Tryptoline

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Tryptoline
Tryptoline structure.png
Names
IUPAC name
1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole
Other names
Noreleagnine
Tetrahydronorharman
2,3,4,9-Tetrahydro-1H-β-carboline
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.156.194 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
PubChem CID
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C11H12N2/c1-2-4-10-8(3-1)9-5-6-12-7-11(9)13-10/h1-4,12-13H,5-7H2 Yes check.svgY
    Key: CFTOTSJVQRFXOF-UHFFFAOYSA-N Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/C11H12N2/c1-2-4-10-8(3-1)9-5-6-12-7-11(9)13-10/h1-4,12-13H,5-7H2
    Key: CFTOTSJVQRFXOF-UHFFFAOYAW
  • c1ccc2c(c1)c3c([nH]2)CNCC3
Properties
C11H12N2
Molar mass 172.226 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Tryptoline, also known as tetrahydro-β-carboline and tetrahydronorharmane, is a natural organic derivative of beta-carboline. It is an alkaloid chemically related to tryptamines. Derivatives of tryptoline have a variety of pharmacological properties and are known collectively as tryptolines.

Contents

Pharmacology

Many tryptolines are competitive selective inhibitors of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A). 5-Hydroxytryptoline and 5-methoxytryptoline (pinoline) are the most active monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) with IC50s of 0.5 μM and 1.5 μM respectively, using 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) as substrate.

Tryptolines are also potent reuptake inhibitors of serotonin and epinephrine, with a significantly greater selectivity for serotonin. Comparison of the inhibition kinetics of tetrahydro-β-carbolines for serotonin and epinephrine reuptake to that of the platelet aggregation response to these amines has shown that 5-hydroxymethtryptoline, methtryptoline, and tryptoline are poor inhibitors of reuptake. In all respects 5-hydroxytryptoline and 5-methoxytryptoline showed greater pharmacological activity than the tryptoline and methtryptoline.

Although the in vivo formation of tryptolines has been a matter of controversy, they have profound pharmacological activity.

See also

Related Research Articles

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). They are best known as highly efficacious anti-depressants, as well as effective therapeutic agents for panic disorder and social phobia. They are particularly effective in treatment-resistant depression and atypical depression. They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and several other disorders.

Monoamine neurotransmitter

Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). Examples are dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin.

Phenethylamine

Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine, which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans. In the brain, phenethylamine regulates monoamine neurotransmission by binding to trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in monoamine neurons. To a lesser extent, it also acts as a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system. In mammals, phenethylamine is produced from the amino acid L-phenylalanine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase via enzymatic decarboxylation. In addition to its presence in mammals, phenethylamine is found in many other organisms and foods, such as chocolate, especially after microbial fermentation.

Tranylcypromine

Tranylcypromine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI); more specifically, tranylcypromine acts as nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). It is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent in the clinical treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively.

<i>beta</i>-Carboline Chemical compound also known as norharmane

β-Carboline (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), also known as norharmane, is a nitrogen containing heterocycle. It is also the prototype of a class of indole alkaloid compounds known as β-carbolines.

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms. SNRIs are monoamine reuptake inhibitors; specifically, they inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters are thought to play an important role in mood regulation. SNRIs can be contrasted with the more widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which act upon serotonin only.

Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor or noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET). This in turn leads to increased extracellular concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine and therefore can increase adrenergic neurotransmission.

Harmala alkaloid Group of chemical compounds

Several alkaloids that function as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are found in the seeds of Peganum harmala, as well as tobacco leaves including harmine, harmaline, and harmalol, which are members of a group of substances with a similar chemical structure collectively known as harmala alkaloids. These alkaloids are of interest for their use in Amazonian shamanism, where they are derived from other plants. The harmala alkaloid harmine, once known as telepathine and banisterine, is a naturally occurring beta-carboline alkaloid that is structurally related to harmaline, and also found in the vine Banisteriopsis caapi. Tetrahydroharmine is also found in B. caapi and P. harmala. Dr. Alexander Shulgin has suggested that harmine may be a breakdown product of harmaline. Harmine and harmaline are reversible MAOIs of the MAO-A isoform of the enzyme, and can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of monoamine compounds such as serotonin and norepinephrine.

