-breasted thrush||Turdus dissimilis||southwestern China|
|Japanese thrush||Turdus cardis||central China and Japan and northern Laos and Vietnam|
|Grey-backed thrush||Turdus hortulorum||northeastern China and Russia Far East and winters in southern China and northern Vietnam|
|Eyebrowed thrush||Turdus obscurus||Siberia south to China and Southeast Asia|
|Pale thrush||Turdus pallidus||south-east Siberia, north-east China and Korea and may breed in Japan|
|Grey-sided thrush||Turdus feae||north-east China and migrating to subtropical or tropical moist montane forest in India, and Indochina|
|Brown-headed thrush||Turdus chrysolaus||Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Hainan and the northern Philippines|
|Izu thrush||Turdus celaenops||Izu and Ryukyu Islands of Japan|
|Island thrush||Turdus poliocephalus||Taiwan, through South East Asia and Melanesia, to Samoa|
|Tibetan blackbird||Turdus maximus||Himalayas from northern Pakistan to southeastern Tibet|
|White-backed thrush||Turdus kessleri||central China|
|Fieldfare||Turdus pilaris||northern Norway, northern Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Eastern France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Siberia as far east as Transbaikal, the Aldan River, the Tian Shan Mountains in North West China, Anatolia, Israel, Iran and Northwest India, and occasionally Northeast India. It is a vagrant to Iceland, Greenland, Spitsbergen, the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, Madeira, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta and Cyprus. It is a very rare breeder in the British Isles, but winters in large numbers in the United Kingdom, Southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.|
|Ring ouzel||Turdus torquatus||western and central Europe and also in the Caucasus and in the Scandinavian mountains|
|Black-throated thrush||Turdus atrogularis||east of Europe to Western Siberia and north-west Mongolia|
|Red-throated thrush||Turdus ruficollis||Asia|
|Dusky thrush||Turdus eunomus||south to southeast Asia, principally in China and neighbouring countries|
|Naumann's thrush||Turdus naumanni||South Asia to Southeast Asia|
|Chestnut thrush||Turdus rubrocanus||western Himalayas and central/southwestern China; it winters in Eastern Himalaya and northern Southeast Asia|
|White-collared blackbird||Turdus albocinctus||Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan|
|Sulawesi thrush||Turdus turdoides||Sulawesi Island in Indonesia|
|American robin||Turdus migratorius||North America, from Alaska and Canada southward to northern Florida and Mexico|
|Black thrush||Turdus infuscatus||El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico|
|Rufous-collared thrush||Turdus rufitorques||Middle America, south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, occurring in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Chiapas state in Mexico|
|Sooty thrush||Turdus nigrescens||Costa Rica and western Panama|
|Red-legged thrush||Turdus plumbeus||the Bahamas, Cayman Brac, Cuba, Dominica, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), Puerto Rico|
|Grand Cayman thrush||†Turdus ravidus||Grand Cayman (extinct since 1938)|
|White-chinned thrush||Turdus aurantius||Jamaica|
|Forest thrush||Turdus lherminieri||Dominica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, and Saint Lucia|
|Mountain thrush||Turdus plebejus||southern Mexico to western Panama|
|Pale-eyed thrush||Turdus leucops||Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela|
|White-eyed thrush||Turdus jamaicensis||Jamaica|
|La Selle thrush||Turdus swalesi||Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti)|
|Chestnut-bellied thrush||Turdus fulviventris||western Venezuela, western Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru and northwestern Bolivia|
|Plumbeous-backed thrush||Turdus reevei||Ecuador and Peru|
|Chiguanco thrush||Turdus chiguanco||Ecuador and the Altiplano|
|Andean slaty thrush||Turdus nigriceps||north-west Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru|
|Glossy-black thrush||Turdus serranus||northern Venezuela to northwestern Argentina|
|Black-hooded thrush||Turdus olivater||Venezuela and Colombia|
|Great thrush||Turdus fuscater||Andes in western and northern Venezuela as far as Lara and Trujillo, the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and finally, northwest Bolivia|
|Austral thrush||Turdus falcklandii||south Argentina and south and central Chile|
|Lawrence's thrush||Turdus lawrencii||Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela|
|Pantepui thrush||Turdus murinus||foothills of s Venezuela and Guyana|
|Blacksmith thrush||Turdus subalaris||north-east Argentina, eastern Paraguay and southern Brazil|
|Creamy-bellied thrush||Turdus amaurochalinus||central and eastern South America|
|Tristan thrush||Turdus eremita||British overseas territories of the isolated Tristan da Cunha archipelago|
|Marañón thrush||Turdus maranonicus||southern Ecuador and northern Peru|
|Black-billed thrush||Turdus ignobilis||western Amazonia and on the Guianan Shield, occurring in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, and Bolivia|
|Campina thrush||Turdus arthuri||lowlands of se Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname, e Colombia and wc Amazonian Brazil|
