Tsitsernakaberd

Last updated
Tsitsernakaberd
The Armenian Genocide memorial complex (Tsitsernakaberd).JPG
The Armenian Genocide memorial complex on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd in Yerevan, Armenia
Established1967 (memorial)
1995 (museum-institute)
Location Yerevan, Armenia
Visitors~200,000 [1] (up to 150,000 people excluding 24 April) [2]
Director Hayk Demoyan
Website www.genocide-museum.am

The Armenian Genocide memorial complex (Armenian : Հայոց ցեղասպանության զոհերի հուշահամալիր, Hayots tseghaspanutyan zoheri hushahamalir, or Ծիծեռնակաբերդ, Tsitsernakaberd) is Armenia's official memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, built in 1967 on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd (Armenian : Ծիծեռնակաբերդ; Russian : Цицернакаберд) in Yerevan. Every year on April 24—the Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day—thousands of Armenians gather at the memorial to commemorate the victims of the genocide. The people who gather in Tsiternakaberd lay fresh flowers out of respect for all the people who died in the Armenian genocide. Over the years, from around the world, a wide range of politicians, artists, musician, athletes, and religious figures have visited the memorial.

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language that is the only language in the Armenian branch. It is the official language of Armenia as well as the de facto Republic of Artsakh. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Armenian Genocide systematic killing of Armenians residing in the Ottoman Empire

The Armenian Genocide, also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from Constantinople to the region of Angora (Ankara), 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. Other ethnic groups were similarly targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy. Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Contents

The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute (Հայոց ցեղասպանության թանգարան-ինստիտուտ Hayots tseghaspanut'yan tangaran-institut) was opened in 1995.

History

The memorial sits on one of three hills along the Hrazdan River that carry the name Tsitsernakaberd (literally "swallow's fortress"), and was the site of what was once an Iron Age fortress. Most of the above ground traces at this peak have since disappeared, but upon the smaller hill are still traces of a castle. Archaeological surveys took place in 2007, and excavations uncovered a wall that is hundreds of meters long and may still be seen in many places above ground. An altar cut from stone sits in the middle of a square at the edge of one of the hills, and large stones that weigh approximately two tons are still visible that cover graves from the second millennium BC. Apartments were later built along the hills during Roman times, and were built over with other structures during medieval years. Nearby are also the remains of a very large building with a cave.[ citation needed ]

Hrazdan River river in Armenia

The Hrazdan River is a major river and the second largest in Armenia. It originates at the northwest extremity of Lake Sevan and flows south through the Kotayk Province and Armenia's capital, Yerevan; the lake in turn is fed by several streams. In the Ararat plain it joins the Aras River along the border with Turkey. A series of hydro-electric plants have been constructed on the river. Its waters are in demand to irrigate crops.

Swallow family of birds

The swallows, martins and saw-wings, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents, including occasionally in Antarctica. Highly adapted to aerial feeding, they have a distinctive appearance. The term Swallow is used colloquially in Europe as a synonym for the barn swallow. There are around 90 species of Hirundinidae, divided into 19 genera, with the greatest diversity found in Africa, which is also thought to be where they evolved as hole-nesters. They also occur on a number of oceanic islands. A number of European and North American species are long-distance migrants; by contrast, the West and South African swallows are non-migratory.

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. The concept has been mostly applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy, also to other parts of the Old World.

Construction

The idea of a genocide monument has its origin in the early 1960s when Hakob Zarobian was designated first secretary of the Communist Party of Armenia in 1962. On July 16, 1964, historians Tsatur Aghayan (the director of the Armenian branch of the Institute of Marxism–Leninism), Hovhannes Injikian (head of the section of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences), and John Kirakosyan (deputy head of the section of ideology of the Central Committee of the party) sent a highly confidential letter to the Presidium of the Communist Party of Armenia, where they made a series of proposal to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the genocide. Point 8 said: "To build the memorial of the victims of the Armenian people in World War I on account of the income of the population. The memorial must symbolize the rebirth of the Armenian people." On December 13, 1964, Zarobian sent a report-letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, where the grounds and the meaning of the anniversary and the construction of the "monument dedicated to the Armenian martyrs sacrificed in World War I" were noted. The Council of Ministers of Soviet Armenia on March 16, 1965 adopted a resolution about "Building a Monument to Perpetuate the Memory of the Victims of the Yeghern of 1915." [3]

Yakov Zarobyan Secretary of the Communist Party of Armenia

Hakob (Yakov) Zarobian was the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Armenia from 1960 to 1966.

