|Queen consort of Mongolia|
|Tenure||1911 – 1923|
Khentii, Outer Mongolia, Qing dynasty
|Died||1923 (aged 46–47)|
Niislel khuree, Mongolia
|House||Bogd Khanate of Mongolia|
Tsendiin Dondogdulam (1876 – 1923) was the queen consort of Mongolia, married to Bogd Khan.
Dondogdulam Tsend was born on November 15, 1876 in Khentii, Mongolia. She first met Bogd Khan in 1895 during his visit to the Erdene Zuu Monastery. Another time they met in 1900 during a trip to Amarbayasgalant monastery. In 1902 they were married and had a son. According to custom she adopted and raised many children from families that could not care for them. One of them was L. Murdorj who became a prominent Mongolian composer. She and Bogd Khan also initiated and created the Bogd Khan's residence that also housed artisans and craftsmen.
Dondogdulam died in 1923 one year before the death of her spouse. Day of rest was observed on the 15th day of the last month of autumn. Dondogdulam was cremated at the source of the Selbe river near Ulaanbaatar, where at one time she and her husband spent the summer season.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital and most populous city of Mongolia. The municipality is located in north central Mongolia at an elevation of about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. The city was originally founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre, changing location 28 times, and was permanently settled at its current location in 1778.
Damdin Sükhbaatar was a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that took Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921. For his part in the Outer Mongolian revolution of 1921, he was enshrined as the "Father of Mongolia's Revolution".
Baron Roman Fyodorovich von Ungern-Sternberg, often referred to as Baron Ungern, was an anticommunist general in the Russian Civil War and then an independent warlord who intervened in Mongolia against China. A part of the Russian Empire's Baltic German minority, Ungern was an ultraconservative monarchist who aspired to restore the Russian monarchy after the 1917 Russian Revolutions and to revive the Mongol Empire under the rule of the Bogd Khan. His attraction to Vajrayana Buddhism and his eccentric, often violent, treatment of enemies and his own men earned him the sobriquet "the Mad Baron" or "the Bloody Baron".
The Keraites were one of the five dominant Mongol or Turco-Mongol tribal confederations (khanates) in the Altai-Sayan region during the 12th century. They had converted to the Church of the East (Nestorianism) in the early 11th century and are one of the possible sources of the European Prester John legend.
The Bogd Khan Mountain is a mountain in Mongolia that overlooks the nation's capital, Ulaanbaatar, from a height of 2,261 metres (7,418 ft) to the south of the city.
The Gandantegchinlen Monastery is a Mongolian Buddhist monastery in the Mongolian capital of Ulaanbaatar that has been restored and revitalized since 1990. The Tibetan name translates to the "Great Place of Complete Joy". It currently has over 150 monks in residence. It features a 26.5-meter-high statue of Avalokiteśvara. It came under state protection in 1994.
Balingiin Tserendorj titles Khicheengui Said (Хичээнгүй Сайд, Diligent/Earnest Minister); Khicheengui Gün, was a prominent Mongolian political figure of the early 20th century who served as the first Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Mongolia from 1924 until his death in 1928. Between 1913 and 1924 he held several high-ranking positions within a succession of Mongolian governments including; the Bogd Khaanate (1911–1924), the Chinese occupation (1919-1921), and the puppet regime under Roman Ungern von Sternberg (1921).
The Jalkhanz Khutagt Sodnomyn Damdinbazar was a high Buddhist incarnation from northwestern Mongolia who played a prominent role in the country's independence movement in 1911–1912. He served as Prime Minister twice; first in 1921 as part of the Bogd Khan puppet government established by Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, and again from 1922 to 1923 under the revolutionary government of the Mongolian People's Party.
Balduugiin "Marzan" Sharav, was a Mongolian painter.
The Zakhchin is a subgroup of the Oirats residing in Khovd Province, Mongolia. Zakhchin means 'Border people'. They are so called because they originated from the border garrison of Dzungar Empire. They originally speak the Zakhchin dialect of the Oirat language, but actually pure Oirat language is used by elder generations, younger generations use a dialect being under a strong Khalkh influence.
Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren, full title: Sain Noyon Khan Namnansüren, was a powerful hereditary prince and prominent early 20th-century Mongolian independence leader. He served as the first prime minister of Autonomous Mongolia in the government of the Bogd Khan from 1912 until 1915, when the office of prime minister was abolished. He was then appointed minister of the army.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924. Although nominally independent, the Mongolian People's Republic was a satellite state of the Soviet Union until a third Mongolian revolution in January 1990. The revolution also ended the Chinese Beiyang government's occupation of Mongolia, which had begun in 1919. The official Mongolian name of the revolution is "People's Revolution of 1921" or simply "People's Revolution".
Mañjuśrī Monastery is a former gompa established in 1733 and destroyed by Mongolian communists in 1937. Its ruins are located approximately 15 kilometers south of the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar on the south slope of Bogd Khan Mountain.
The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924. By the spring of 1911, some prominent Mongolian nobles including Prince Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren persuaded the Jebstundamba Khutukhtu to convene a meeting of nobles and ecclesiastical officials to discuss independence from the Manchu-led Qing China. On November 30, 1911 the Mongols established the Temporary Government of Khalkha. On December 29, 1911 the Mongols declared their independence from the collapsing Qing Empire following the Xinhai Revolution. They installed as theocratic sovereign the 8th Bogd Gegeen, highest authority of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, who took the title Bogd Khaan or "Holy Ruler". The Bogd Khaan was last khagan of Mongolia. This ushered in the period of "Theocratic Mongolia", also known as the Bogd Khanate.
The Winter Palace of the Bogd Khan, or the Bogd Khan Palace Museum, is a museum complex located in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. It was the Green Palace of the eighth Jebtsundamba Khutughtu, who was later proclaimed Bogd Khan, or ruler of Mongolia. Alongside being the oldest museum, it is also considered as one with the biggest collection in Mongolia. The palace is the only one left from originally four residences of the Bogd Khan.
Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei state, the Rouran Khaganate (330–555), the First (552–603) and Second Turkic Khaganates (682–744) and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia. The Khitan people, who used a para-Mongolic language, founded an empire known as the Liao dynasty (916–1125) and ruled Mongolia and portions of the present-day Russian Far East, northern Korea, and North China.
Da Lam Tserenchimed was a prominent lama and early 20th century Mongolian independence leader. In December 1911, he was appointed interior minister and de facto prime minister in the Bogd Khan's first government of Autonomous Mongolia, a position he held until Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren officially became the first prime minister in July 1912.
Sambadondogiin Tserendorj was recognized as the 6th reincarnate of the Donkor-Manjushri Gegen. He served as chief abbot of the Manjusri Monastery and later was the last acting prime minister of Outer Mongolia during Baron Ungern von Sternberg's occupation of Ikh Khŭree from May to July 1921. Later accused of counterrevolution, he was executed in 1937 at the start of the Stalinist purges in Mongolia (1937–1939).
The history of Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, dates to 1639 when it was first established as a moveable monastery.
Queen Genepil was the last queen consort of Mongolia, married to Bogd Khan. She was queen consort for less than a year in 1924 but her story has captivated successive generations. Queen Genepil was executed in May, 1938, shot as part of the Stalinist repressions in Mongolia, in which a vast amount of the population were killed.