The Truku War (Chinese : 太魯閣戰爭 (Tàilǔgé zhànzhēng), Truku language: Tmgjiyal mrata Nihung), is series of events happened between May and August 1914, involving the Truku indigenous group uprising against colonial Japanese forces in Japanese Taiwan.
The conflict's main scope was to dominate the area around the area today known as Hualien County, until then controlled by the Truku people. Since the beginning of the Japanese Occupation of Taiwan in 1895, the Truku Tribe was seen as a major target in that area and for many years before the capitulation Sakuma Samata. The Governor-General of Taiwan employed massive resources in order to contain and overpower the resistance of Truku warriors, mobilizing as many as 20,000 soldiers and police officers in the field against a population of about 2,000 aboriginals. During a battle, Sakuma Samata was seriously injured but in the second half of August 1914, the Japanese declared victory over the Truku and on August 28, the Governor-General of Taiwan declared the end of the war.
In 1896, due to the rising anger of the Truku people, Japanese Second Lieutenant Yuuki and his 21 subordinates were ambushed and killed in Xincheng, Hualien. This episode is known as the Xincheng Incident. In 1906, the Weili Incident resulted in the death of 36 people among Japanese merchants and in the Hualien Administrative Division due to the dispute of the Truku people over the Japanese monopoly production of natural camphor.
Governor-General of Taiwan Sakuma Samata's ultimate goal was to attack the Truku tribe and to take control of the mountainous area in Hualien to exploit the natural resources such as minerals and wood. In 1913, the Governor-General of Taiwan gave orders to the relative divisions to evaluate and assess the number of the local population in the Hualien/Taroko area. The Truku people resided in eastern Taiwan and were pretty much isolated by natural barriers such as rivers, cliffs and the coastline. There were 15 villages in Btulan area, 33 villages in outer Taroko area and 46 villages in inner Taroko area with total population of around 15,000 people. About 5,000 of the was able to join the war.[ clarification needed ] It is estimated that the local aboriginals were equipped with more than 2,000 modern weapons like Mauser, Murata rifle, Winchester rifle, and Matchlock with about 50,000 rounds of ammunition.
Sakuma Samata, at that time Governor-General of Taiwan, employed massive resources in order to contain and overpower the resistance of Truku warriors mobilizing as many as 20,000 soldiers and police officers on the field against a population of about 2,000 aboriginals. During a battle, Sakuma Samata was seriously injured but in the second half of August 1914, the Japanese declared victory over the Truku and on August 28, the Governor-General of Taiwan declared the end of the war.
After the war, the Governor-General of Taiwan conducted the restoration of damaged bridges, roads, and local police posts. The weapons owned by the aboriginals were confiscated and the escaped aboriginal tribal people were pacified. New subdivisions under Hualien Administrative Division were set up in Xincheng and inner-Taroko areas. Further police forces were introduced into remote mountain areas taking thorough and full control of the aboriginal neighborhoods. A lot of Truku people were moved in groups to the plains and were scattered into many different locations. Some of them were moved to Chinese Han neighborhoods as well. By taking this action, the Japanese hoped to undermine the Truku's social structure, traditional culture and beliefs. Children educational places were introduced in every police administrative areas in order to promote Japanese culture.
Traditional tribal lifestyles and means of self-sustenance of Truku people such as hunting and local farming were also discouraged, pushing for the development of fixed-farming agriculture such as silk, ramie, and tobacco.
Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese, Yuanzhumin or Gāoshān people, are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number about 569,000 or 2.38% of the island's population. This total is increased to more than 800,000 people if the indigenous peoples of the plains in Taiwan are included, pending future official recognition. Recent research suggests their ancestors may have been living on Taiwan for approximately 6,500 years. A wide body of evidence suggests Taiwan's indigenous people maintained regular trade networks with regional cultures before major Han (Chinese) immigration from continental Asia began in the 17th century.
Taroko National Park is one of the nine national parks in Taiwan and was named after the Taroko Gorge, the landmark gorge of the park carved by the Liwu River. The park spans Taichung Municipality, Nantou County, and Hualien County and is located at Xiulin Township, Hualien County, Taiwan.
Hualien County is a county on the east coast of Taiwan. It is the largest county by area, yet due to its mountainous terrain, has one of the lowest populations in the country. The county seat and largest city is Hualien City.