Tsatur Aghayan was a Soviet Armenian historian a Professor at Yerevan State University, an academician of the Armenian Academy of Sciences, the editor of the journal Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri, and a renowned scientist of the Armenian SSR (1974). Aghayan was born in the village of Pip, Dashkesan.

John Kirakosyan was a Soviet Armenian historian and political scientist. He was a Doctor of Historical Sciences and a Professor at Yerevan State University, where he headed the Faculty of Oriental Studies.

The construction of the monument began in 1966, during Soviet times, in response to the 1965 Yerevan demonstrations during which one hundred thousand people demonstrated in Yerevan for 24 hours to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Genocide. [4] They demanded the Soviet authorities officially recognise it as a genocide. The memorial is designed by architects Arthur Tarkhanyan, Sashur Kalashyan and artist Hovhannes Khachatryan and was completed in November 1967. [5] [6]

The 1965 Yerevan demonstrations took place in Yerevan, Armenia on April 24, 1965, on the 50th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. It is said that this event constitutes the first step in the struggle for the recognition of the Armenian Genocide of 1915.

Design

The eternal flame at the center of the twelve slabs (April 24, 2014) The Eternal Flame - Armenian Genocide Memorial in Yerevan.jpg
The eternal flame at the center of the twelve slabs (April 24, 2014)
Mourners walk past the memorial wall which flanks the left side of the esplanade (April 24, 2014) Tsitsernakaberd - 24 April 2014.jpg
Mourners walk past the memorial wall which flanks the left side of the esplanade (April 24, 2014)

The 44-meter stele symbolizes the national rebirth of Armenians. Twelve slabs are positioned in a circle, representing the twelve lost provinces in present-day Turkey. In the center of the circle, at a depth of 1.5 meters, there is an eternal flame dedicated to the 1.5 million people killed during the Armenian Genocide. [7]

Western Armenia a term used for eastern parts of Turkey (formerly the Ottoman Empire) that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians.

Western Armenia, located in Western Asia, is a term used to refer to eastern parts of Turkey that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians. Western Armenia, also referred to as Byzantine Armenia, emerged following the division of Greater Armenia between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Along the park at the memorial there is a 100-meter wall with the names of towns and villages where massacres and deportations are known to have taken place. On the rear side of the commemoration wall, plates have been attached to honor the people who committed themselves to relieving the distress of the survivors during and after the genocide (among others: Johannes Lepsius, Franz Werfel, Armin T. Wegner, Henry Morgenthau Sr., Fridtjof Nansen, Pope Benedict XV, Jakob Künzler, Bodil Biørn).

Johannes Lepsius German Protestant missionary, Orientalist, and humanist

Johannes Lepsius was a German Protestant missionary, Orientalist, and humanist with a special interest in trying to prevent the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire. He initially studied mathematics and philosophy in Munich and a PhD in 1880 with an already award-winning work. Lepsius was one of the founders and the first chairman of the German–Armenian Society.

Franz Werfel Austrian-Bohemian author

Franz Viktor Werfel was an Austrian-Bohemian novelist, playwright, and poet whose career spanned World War I, the Interwar period, and World War II. He is primarily known as the author of The Forty Days of Musa Dagh, a novel based on events that took place during the Armenian Genocide of 1915, and The Song of Bernadette (1941), a novel about the life and visions of the French Catholic saint Bernadette Soubirous, which was made into a Hollywood film of the same name.

Fridtjof Nansen Norwegian polar explorer

Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. In his youth he was a champion skier and ice skater. He led the team that made the first crossing of the Greenland interior in 1888, traversing the island on cross-country skis. He won international fame after reaching a record northern latitude of 86°14′ during his Fram expedition of 1893–1896. Although he retired from exploration after his return to Norway, his techniques of polar travel and his innovations in equipment and clothing influenced a generation of subsequent Arctic and Antarctic expeditions.

