Цэндийн Дамдинсүрэн (Mongolian)
Matad sum, Dornod aimag, Mongolia
|Notable works||The Secret History of the Mongols (translation into modern language)|
Tsendiin Damdinsüren (Mongolian : Цэндийн Дамдинсүрэн, 1908–1986) was a Mongolian writer and linguist. He wrote the text to one version of the national anthem of Mongolia.
Damdinsüren was born in Mongolia 1908, in what is today the Dornod Aimag (province).
As a young man, he was politically active in the Mongolian Revolutionary Youth League, where he was elected into the Central Committee in 1926, and eventually became an editor of its publications. Later he became the chairman of the Council of Mongolian Trade Unions and was involved in the collectivization and seizures.He joined the MPRP in 1932. In 1933 he continued his education in Leningrad.
After returning to Mongolia in 1938, Damdinsüren became an ally of Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, the future party secretary, Prime Minister, and President. He promoted the switch from the vertically written classical Mongolian script to an adapted Cyrillic script. He was forced to do it as he was politically repressed and imprisoned and was threatened by capital punishment. Between 1942 and 1946 he was an editor for the party newspaper Ünen (The Truth). In 1959 he became chairman of the Committee of Sciences, and between 1953 and 1955 he was chairman of the Writers Union.
Damdinsüren wrote poetry that was well received in Mongolia. He also produced prose and literary studies, and a translation of The Secret History of the Mongols into modern Mongolian. The language of his poems and prose were largely based on the oral literary traditions of Mongolia, which he developed into a classical language of the Mongolian literature of the 20th century. His novel Gologdson Khüükhen Гологдсон хүүхэн, The Rejected Girl) became one of the popular films of the 1960s.(
He created the first large Russian-Mongolian dictionary and wrote the text to the national anthem that was in use between 1950 and 1962, and in parts after 1991.
Shen Dehong, known by the pen name of Mao Dun, was a Chinese essayist, journalist, novelist, and playwright. Mao Dun, as a 20th-century Chinese novelist, literary and cultural critic, and Minister of Culture (1949–65), was one of the most celebrated left-wing realist novelists of modern China. His most famous work is Midnight (子夜), a novel depicting life in cosmopolitan Shanghai. It is also considered to be the work with the greatest influence on his future writing. Furthermore, during the period in which he was writing Midnight, Mao Dun formed a strong friendship with another of China's most famous writers, Lu Xun.
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to Russian-language literature. The roots of Russian literature can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old East Slavic were composed. By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, and from the early 1830s, Russian literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry, prose and drama. Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and later his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore. Prose was flourishing as well. Mikhail Lermontov was one of the most important poets and novelists. The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol. Then came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels. Fyodor Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstoy soon became internationally renowned. Other important figures of Russian realism were Ivan Goncharov, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin and Nikolai Leskov. In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist. The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian poetry. The poets most often associated with the "Silver Age" are Konstantin Balmont, Valery Bryusov, Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Nikolay Gumilyov, Sergei Yesenin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Marina Tsvetaeva. This era produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Fyodor Sologub, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Alexander Belyaev, Andrei Bely and Maxim Gorky.
Malayalam, the lingua franca of the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puduchery, is one of the six Classical languages of India. Malayalam literature comprises those literary texts written in Malayalam, a South-Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala. The first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. Malayalam literature has been presented with 6 Jnanapith awards, the second-most for any Dravidian language and the third-highest for any Indian language.
Articles related to Mongolia include:
Hindi literature includes literature in the various Hindi language which have writing systems. It is broadly classified into four prominent forms (styles) based on the date of production. They are:
Odia is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian state of Odisha. It is the official language in Odisha where native speakers make up 82% of the population, and it is also spoken in parts of West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Odia is one of the many official languages of India; it is the official language of Odisha and the second official language of Jharkhand. The language is also spoken by a sizeable population of at least 1 million people in Chhattisgarh.
Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter. The Republic of India has 22 officially recognised languages.
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The national anthem of Mongolia, known before 1991 as the state anthem of the Mongolian People's Republic, was created in 1950 with music composed by Bilegiin Damdinsüren and Luvsanjambyn Mördorj and lyrics written by Tsendiin Damdinsüren.
Albanian literature stretches back to the Middle Ages and comprises those literary texts and works written in Albanian. It may also refer to literature written by Albanians in Albania, Kosovo and the Albanian diaspora particularly in Italy. Albanian occupies an independent branch within the Indo-European family and does not have any other closely related language. The origin of Albanian is not entirely known, but it may be a successor of the ancient Illyrian language.
The Secret History of the Mongols is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language. It was written for the Mongol royal family some time after the 1227 death of Genghis Khan. The author is anonymous and probably originally wrote in the Mongolian script, but the surviving texts all derive from transcriptions or translations into Chinese characters that date from the end of the 14th century and were compiled by the Ming dynasty under the title The Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty. Also known as Tobchiyan in the History of Yuan.
Classical Mongolian was the literary language of Mongolian which was first introduced shortly after 1600, when Ligdan Khan set his clergy the task of translating the whole of the Tibetan Buddhist canon, consisting of the Kanjur and Tanjur, into Mongolian. This script then became the established literary language used for all Mongolian literature since its introduction, until the 1930s when the Mongolian Latin script was established, which then in 1941 was replaced by the Mongolian Cyrillic script.
Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to include oral literature, much of which has been transcribed. Literature is a method of recording, preserving, and transmitting knowledge and entertainment, and can also have a social, psychological, spiritual, or political role.
Jamtsangiin Damdinsüren (1898–1938) was a Mongolian politician, member of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and titular Head of state of Mongolia from the period of January 16, 1927 to January 23, 1929.
Croatian literature refers to literary works attributed to the medieval and modern culture of the Croats, Croatia, and Croatian. Besides the modern language whose shape and orthography was standardized in the late 19th century, it also covers the oldest works produced within the modern borders of Croatia, written in Church Slavonic and Medieval Latin, as well as vernacular works written in Čakavian and Kajkavian dialects.
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Polish–Mongolian literary relations are the interrelationships between Polish and Mongolian literature that date to the late Middle Ages. There are also links between Polish and Mongolian philology and literary studies. Their first manifestations were reports about Mongols in the Polish chronicles and in the relations of medieval Polish travelers to Asia. Knowledge about Mongolia in Poland became more vivid in the 19th century, when many Polish adventurers, prisoners in Siberia, learned people and businessmen of the part of Poland under Russian rule engaged heavily in Siberian, Mongolian, and Chinese affairs. Interest in Polish matters in Mongolia is smaller and dates mainly to the 20th century. There are also literary works about Mongolia in the Polish literature and a few translations of Polish literature into Mongolian, or Mongolian literature into Polish.
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Uzbek literature refers to the literature produced and developed in the Republic of Uzbekistan with additional literary works contributed by the other parts of Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan people of Central Asia. Influenced by the Russian and Turkish literature, Uzbek is predominantly written in Uzbek language with its roots in Chagatai language, one of the widely accessible languages in the region from 14th to 20th century. In Uzbek literature, Chagatai plays an important role as a reference to Central Asian literature, including Uzbekistan.