Tsuda Sōgyū

Last updated

Tsuda Sōgyū (津田 宗及, died 1591) was a Japanese tea master.

Biography

Tsuda Sōgyū belonged to the influential family of merchants of Sakai whose business name was Tennōjiya. Together with his father, Tsuda Sōtatsu, he built the Tennōjiya into one of the most prosperous business houses in Sakai. A political tactic he used to accomplish this was by winning the favor of Oda Nobunaga, who was on the path to hegemony.

Around the year 1574, he became one of the three merchant-class tea masters of Sakai to be in charge of chanoyu (Japanese tea ceremony) affairs for Nobunaga; a position referred to as chatō ("tea head"). The other two were Imai Sōkyū and Sen no Rikyū.

Sōgyū was very familiar with Akechi Mitsuhide, so after Nobunaga was killed by the hands of Mitsuhide during the year of 1582, Sōgyū's reputation was wounded. Even though this was true, Nobunaga's avenger and political successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, had all three of Nobunaga's chatō, including Sōgyū, serve him as his own men in charge of tea affairs. Sōgyū attended Hideyoshi's Grand Kitano Tea Ceremony in the year of 1587.

The Tennōjiya kaiki (天王寺屋会記) record of chanoyu gatherings compiled by three generations of the Tennōjiya mercantile house – Sōgyū's father, Sōtatsu; Sōgyū himself; and Sōgyū's son and heir, Sōbon – is considered one of the most valuable historical resources for learning about the chanoyu of those days.

Of the known instances of Sen no Rikyū's participation in chanoyu, Tsuda Sōgyū appears more frequently than any other individual as having shared the time there with Rikyū.

Related Research Articles

Sen no Rikyū

Sen no Rikyū, also known simply as Rikyū, is considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on chanoyu, the Japanese "Way of Tea", particularly the tradition of wabi-cha. He was also the first to emphasize several key aspects of the ceremony, including rustic simplicity, directness of approach and honesty of self. Originating from the Sengoku period and the Azuchi–Momoyama period, these aspects of the tea ceremony persist. Rikyū is known by many names; for consistency, he will be referred to as Rikyū in this article.

<i>Chashitsu</i> Japanese tea house

Chashitsu in Japanese tradition is an architectural space designed to be used for tea ceremony (chanoyu) gatherings.

Sakai Designated city in Kansai, Japan

Sakai is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, on the edge of Osaka Bay at the mouth of the Yamato River. It has been one of the largest and most important seaports of Japan since the medieval era.

Urasenke One of the main schools of Japanese tea ceremony

Urasenke (裏千家) is one of the main schools of Japanese tea ceremony. Along with Omotesenke and Mushakōjisenke, it is one of the three lines of the Sen family descending from Sen no Rikyū, which together are known as the san-Senke or the "three Sen houses/families" (三千家).

Araki Murashige

Araki Murashige was a retainer of Ikeda Katsumasa, head of the powerful Ikeda clan of Settsu Province. Under Katsumasa, Murashige sided with Oda Nobunaga following Nobunaga's successful campaign to establish power in Kyoto. Murashige became a retainer of Oda Nobunaga and daimyō of Ibaraki Castle in 1573 and gained further notoriety through military exploits across Japan.

Furuta Oribe

Furuta Oribe, whose birth name was Furuta Shigenari, was a daimyō and celebrated master of the Japanese tea ceremony.

Imai Sōkyū was an important 16th century merchant in the Japanese port town of Sakai, and a master of the tea ceremony. His yagō was Naya.

The history of tea in Japan began as early as the 8th century, when the first known references were made in Japanese records. Tea became a drink of the religious classes in Japan when Japanese priests and envoys sent to China to learn about its culture brought tea to Japan. The Buddhist monks Kūkai and Saichō may have been the first to bring tea seeds to Japan. The first form of tea brought from China was probably brick tea. Tea became a drink of the royal classes when Emperor Saga encouraged the growth of tea plants. Seeds were imported from China, and cultivation in Japan began.

Wabi-cha, is a style of Japanese tea ceremony particularly associated with Sen no Rikyū, Takeno Jōō and its originator Murata Jukō. Wabi-cha emphasizes simplicity. The term came into use in the Edo period, prior to which it was known as wabi-suki (侘数寄), suki meaning "artistic inclination", and "wabi" meaning 'forlorn'.

Schools of Japanese tea

"Schools of Japanese tea" refers to the various lines or "streams" of the Japanese Way of Tea. The word "schools" here is an English rendering of the Japanese term ryūha (流派).