An alley of trees has been planted to commemorate the genocide victims.

Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute

Aerial view of the memorial and the museum Ts`eghaspanowt`yan t`angaran.JPG
Aerial view of the memorial and the museum
View towards Mount Ararat from the terrace of the Armenian Genocide Museum, with memorial trees in the foreground Mount Ararat viewed from the Armenian Genocide Museum.jpg
View towards Mount Ararat from the terrace of the Armenian Genocide Museum, with memorial trees in the foreground

The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute opened its doors in 1995 on the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the genocide. The structure of the museum, planned by architects Sashur Kalashian, Lyudmila Mkrtchyan and sculptor F. Araqelyan, has followed a unique design. Since opening its doors, the museum has received tens of thousands of visitors including schoolchildren, college students and huge numbers of tourists from outside Armenia. The Republic of Armenia has turned visiting the museum into part of state protocol and many official foreign delegations have already visited the museum. These delegations have included Pope John Paul II, Pope Francis, President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, Presidents of France Jacques Chirac and Francois Hollande, and other well-known public and political figures. The museum contains historical documents and is open to the public for guided tours in Armenian, Russian, English, French, and German. [8]

The impressive two-story building is built directly into the side of a hill so as not to detract from the imposing presence of the Genocide Monument nearby. The roof of the museum is flat and covered with concrete tiles. It overlooks the scenic Ararat Valley and majestic Mount Ararat. The first floor of the museum is subterranean and houses the administrative, engineering and technical maintenance offices as well as Komitas Hall, which seats 170 people. Here also are situated the storage rooms for museum artifacts and scientific objects, as well as a library and a reading hall. The museum exhibit is located on the second floor in a space just over 1,000 square meters in size. There are three main indoor exhibit halls and an outer gallery with its own hall. The Genocide Monument is designed to memorialize the innocent victims of the first Genocide of the 20th century. The Genocide Museum’s mission is rooted in the fact that understanding the Armenian Genocide is an important step in preventing similar future tragedies, in keeping with the notion that those who forget the past are condemned to repeat it. [9]

The current director of the museum is Dr.Harutyun Marutyan.

See also

Related Research Articles

Cenotaph "empty tomb" or monument erected in honor of a person whose remains are elsewhere

A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire.

Mount Ararat large peak in Turkey near Armenia

Mount Ararat is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey. It consists of two major volcanic cones: Greater Ararat and Little Ararat. Greater Ararat is the highest peak in Turkey and the Armenian plateau with an elevation of 5,137 m (16,854 ft); Little Ararat's elevation is 3,896 m (12,782 ft). The Ararat massif is about 35 km (22 mi) wide at ground base. The first efforts to reach Ararat's summit were made in the Middle Ages. However, it was not until 1829 when Friedrich Parrot and Khachatur Abovian, accompanied by four others, made the first recorded ascent.

Artashat, Armenia Place in Ararat, Armenia

Artashat, is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Ararat Province. It is located on the Araks River in the Ararat plain, 30 km southeast of Yerevan. Artashat was founded in 1945 by the Soviet government of Armenia and named after the nearby ancient city of Artashat.

Hovhannes Shiraz Armenian poet

Hovhannes Shiraz was an Armenian poet.

Silva Kaputikyan was an Armenian poet,writer and political activist.

Silva Kaputikyan ; 20 January 1919 – 25 August 2006) was an Armenian poet and political activist. One of the best-known Armenian writers of the twentieth century, she is recognized as "the leading poetess of Armenia" and "the grand lady of twentieth century Armenian poetry". Although a member of the Communist Party, she was a noted advocate of Armenian national causes.

Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day National Remembrance Day in Armenia; 24 April

Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day or Armenian Genocide Memorial Day is a public holiday in Armenia and the Republic of Artsakh and is observed by the Armenian diaspora on 24 April. It is held annually to commemorate the victims of the Armenian Genocide of 1915. It was a massacre of 1.5 million Armenians by the Turks. In Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, hundreds of thousands of people walk to the Tsitsernakaberd Genocide Memorial to lay flowers at the eternal flame.

