Trunajaya

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Trunajaya (Madurese) or Tronajâyâ, also known as Panembahan Maduretno (1649 2 January 1680 [1] ), was a prince and warlord from Arosbaya, Bangkalan, Madura, known for leading a rebellion against the rulers of the Mataram Sultanate on the island of Java.

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Rebellion

Trunajaya was born in Madura. In 1674 he led a revolt against Amangkurat I and Amangkurat II of Mataram. [2] He was supported by itinerant fighters from Makassar led by Kraeng Galesong. [2] The Trunajaya rebellion moved swiftly and strong, and captured the Mataram court at Plered in mid-1677.

The Mataramish king, Amangkurat I, escaped to the north coast with his eldest son, the future king Amangkurat II, leaving his younger son Pangeran Puger in Mataram. Apparently more interested in profit and revenge than in running a struggling empire, the rebel Trunajaya looted the court and withdrew to his stronghold in Kediri, East Java, leaving Prince Puger in control of a weak court.

While on his way to Batavia in order to ask the Dutch for help, Amangkurat I died in the village of Tegalarum near Tegal just after his expulsion, making Amangkurat II king in 1677. [2] He too was nearly helpless, having fled without an army or a treasury to build one. In an attempt to regain his kingdom, he made substantial concessions to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Batavia, who then went to war to reinstate him. He promised to give VOC the port town of Semarang if they lent him troops. [2]

The Dutch agreed, since for them, a stable Mataram empire that was deeply indebted to them would help ensure continued trade on favourable terms. The multinational Dutch forces, consisting of light-armed troops from Makassar and Ambon, in addition to heavily equipped European soldiers, first defeated Trunajaya in Kediri in November 1678. Trunajaya himself was captured in 1679 near Ngantang west of Malang. He was executed by order of Amangkurat II in Payak, Bantul, on 2 January 1680.

Legacy

The Trunajaya rebellion is remembered with pride as a heroic struggle by the Madurese people, against foreign forces of the Mataramish state and the Dutch VOC. Today his career is commemorated as the name of Trunojoyo Airport in Sumenep and Trunojoyo University in Bangkalan, Madura.

Reference

Notes

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Raden Kajoran, also Panembahan Rama was a Javanese Muslim nobleman and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion against the Mataram Sultanate. He led the rebel forces which overran and sacked Plered, Mataram's capital in June 1677. In September 1679, his forces were defeated by the combined Dutch, Javanese, and Bugis forces under Sindu Reja and Jan Albert Sloot in a battle in Mlambang, near Pajang. Kajoran surrendered but was executed under Sloot's orders.

I Maninrori Kare Tojeng, also known as Karaeng Galesong, was a Makassarese nobleman and warrior, and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion in Java against the Mataram Sultanate. He participated in the successful invasion of East Java and the subsequent rebel victory at Battle of Gegodog (1676). He later broke out with Trunajaya, and built a stronghold in Kakaper, East Java. Dutch East India Company (VOC) and Bugis forces took Kakaper in October 1679, but Galesong escaped and rejoined Trunajaya. He died on 21 November 1679, either by illness or murdered by Trunajaya, before the rebellion ended.

1678 Kediri campaign Military campaign in which Mataram and VOC forces took Kediri from Trunajaya

The 1678 Kediri campaign took place from August to December 1678 in Kediri during the Trunajaya rebellion. The forces of the Mataram Sultanate, led by Amangkurat II, and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), led by Anthonio Hurdt, marched inland into eastern Java against Trunajaya's forces. After a series of marches beset by logistical difficulties and harassment by Trunajaya's forces, the Mataram–VOC army crossed the Brantas River on the night of 16–17 November. They then marched on Trunajaya's capital and stronghold at Kediri and took it by direct assault on 25 November. Kediri was plundered by the Dutch and Javanese victors, and the Mataram treasury—captured by Trunajaya after his victory at Plered—was completely lost in the looting. Trunajaya himself fled Kediri and continued his greatly weakened rebellion until his capture at the end of 1679.

Hermanus Johannes de Graaf was a Dutch historian specialising in the history of Java, Indonesia's most populous island. Trained as historian at Leiden University, he moved to Batavia to take a government job, and later became a teacher for various schools in Indonesia. At the same time, he pursued his interest in the history of Indonesia and published books and articles on the topic. After a brief assignment at the University of Indonesia, he returned to the Netherlands. He taught at various institutions, including Leiden, until 1967 and continued to publish scholarly works, even after his retirement. He suffered a serious stroke in 1982 and died two years later.

Anthonio Hurdt was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) officer active in what is now Indonesia in the seventeenth century. He was initially assigned in civilian positions in Eastern Indonesia, the latest of which was the VOC Governor of Ambon. He was then posted to Java—in Western Indonesia—to lead the Kediri campaign against Trunajaya. After a protracted march slowed by logistical challenges, VOC and its ally Mataram overran Trunajaya and took his stronghold and court at Kediri, 25 November 1678. After the campaign he served in Batavia, becoming Director-General of the VOC in the Indies from 1684 to 1687, when he was expelled due to a dispute with Governor-General Joannes Camphuys.

The Javanese Wars of Succession were three military confrontations between the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the Mataram Sultanate on central Java between 1703 and 1755. The hereditary succession in Maratam was at stake, prompting the VOC to field its own candidates in an attempt to gain more influence in central and eastern Java. At the end of the Javanese Wars of Succession, Mataram was carved into three weak Vorstenlanden, independent in name only, as a consequence of the divide and rule policy of the VOC.