Sen Shōan (千少庵) was a Japanese tea ceremony master, and is distinguished in Japanese cultural history as the second generation in the Sen family tradition of Japanese tea ceremony founded by his father-in-law, Sen no Rikyū. His father was Miyaō Saburō, who was a resident of Sakai and was a master at playing the Japanese hand drum (tsutsumi). Circumstantial evidence indicates that Miyaō Saburō probably died around the year 1553. Shōan's mother, the wife of Miyaō Saburō, was known as Sōon. She became the second wife of Sen no Rikyū. Shōan was adopted into the Sen family and became the son-in-law of Rikyū when he married Rikyū's daughter Okame. The oldest boy born between Shōan and Okame was Sen Sōtan, the third generation in the Sen family tradition of Japanese tea ceremony.

Takeno Jōō

Takeno Jōō was a master of the tea ceremony and a well-known merchant during the Sengoku period of the 16th century in Japan. His name has come down in Japanese cultural history because he followed Murata Jukō as an early proponent of wabi-cha, and was chanoyu teacher to Sen no Rikyū.

<i>Chabana</i>

Chabana is a generic term for the arrangement of flowers put together for display at a Japanese tea ceremony, and also for the wide variety of plants conventionally considered as appropriate material for such use, as witnessed by the existence of such encyclopedic publications as the Genshoku Chabana Daijiten [All-color encyclopedia of chabana]. The method of arranging the flowers is according to the nageire, or thrown in, style of flower arranging. In turn, nageire is recognized as a certain stylistic category of Kadō, the Japanese "Way of Flowers". These all developed from ikebana, which had its origin in early Buddhist flower offerings (kuge). Chabana, however, refers specifically to the flower display in the room or space for chadō, and though it fundamentally is a form of ikebana, it comprises a genre unto its own.

Chōjirō

Tanaka Chōjirō (長次郎) (1516-?1592) is distinguished as the first generation in the Raku family line of potters. According to historical documents he was the son of one Ameya, who is said to have emigrated to Japan from Korea. Historical evidence shows that he produced ridge tiles for Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Jurakudai palace in 1574. There is a historical document reporting that in 1584, Toyotomi Hideyoshi presented him with a seal inscribed with the character 楽, raku, and with this "Raku" was adopted as the family name. He worked at one time for Sen no Rikyū, the master of tea, at whose request he created teabowls to be used in chanoyu, the Japanese tea ceremony. Extant records of the use, at the time, of the tea bowls that he produced for Rikyū describe them as "tea bowls of the Sōeki form", Sōeki being the name that Rikyū was then generally known by. The bowls attracted attention for their beauty and refinement. Chōjirō produced bowls that were either entirely red or entirely black glazed soft pottery, simple and without decoration, which were meant to reflect wabi ideals.

Matsudaira Harusato

Matsudaira Harusato was a Japanese daimyō of the mid-Edo period, who ruled the Matsue Domain. He was renowned as a tea master, under the name Matsudaira Fumai.

Murata Jukō

Murata Jukō is known in Japanese cultural history as the founder of the Japanese tea ceremony, in that he was the early developer of the wabi-cha style of tea enjoyment employing native Japanese implements. His name may also be pronounced Murata Shukō.

Yamanoue Sōji was a Japanese tea master.

Grand Kitano Tea Ceremony

The Grand Kitano Tea Ceremony, also known in English as the Grand Kitano Tea Gathering, was a large Japanese tea ceremony event that was hosted by the regent and chancellor Toyotomi Hideyoshi at Kitano Tenmangū shrine in Kyoto on the first day of the tenth month in the year Tenshō 15 (1587). Japanese cultural historians view it as a major cultural event of the Momoyama period. Louise Cort points out these three reasons: The event was "a key move in Hideyoshi's strategy to prove his cultural legitimacy; a turning point in the development of chanoyu style and theory; and a crisis in the personal relationship between its chief designers, two of the most influential figures of the Momoyama period, Hideyoshi and Sen no Rikyū".

Ōgon no Hibi (黄金の日々) is a 1978 Japanese television series. It is the 16th NHK taiga drama, and is based on Saburo Shiroyama's novel of the same title. The series is the first taiga drama to focus on the lives of commoners and merchants, and the first taiga drama to be filmed outside Japan.

Shunoku Sōen(春屋宗園) was a Rinzai Zen monk of the Azuchi-Momoyama and early Edo periods and the 111th Head Priest of Daitoku-ji temple. He received the title Zen Master Rōgen Tenshin from Emperor Ōgimachi in 1586 and the highest acclaim of National Teacher Taihō Enkan from Emperor Go-Yōzei (1571-1617) in 1600. Sōen was born in Yamashiro Province and became a monk at an early age. He first trained under Rosetsu Yōha at Kennin-ji before becoming a student of Kōin Sōken at Daitoku-ji. After Sōken's death, Sōen completed his training under Shōrei Sōkin (1505-1584) of Daisen-in and the 107th Head Priest of Daitoku-ji. Sōen became the 111th Head Priest of Daitoku-ji in 1569.

References