Tskhinvali District

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Tskhinvali District

ცხინვალის რაიონი
Цхинвалы район
District in South Ossetia
Tskhinvali City
Tskhinval in South Ossetia (semi-independence).svg
Location of Tskhinval District in South Ossetia
South Ossetia location map.svg
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Tskhinvali District
Location of Tskhinval District in South Ossetia
Georgia Shida Kartli location map.svg
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Tskhinvali District
Tskhinvali District (Shida Kartli)
Georgia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tskhinvali District
Tskhinvali District (Georgia)
Coordinates: 42°15′00″N44°10′00″E / 42.25000°N 44.16667°E / 42.25000; 44.16667 Coordinates: 42°15′00″N44°10′00″E / 42.25000°N 44.16667°E / 42.25000; 44.16667
Country Georgia
De facto state South Ossetia [n 1]
Capital Tskhinvali
  Head of administrationInal Pukhayev
   Votes in Parliament (of 69)
  Total695 km2 (268 sq mi)
  Density26/km2 (67/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+03:00 (MSK)

Tskhinvali District [1] [2] (Georgian :ცხინვალის რაიონი; Ossetian : Цхинвалы район) is a district of South Ossetia. [n 1] [3] The district consists of the lower part of Greater Liakhvi valley, where Tskhinvali itself is located, and of the less-populated valleys of Smaller Liakhvi and Mejuda rivers.



The area around the present-day Tskhinvali was first populated back in the Bronze Age. The unearthed settlements and archaeological artifacts from that time are unique in that they reflect influences from both Iberian (east Georgia) and Colchian (west Georgia) cultures with possible Sarmatian elements.

Tskhinvali was first chronicled by Georgian sources in 1398 as a village in Kartli (central Georgia) though a later account credits the 3rd century AD Georgian king Asphagur of Iberia with its foundation as a fortress. By the early 18th century, Tskhinvali was a small "royal town" populated chiefly by monastic serfs. Tskhinvali was annexed to the Russian Empire along with the rest of eastern Georgia in 1801. Located on a trade route which linked North Caucasus to Tbilisi and Gori, Tskhinvali gradually developed into a commercial town with a mixed Jewish, Georgian, Armenian and Ossetian population. In the 1917 it had 600 houses with 38.4% Jews, 34.4% Georgians, 17.7% Armenians and 8.8% Ossetians.


  1. 1 2 South Ossetia's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is recognised by only a few other countries. The Georgian government and most of the world's other states consider South Ossetia de jure a part of Georgia's territory.

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South Ossetia Disputed territory in the South Caucasus

South Ossetia, officially the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania, or the Tskhinvali Region, is a de facto state in the South Caucasus recognised by most countries as part of Georgia. It has an officially stated population of just over 53,000 people, who live in an area of 3,900 km2, south of the Russian Caucasus, with 30,000 living in Tskhinvali. The separatist polity, Republic of South Ossetia, is recognized as a state by Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Nauru, and Syria. While Georgia lacks control over South Ossetia, the Georgian government and most members of the United Nations consider the territory part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of South Ossetia", in reference to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast disbanded in 1990.

Gori, Georgia City in Shida Kartli, Georgia

Gori is a city in eastern Georgia, which serves as the regional capital of Shida Kartli and is located at the confluence of two rivers, the Mtkvari and the Liakhvi. The name comes from a Georgian word gora (გორა), meaning "heap", or "hill", or a mountain.

Java (town) Town in Shida Kartli / de facto Dzau District

Java is a town of approximately 1,500 people in Georgia. According to Georgia's current official administrative division, Java is a main town of Java district in the north of Shida Kartli region. According to the South Ossetian side Dzau is an administrative center of Dzau district. The town is situated on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus, within the Greater Liakhvi Gorge, 1,040 m (3,412 ft) above sea level.

Tskhinvali Place in Shida Kartli

Tskhinvali is the capital of the disputed de facto independent Republic of South Ossetia, internationally considered part of Shida Kartli, Georgia, and previously the capital of the erstwhile Soviet Georgian South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast. It is located on the Great Liakhvi River approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of the Georgian capital Tbilisi.

