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The Tsukunft shturem (English: Future Storm) was the self-defence organisation of the Tsukunft, the youth organisation of the General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland, between 1929–1939. Its centre was Warsaw, where the shturem had 200–300 members.
Lebensborn e.V. was an SS-initiated, state-supported, registered association in Nazi Germany with the goal of raising the birth rate of Aryan children of persons classified as 'racially pure' and 'healthy' based on Nazi racial hygiene and health ideology. Lebensborn provided welfare to its mostly unmarried mothers, encouraged anonymous births by unmarried women at their maternity homes, and mediated adoption of these children by likewise 'racially pure' and 'healthy' parents, particularly SS members and their families. The Cross of Honour of the German Mother was given to the women who bore the most Aryan children. Abortion was legalised by the Nazis for disabled children, but strictly punished otherwise.
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association is the coeducational Polish Scouting organization recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. It was founded in 1918 and currently is the largest Scouting organization in Poland. The first ZHP was founded in 1916, the current one is the fourth organization with this name. It is a public benefit organization as defined by Polish law.
The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the Small Constitution of 1947 as an organ of executive power. The Council of State consisted of the President of the Republic of Poland as chairman, the Marshal and Vice-marshals of the Sejm, President of the Supreme Audit Office, and potential other members. The Council of State had the power to approve decrees issued by the Council of Ministers, exercise supreme control over the local national councils, approve promulgation of laws concerning the budget and military draft, declare a state of emergency and martial law, initiate legislation, and others.
The Austrian Alpine Club - or more accurately the Austrian Alpine Association - has about 573,000 members in 196 sections and is the largest mountaineering organisation in Austria. It is responsible for the upkeep of over 234 alpine huts in Austria and neighbouring countries. It also maintains over 26,000 kilometres of footpaths, and produces detailed maps of key mountain areas within Austria. Much of this work is done by the association's 22,000 volunteers.1
Marek Edelman was a Polish political and social activist and cardiologist. Edelman was the last surviving leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and, long before his death, was the last one to stay in Poland despite harassment by the Communist authorities.
Tsukunft or Cukunft or Zukunft was the youth organization of the General Jewish Labor Union. It was founded in 1910, and in 1916 it was officially called Yugnt-Bund Tsukunft. Their newspaper was the Yugnt veker. In 1921 Tsukunft suffered a split, in which a pro-Communist group broke away and formed Komtsukunft. Tsukunft had applied for membership in the Communist Youth International two weeks after the Bund had applied for membership in the Communist International, but the second congress of the Communist Youth International had adopted criteria that were not acceptable for Tsukunft.
Służba Zwycięstwu Polski was the first Polish resistance movement in World War II. It was created by the order of general Juliusz Rómmel on 27 September 1939, when the siege of Warsaw, capital of Poland, where Rómmel commanded Polish defence, was nearing its end.
The European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) is an organisation for the European zoo and aquarium community that links over 340 member organizations in 41 countries. It operates the European Endangered Species Programme (EEP). The organisation is based in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The FAI World Air Games (WAG) is an international air sports event organized by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, inspired by the Olympic Games.
The Christian National Union, abbreviated to ZChN, was a Polish nationalist political party in Poland. Founded on 15 September 1989, the party traced its tradition to the Solidarity movement, as well as pre-war National Democracy and Polish Christian Democratic Party.
The Sotsyalistishe Kinder Farband or SKIF was founded in Eastern Europe as the youth organisation of the Jewish Labour Bund, a Jewish Socialist political party. S.K.I.F has three core ideological principles: Chavershaft, Doikayt, and Yiddishkeit. The plural form of a SKIF member is Skifistn and the leaders who run SKIF are the Helfers, aged 18-20.
Komtsukunft was a Jewish communist youth organization in Poland in the early 1920s. It was the youth wing of the Jewish Communist Labour Bund in Poland.
Klain Bund was a youth organization in the Russian empire, connected to the General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia. Klain Bund was founded in 1903.
The 68th Infantry Division was a formation of the German army during World War II. It was formed in 1939, and was initially committed to the German invasion of Poland. It took part in the Battle of France in 1940, and then Operation Barbarossa in 1941 as part of Army Group South. The 68th remained in southern Russia until refitted in Poland in early 1944. Returned to action the 68th fought for rest of the war in the East, in Russia, Slovakia, in the defence of Germany until finally surrendering to the Soviets in Czechoslovakia.
The Tomisławice coal mine is a large mine in the centre of Poland in Tomisławice, Greater Poland Voivodeship, 167 km west of the capital, Warsaw. Tomisławice represents one of the largest coal reserve in Poland having estimated reserves of 41 million tonnes of coal. The annual coal production is around 2.6 million tonnes.
CMAS Europe is an organisation created expressly to represent the interests of Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) within the European Union and in other parts of Europe by European national diving federations affiliated to CMAS.
The Freedom and Equality, previously called Union of the Left ; is a minor social-democratic political party in Poland founded on 20 March 2005 through the union of several left-wing organisations and parties, including: Worker's Democracy, Young Socialists, Antyklerykalna Partia Postępu RACJA, Centrolewica Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Demokratyczna Partia Lewicy, Nowa Lewica, Polska Partia Pracy, Polska Partia Socjalistyczna. and Unia Pracy.
Shaina Horenstein was the youngest daughter of Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, the sixth Rebbe of the Chabad Hasidic movement. In the Chabad community, she is referred to as Rebbitzin Shaina.
Shimon Gad Elituv is an Israeli rabbi and member of the Mateh Binyamin Regional Council, the Chief Rabbinate Council, rabbi of Mevasseret Zion, chairman of the Committee of Rabbis and communities in the Diaspora and Jerusalem rabbis of Chabad-Lubavitch.
Slavic Native Faith in Poland has in 2007, according to Scott Simpson, between 2000 and 2500 "actively engaged and regular participants". In 2020, Konrad Kośnik and Elżbieta Hornowska estimated that Rodnovers in Poland were between 7000 and 10,000.
Jack, Jacobs: Bundist Counterculture in Interwar Poland. New York 2009.