The Musha Incident (Chinese and Japanese: 霧社事件; pinyin: Wùshè Shìjiàn; Wade–Giles: Wu4-she4 Shih4-chien4; rōmaji: Musha Jiken; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Bū-siā Sū-kiāⁿ), also known as the Wushe Rebellion and several other similar names, began in October 1930 and was the last major uprising against colonial Japanese forces in Japanese Taiwan. In response to long-term oppression by Japanese authorities, the Seediq Indigenous group in Musha (Wushe) attacked the village, killing over 130 Japanese. In response, the Japanese led a relentless counter-attack, killing over 600 Seediq in retaliation. The handling of the incident by the Japanese authorities was strongly criticized, leading to many changes in Aboriginal policy.
The Taroko people, also known as Truku people, are an Indigenous Taiwanese people. Taroko is also the name of the area of Taiwan where the Taroko reside. The Executive Yuan, Republic of China has officially recognized the Taroko since 15 January 2004. The Taroko are the 12th aboriginal group in Taiwan to receive this recognition.
Seediq is an Atayalic language spoken in the mountains of Northern Taiwan by the Seediq and Taroko people.
Japanese Taiwan was the period of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands under Japanese rule between 1895 and 1945.
General Count Sakuma Samata was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, and 5th Governor-General of Taiwan from 11 April 1906 to May 1915.
The Seediq are a Taiwanese indigenous people who live primarily in Nantou County and Hualien County. Their language is also known as Seediq.
Xincheng Station is a railway station of the Taiwan Railways Administration North-link line located in Xincheng Township, Hualien County, Taiwan. To promote the sight-seeing in nearby area, the local committees decided to change the station name to Taroko according to the famous Taroko Gorge. The new name was effective from August 2007. But during the transition period, most of the signs contain both name versions of the station to avoid ambiguity.
Xiulin Township / Sioulin Township is a mountain indigenous township of Hualien County, Taiwan. It is located northwest of Hualien City, and is the largest township in Taiwan by area (1,641.86 km²) with 9 villages. It has a population of 15,494, most of which are the indigenous Taroko people.
The Taroko Express is an express train service of the Taiwan Railways Administration, and is part of Tze-Chiang Limited Express. The name of the service comes from the 19 kilometer long Taroko Gorge, which is one of Taiwan's most popular tourist spots, and the Truku people. It began commercial operations on 16 February 2007.
The Beipu Incident, or the Beipu Uprising, in 1907 was the first instance of an armed local uprising against the Japanese rule of the island of Taiwan. In response to oppression of the local population by the Japanese authorities, a group of insurgents from the Hakka subgroup of Han Chinese and Saisiyat indigenous group in Hokuho, Shinchiku Chō, attacked Japanese officials and their families. In retaliation, Japanese military and police killed more than 100 Hakka people. The local uprising was the first of its kind in Taiwan under Japanese rule, and led to others over the following years.
The Taroko Gorge Marathon is an annual marathon running race held in Taroko National Park in Hualien, Taiwan.
Five-year plan for governing aborigines, or the Five Year Plan to Subdue the Savages, was a program aimed to use military force to suppress the aborigine populations in Taiwan during the early years of the Japanese Occupation. It was enacted by the fifth Taiwanese governor general, Sakuma Samata from 1910 to 1915.
The Xincheng Incident is an event that took place in 1896 in the city of Xincheng, Karenkō Prefecture, Taiwan, Empire of Japan. The chief of the Truku tribe, Holok Naowi, led 20 aboriginal warriors against the Japanese forces, killing 13 Japanese soldiers.
Wuling, formerly known as Sakuma Pass, is a mountain pass located in Ren'ai, Nantou, Taiwan, transversing the Central Mountain Range near the peak of Hehuanshan within Taroko National Park. It is the highest paved road in elevation in Taiwan.
Dayuling, formerly Hehuan Pass, is a mountain pass in Taiwan transversing the Central Mountain Range between Hehuanshan and Mt. Bilu (畢祿山), within Taroko National Park. Administratively, it is located in Xiulin, Hualien County near the border with Nantou County.
The Liwu River is a river entirely located in Xiulin Township, Hualien County, Taiwan. The deep gorges of Taroko National Park are formed by this river.
On 2 April 2021, at 09:28 NST (01:28 UTC), a Taroko Express train operated by the Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA) derailed at the north entrance of Qingshui Tunnel in Heren Section, Xiulin Township, Hualien County, Taiwan, killing 49 people and injuring at least 200 others. At the time of the accident, the train was carrying 494 passengers. The eight-carriage train derailed after colliding with a construction truck that had fallen down a slope onto the tracks north of Hualien City, and came to rest in the tunnel, with severe damage and many casualties.