|Foreign Minister of Mongolia|
22 July 2016 –4 October 2017
|Prime Minister||Jargaltulgyn Erdenebat|
|Preceded by||Lundeg Purevsuren|
|Succeeded by||Damdin Tsogtbaatar|
28 September 2004 –28 January 2006
|Preceded by||Luvsangiin Erdenechuluun|
|Succeeded by||Nyamaagiin Enkhbold|
|Born||18 October 1964|
Baruun-Urt, Sukhbaatar Province, Mongolian People's Republic
Tsend Munkh-Orgil or Tsendiyn Munkh-Orgil (Mongolian : Цэндийн Мөнх-Оргил; born 18 October 1964) is a Mongolian politician. On 22 July 2016, the State Great Khural of Mongolia appointed him as the Foreign Minister of Mongolia.
Munkh-Orgil was born on 18 October 1964 in the town of Baruun-Urt, Sukhbaatar Province, in eastern Mongolia. He graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations with a bachelor's degree in 1988 and Harvard Law School with a master's degree in 1996. Munkh-Orgil joined Mongolian Foreign Service in 1988 and held various diplomatic positions, including at the Permanent Mission of Mongolia to the United Nations in New York. In 1996-2000 he practiced law in the United States and Mongolia.
In December 2016 Tsend stated that the current government of Mongolia would not allow the Dalai Lama to visit.Also he made statements about the need to consolidate Mongolia's budgets that were picked up by international press.
Politics of Mongolia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential multi-party representative democracy. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister, who is the head of government, and the Cabinet. The President is the head of state, but holds limited authority over the executive branch of the government, unlike full presidential republics like the United States. Legislative power is vested in parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital and most populous city of Mongolia. The municipality is located in north central Mongolia at an elevation of about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. The city was originally founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre, changing location 28 times, and was permanently settled at its current location in 1778.
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the leader of the Mongolian People's Republic from 1940 to 1984. During his political life, he served as Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural, Prime Minister of Mongolia and General Secretary of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. He was the longest-serving leader of any Eastern Bloc country, serving over 44 years in office until his expulsion in August 1984.
The Mongolian People's Party is the oldest political party in Mongolia. The party's ideology today is that of social democracy.
Damdin Sükhbaatar was a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that took Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921. For his part in the Outer Mongolian revolution of 1921, he was enshrined as the "Father of Mongolia's Revolution".
The president of Mongolia is the Executive Head of state of Mongolia. The current incumbent is Khaltmaagiin Battulga.
The Bogd Khan was the ruler (khan) of the Bogd Khaganate of Mongolia from 1911 to 1924, following the country's independence from the Qing dynasty of China after the Xinhai Revolution. Born in Tibet, he was the third most important person in the Tibetan Buddhist hierarchy as the 8th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, below only the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, and therefore also known as the "Bogdo Lama". He was the spiritual leader of Outer Mongolia's Tibetan Buddhism. His wife Tsendiin Dondogdulam, the Ekh Dagina, was believed to be a manifestation of White Tara.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1990 was a peaceful democratic revolution that started with demonstrations and hunger strikes to overthrow the Mongolian People's Republic and eventually moved towards the democratic present day Mongolia and the writing of the new constitution. It was spearheaded by mostly younger people demonstrating on Sükhbaatar Square in the capital Ulaanbaatar. It ended with the Communist government resigning without bloodshed. Some of the main organizers were Davaadorjiin Ganbold, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, Erdeniin Bat-Üül, Bat-Erdeniin Batbayar, and Dogmidiin Sosorbaram.
Jamsrangiin Sambuu was a Mongolian politician and diplomat who, as chairman of the presidium of the Mongolian People's Republic People's Great Khural, served as the effective president of the Mongolian People's Republic from 1954 until his death in 1972.
Badmaanyambuugiin Bat-Erdene is a Mongolian politician and athlete. Bat-Erdene is widely regarded in Mongolia as one of the successful, long lasting and celebrated wrestlers. He was also Defense Minister of Mongolia from 2016 to July 2017.
Sükhbaataryn Batbold is a Mongolian politician who was Prime Minister of Mongolia from 2009 to 2012, as well as Chairman of the Mongolian People's Party. He was previously Minister of Foreign Affairs in the government of his predecessor, Sanjaagiin Bayar.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia (MOFA) is the Mongolian government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Mongolia and crafts the country's foreign policy.
Nyamaagiin Enkhbold is a Mongolian politician who is a member of parliament and the president of Mongolian Red Cross Society since 2010. He was the Foreign Minister of Mongolia from 2006 to 2007 and was Defense Minister of Mongolia from October 2017 to July 2020. He was elected continuously 4 times as a Member of the State Great Khural representing the Töv Province.
Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh is a Mongolian politician who is the President-elect of Mongolia after winning the 2021 Mongolian presidential election and will take office on June 25th, 2021. He served as the Prime Minister of Mongolia from 4 October 2017 to 27 January 2021 and is the current chairman of the ruling party, the Mongolian People's Party. He was elected to the Parliament of Mongolia four times – in 2000, 2004, 2012 and 2020, served in the Mongolian government as Minister for Emergency Situations from 2004 to 2006, Minister for Professional Inspection from 2006 to 2008, and in 2014–2015 and 2016–2017 as Deputy Prime Minister of Mongolia. He was also the Secretary-General of the Mongolian People's Party from 2008 to 2012.
Khaltmaagiin Battulga is a Mongolian politician and sambo wrestler who has served as President of Mongolia since July 2017. He served as Member of the State Great Khural from 2004 to 2016 and Minister of Roads, Transportation, Construction and Urban Development from 2008 to 2012. Before his career in politics, Battulga was a sambo wrestling champion. He was the Democratic Party's candidate in the 2017 presidential election and was elected President with 50.6% in the run-off, the first-ever run-off election in modern Mongolian history. Mongolians are sharply divided about his role in the 2019 Mongolian constitutional crisis.
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India–Tibet relations are said to have begun during the spread of Buddhism to Tibet from India during the 7th and 8th centuries AD. In 1959, the Dalai Lama fled to India after the failed 1959 Tibetan uprising. Since then, Tibetans-in-exile have been given asylum in India, with the Indian government accommodating them into 45 residential settlements across 10 states in the country. From around 150,000 Tibetan refugees in 2011, the number fell to 85,000 in 2018, according to government data. Many Tibetans are now leaving India to go back to Tibet and other countries such as United States or Germany. The Government of India, soon after India's independence in 1947, treated Tibet as a de facto independent country. However, more recently India's policy on Tibet has been mindful of Chinese sensibilities, and has recognized Tibet as a part of China.