Harmine is a beta-carboline and a harmala alkaloid. It occurs in a number of different plants, most notably the Syrian rue and Banisteriopsis caapi. Harmine reversibly inhibits monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), an enzyme which breaks down monoamines, making it a RIMA. Harmine does not inhibit MAO-B. Harmine is also known as banisterine, telepathine, leucoharmine and yageine.

Harmaline Chemical compound

Harmaline is a fluorescent indole alkaloid from the group of harmala alkaloids and beta-carbolines. It is the partially hydrogenated form of harmine.

Trimipramine

Trimipramine, sold under the brand name Surmontil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression. It has also been used for its sedative, anxiolytic, and weak antipsychotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, respectively. The drug is described as an atypical or "second-generation" TCA because, unlike other TCAs, it seems to be a fairly weak monoamine reuptake inhibitor. Similarly to other TCAs however, trimipramine does have antihistamine, antiserotonergic, antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, and anticholinergic activities.

Indole alkaloid

Indole alkaloids are a class of alkaloids containing a structural moiety of indole; many indole alkaloids also include isoprene groups and are thus called terpene indole or secologanin tryptamine alkaloids. Containing more than 4100 known different compounds, it is one of the largest classes of alkaloids. Many of them possess significant physiological activity and some of them are used in medicine. The amino acid tryptophan is the biochemical precursor of indole alkaloids.

Brofaromine

Brofaromine is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) discovered by Ciba-Geigy. The compound was primarily researched in the treatment of depression and anxiety but its development was dropped before it was brought to market.

Phenyltropane

Phenyltropanes (PTs) were originally developed to reduce cocaine addiction and dependency. In general these compounds act as inhibitors of the plasmalemmal monoamine reuptake transporters. Although RTI holds a strong position in this field, they are not the only researchers that have prepared these analogues. This research has spanned beyond the last couple decades, and has picked up its pace in recent times, creating numerous phenyltropanes as research into cocaine analogues garners interest to treat addiction.

A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. It does this by concomitantly inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively. Inhibition of the reuptake of these neurotransmitters increases their extracellular concentrations and, therefore, results in an increase in serotonergic, adrenergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission.

<i>N</i>-Methylphenethylamine

N-Methylphenethylamine (NMPEA) is a naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulator in humans that is derived from the trace amine, phenethylamine (PEA). It has been detected in human urine and is produced by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase with phenethylamine as a substrate. PEA and NMPEA are both alkaloids that are found in a number of different plant species as well. Some Acacia species, such as A. rigidula, contain remarkably high levels of NMPEA. NMPEA is also present at low concentrations in a wide range of foodstuffs.

Pinoline

Pinoline is a methoxylated tryptoline (5-methoxytryptoline) long claimed to be produced in the pineal gland during the metabolism of melatonin, however its pineal occurrence remains controversial. Its IUPAC name is 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, usually abbreviated as 6-MeO-THBC, and its more common name is a combination of "pineal beta-carboline". The biological activity of this molecule is of interest as a potential free radical scavenger, also known as an antioxidant, and as a monoamine oxidase A inhibitor.

Amiflamine

Amiflamine (FLA-336) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), thereby being a RIMA, and, to a lesser extent, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), as well as a serotonin releasing agent (SRA). It is a derivative of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. The (+)-enantiomer is the active stereoisomer.

RTI-83

RTI-83 is a phenyltropane derivative which represents a rare example of an SDRI or serotonin-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, a drug which inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, while having little or no effect on the reuptake of the related neurotransmitter noradrenaline. With a binding affinity (Ki) of 55 nM at DAT and 28.4 nM at SERT but only 4030 nM at NET, RTI-83 has reasonable selectivity for DAT/SERT over NET

Serotonin–dopamine reuptake inhibitor

A serotonin–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SDRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine by blocking the actions of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively. This in turn leads to increased extracellular concentrations of serotonin and dopamine, and, therefore, an increase in serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission.

References