Great Liakhvi

The Great Liakhvi is a river in central Georgia, which rises on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range in the de facto independent region of South Ossetia and flows into the Kura (Mtkvari). It is 115 km (71 mi) long, and has a drainage basin of 2,311 km2 (892 sq mi). The cities of Tskhinvali and Gori lie along the banks of the Great Liakhvi. The river is mainly fed by the melting snows and glacier runoff of the Caucasus Mountains as well as by underground water sources. The Liakhvi reaches its highest water volume in the spring and summer while the lowest volume is recorded in the winter, when some segments of the river freeze over.

The Georgian–Ossetian conflict of 1918–1920 comprised a series of uprisings, which took place in the Ossetian-inhabited areas of what is now South Ossetia, a breakaway republic in Georgia, against the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and then the Menshevik-dominated Democratic Republic of Georgia which claimed several thousand lives and left painful memories among the Georgian and Ossetian communities of the region.

Kurta (village)

Kurta is an abandoned village in the former South Ossetian autonomous oblast of Georgia. Populated largely by ethnic Georgians, it was one of the towns that remained under the control of Georgia between the unilateral secession of South Ossetia after the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War and the 2008 South Ossetia War.

Vaneli Village in South Ossetia, Georgia

Vaneli is a village in the Java District of South Ossetia or Shida Kartli, Georgia. The village is the center of the eponymous community consisting of 12 villages. It is located on the right bank of Greater Liakhvi river, at an altitude of 1,310 m. Distance to the municipality center Java is 18 km.

Galuanta Settlement in South Ossetia

Galuanta is a settlement in the Gori district of Georgia. Since 1991 settlement is in the Khetagurovo Community, Tskhinvali District of South Ossetia.

Grubela Settlement in South Ossetia

Grubela is a settlement in the Khetagurovo Community, Tskhinvali district of South Ossetia.

Kvasatali Settlement in South Ossetia

Kvasatali is a settlement in the Khetagurovo Community, Tskhinvali District of South Ossetia.

Kroza Settlement in South Ossetia

Kroza is a settlement in the Khetagurovo Community, Tskhinvali district of South Ossetia.

Kusireti Settlement in South Ossetia

Kusireti is a settlement in the Khetagurovo Community, Tskhinvali district of South Ossetia.

Khodi Settlement in South Ossetia

Khodi is a settlement in the Khetagurovo Community, Tskhinvali district of South Ossetia.

Tbeti Settlement in South Ossetia

Tbeti is a settlement in the Khetagurovo Community, Tskhinvali district of South Ossetia, Georgia. It is located 2 kilometers west of Tskhinvali.

Kvemo-Achabeti Village in South Ossetia, Georgia

Kvemo-Achabeti is a settlement in the Tskhinvali district of South Ossetia.


Tamarasheni is a former village in Georgia, within the territory controlled by separatist South Ossetia, some 0.5 km north of Tskhinvali.

Liakhvi Strict Nature Reserve Protected nature area in Georgia (country)

Liakhvi Strict Nature Reserve is a protected area in the historic region Shida Kartli on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus range in the northeastern part of Tskhinvali District and in Akhalgori Municipality of Georgia. Reserve main goal is protecting flora and fauna in surrounding mountainous region. In general Patara Liakhvi gorge has many tourist attractions : ethnological, bird-watching and botanical.

Eredvi basilica

The Eredvi basilica of Saint George is an early 10th-century Georgian Orthodox church in the village of Eredvi in the Shida Kartli region, currently in the disputed territory of South Ossetia. It was constructed by the architect Tevdore Taplaisdze, who laid foundation of the church in 906 as related in a Georgian inscription on the building. The church is a three-nave basilica, which, despite later reconstructions, has largely preserved its original architectural features. The church is inscribed on the list of the Immovable Cultural Monuments of National Significance of Georgia. After the 2008 Russo-Georgian War, the Georgians lost access to the church and services there were restricted by the South Ossetian authorities.

Dzari Settlement in South Ossetia

Dzari is a settlement at the head of the river Kornisistskali in the Tskhinvali District of South Ossetia, Georgia. It is located 12 kilometers west of Tskhinvali. Community center, villages: Brili, Gardanta, Dampaleti, Zemo Dodoti, Kverneti, Mebrune, Rustavi, Kvemo Dodoti, Chelekhsata, Jabita.


  1. Tolz, Vera; Newton, Melanie (2019-07-11). The Ussr In 1991: A Record Of Events. Routledge. ISBN   978-1-000-30686-6.
  2. Daily Report: Soviet Union. The Service. 1991.
  3. Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin. U.S. Army Intelligence Center. 2003.