|Yellow-legged thrush||Turdus flavipes||northern Colombia, Venezuela, far northern Brazil, Trinidad, and Tobago, as well as parts of the Pakaraima Mountains in western Guyana, eastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and far northeastern Argentina|
|White-throated thrush||Turdus assimilis||Central America|
|Dagua thrush||Turdus daguae||Panama to north-western Ecuador|
|White-necked thrush||Turdus albicollis||eastern Brazil, far northern Uruguay, eastern Paraguay and far north-eastern Argentina|
|Rufous-backed robin||Turdus rufopalliatus||southeastern Sonora to the southeastern corner of Oaxaca along the coast and in the Río Balsas drainage, with isolated populations in Mexico City and Oaxaca City|
|Pale-vented thrush||Turdus obsoletus||Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru|
|Pale-breasted thrush||Turdus leucomelas||eastern and northern South America|
|Cocoa thrush||Turdus fumigatus||South America|
|Hauxwell's thrush||Turdus hauxwelli||Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela|
|Rufous-bellied thrush||Turdus rufiventris||southeast Brazil from Maranhão south to Rio Grande do Sul states, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and northern regions of Argentina|
|Clay-colored robin||Turdus grayi||South Texas (where it is rapidly expanding its range) to northern Colombia|
|Spectacled thrush||Turdus nudigenis||South America from Colombia and Venezuela south and east to northern Brazil, and in Trinidad and Tobago|
|Ecuadorian thrush||Turdus maculirostris||western Ecuador and far northwestern Peru|
|Várzea thrush||Turdus sanchezorum||western Amazon|
|Unicolored thrush||Turdus haplochrous||Bolivia|
Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Turdus:
Orioles are colourful Old World passerine birds in the genus Oriolus, the type genus of the corvoidean family Oriolidae. They are not closely related to the New World orioles, which are icterids that belong to the superfamily Passeroidea.
The common bulbul is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is found in north-eastern, northern, western and central Africa.
Lanius, the typical shrikes, are a genus of passerine birds in the shrike family Laniidae. The majority of the family's species are placed in this genus. The genus name, Lanius, is derived from the Latin word for "butcher", and some shrikes are also known as "butcher birds" because of their feeding habits. The common English name "shrike" is from Old English scríc, "shriek", referring to the shrill call.
The brown-eared bulbul is a medium-sized bulbul native to eastern Asia. It is extremely common within the northern parts of its range and can be found from southern Sakhalin to the northern Philippines.
The sombre greenbul is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is a resident breeder in coastal bush, evergreen forest and dry shrub land in eastern and southern Africa. It is the only member of the genus Andropadus.
Muscicapa is a genus of passerine birds belonging to the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae, and therein to the typical flycatchers of subfamily Muscicapinae. They are widespread across Europe, Africa and Asia with most species occurring in forest and woodland habitats. Several species are migratory, moving south from Europe and northern Asia for the winter.
Alophoixus is a genus of songbird in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae found in south-eastern Asia.
The yellow-throated greenbul is a species of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is an African species found in east-central and southern Tanzania.
The stripe-cheeked greenbul is a species of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is found in south-eastern Africa. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
Criniger is a genus of songbirds in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae. The species of Criniger are found in western and central Africa.
The eastern bearded greenbul is a species of songbird in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae. It is found from south-eastern Nigeria to Central African Republic, north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo and extreme north-western Angola. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
Hemixos is a songbird genus in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae.
Hypsipetes is a genus of bulbuls, songbirds in the family Pycnonotidae. Most of its species occur in tropical forests around the Indian Ocean. But while the genus is quite diverse in the Madagascar region at the western end of its range it does not reach the African mainland.
Ixos is a genus of passerine birds in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae.
Pycnonotus is a genus of frugivorous passerine birds in the bulbul family Pycnonotidae.
The orange-spotted bulbul is a species of songbird in the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is endemic to Java, Bali and Sumatra.
Iole is a genus of songbirds in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae. They are native to tropical eastern Asia, from India to China and south through Southeast Asia to northern Indonesia.
Microscelis is a former genus of bulbuls.
The dark-capped bulbul is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is found in central, eastern and south-eastern Africa.
The Somali bulbul is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is found in north-eastern Africa.