Montebello Genocide Memorial

The Armenian Genocide Martyrs Monument, better known as Montebello Genocide Memorial, is a monument in Montebello, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide of 1915. The monument, opened in April 1968, is a tower of eight arches supported on 75-foot-tall (23 m) white concrete columns. The memorial was designed by Hrant Agbabian. It is the oldest and largest memorial in the United States dedicated to the Armenian Genocide victims. The inscription on the memorial plaque reads:

Armenian Martyrs Memorial Monument: This Monument erected by Americans of Armenian descent, is dedicated to the 1,500,000 Armenian victims of the Genocide perpetrated by the Turkish Government, 1915–1921, and to men of all nations who have fallen victim to crimes against humanity.

Republic Square, Yerevan square in Yerevan

Republic Square is the central town square in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It consists of two sections: an oval roundabout and a trapezoid-shaped section which contains a pool with musical fountains. The square is surrounded by five major buildings built in pink and yellow tuff in the neoclassical style with extensive use of Armenian motifs. This architectural ensemble includes the Government House, the History Museum and the National Gallery, Armenia Marriott Hotel and the ministries of Foreign Affairs and Transport and Communications. The square was originally designed by Alexander Tamanian in 1924. The construction of most of the buildings was completed by the 1950s; the last building—the National Gallery—was completed in 1977.

Yerevan is made up of a multitude of parks, gardens, statues, buildings and other monuments. This article presents some of the principal monuments of Yerevan.

Arsen Julfalakyan is an Armenian Greco-Roman wrestler. He is an Olympic silver medalist, World and European Champion, and three-time Olympian.

Victory Park, Yerevan park in Yerevan

Victory Park, is a public park located in the Kanaker-Zeytun District of Yerevan, thw capital of Armenia.

Rafayel Israyelian Armenian architect

Rafayel "Rafo" Israyelian was an Armenian architect.

Armenian eternity sign

The Armenian eternity sign or Arevakhach is an ancient Armenian national symbol and a symbol of the national identity of the Armenian people. It is one of the most common symbols in Armenian architecture, carved on khachkars and on walls of churches.

Simon Achikgyozyan Armenian soldier

Simon Achikgyozyan was one of the earliest Armenian military commanders during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. He is considered a hero in Armenia.

Lyon Armenian Genocide Memorial memorial in Lyon, France

Lyon Armenian Genocide Memorial was erected in 2006 in central Lyon, France in memory of the victims of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire in 1915 and the following years.

100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide

The 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide was commemorated on April 24, 2015. April 24, 1915 is considered the beginning of the Armenian Genocide, and is commonly known as Red Sunday, which saw the deportation and execution of many Armenian intellectuals.

The following lists events that happened during 2010 in Armenia.

References

  1. "On April 24 about 100 thousand visitors at Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute". Armenpress. 24 April 2014. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014.
  2. "Ցեղասպանությունն` օտարների աչքերով [The Armenian Genocide in the eyes of foreigners]" (in Armenian). Yerevan. Yerkir Media. 23 April 2011. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Ծիծեռնակաբերդի հուշահամալիր` չհաշված ապրիլի 24-ը, տարեկան է 120-150 հազար մարդ է այցելում: Նրանցից 80 հազարն օտարազգի են, այդ թվում եւ թուրքեր:
  3. Doydoyan, Liana; Stepanyan, Vahan (16 April 2012). "Ծիծեռնակաբերդ. Եղեռնի հուշահամալիր (մաս I)" (in Armenian). PanARMENIAN.Net.
  4. The Armenian Genocide By Jeri Freedman - Page 49
  5. Encyclopedia of genocide: A - H.: Volume 1 - Page 102, Ann Arbor
  6. The history of Armenia: from the origins to the present - Page 185 by Simon Payaslian
  7. Central Asia and the Caucasus: transnationalism and diaspora By Touraj Atabaki, Sanjyot Mehendale - page 137
  8. Dictionary of Genocide: A-L By Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs - page 21
  9. The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute

Coordinates: 40°11′9″N44°29′26″E / 40.18583°N 44.49056°E / 40.18583; 44.49056