Tsumeb

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Tsumeb
Otjiherero: Okavisume
City
Welcome to tsumeb.jpg
Tsumeb COA.svg
Motto(s): 
Glück Auf
(German for Good luck)
Namibia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tsumeb
Location in Namibia
Coordinates: 19°15′S17°52′E / 19.250°S 17.867°E / -19.250; 17.867
CountryFlag of Namibia.svg  Namibia
Region Oshikoto Region
Constituency Tsumeb
Elevation
4,098 ft (1,249 m)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Total19,275
Time zone UTC+2 (SAST)
Climate BSh
Shaft tower of disused mine in Tsumeb (2014) Shaft tower of disused mine in Tsumeb, Namibia (2014).jpg
Shaft tower of disused mine in Tsumeb (2014)

Tsumeb (Otjiherero : Okavisume [2] ) is a city [3] of 15,000 inhabitants and the largest town in Oshikoto region in northern Namibia. Tsumeb is known as the "gateway to the north" of Namibia. [4] It is the closest town to the Etosha National Park. Tsumeb used to be the regional capital of Oshikoto until 2008 when Omuthiya was proclaimed a town and the new capital. [5] The area around Tsumeb forms its own electoral constituency and has a population of 44,113. [6] The town is the site of a deep mine (the lower workings now closed) that in its heyday was known as "TCL" (after its operator Tsumeb Corporation Ltd.), but has since been renamed the Ongopolo Mine.

Contents

The town and the Tsumeb mine

Main road in Tsumeb Tsumeb-Main Road.JPG
Main road in Tsumeb
Tsumeb open cast pit, buildings and railway about 1931 Tsumeb 3.JPG
Tsumeb open cast pit, buildings and railway about 1931

The name Tsumeb is generally pronounced "TSOO-meb". The name is not a derivative of German, Afrikaans, or English. It has been suggested that it comes from Nama and means either "Place of the moss" or "Place of the frog". Perhaps this old name had something to do with the huge natural hill of green, oxidized copper ore that existed there before it was mined out.

The town was founded in 1905 by the German colonial power and celebrated its 100th year of existence in 2005.

Tsumeb is notable for the huge mineralized pipe that led to its foundation. The origin of the pipe has been hotly debated. The pipe penetrates more or less vertically through the Precambrian Otavi dolomite for at least 1300 m. One possibility is that the pipe was actually a gigantic ancient cave system and that the rock filling it is sand that seeped in from above. If the pipe is volcanic, as some have suggested, then the rock filling it (the "pseudo-aplite") is peculiar in the extreme. The pipe was mined in prehistoric times but those ancient workers barely scratched the surface. Most of the ore was removed in the 20th century by cut-and-fill methods. The ore was polymetallic and from it copper, lead, silver, gold, arsenic and germanium were won. There was also a fair amount of zinc present but the recovery of this metal was always difficult for technical reasons. Many millions of tonnes of ore of spectacular grade were removed. A good percentage of the ore (called "direct smelting ore") was so rich that it was sent straight to the smelter situated near the town without first having to be processed through the mineral enrichment plant. The Tsumeb mine is also renowned amongst mineral collectors. Between 1905 and 1996, the mine produced about 30 million tons of ore yielding 1.7 Mt copper, 2.8 Mt lead 0.9 Mt zinc, as well as 80 t germanium. [7] The average ore grade was 10% Pb, 4.3% Cu, 3.5% Zn, 100 ppm Ag, 50 ppm Ge. [8]

It is noted for 243 valid minerals and is the type location for 56 types of mineral. Some of the germanium minerals are only found in this mine. [9]

Gem-quality dioptase crystals from the Tsumeb mine, source of many of the world's best (and most expensive) dioptase specimens. Dioptase-39887.jpg
Gem-quality dioptase crystals from the Tsumeb mine, source of many of the world's best (and most expensive) dioptase specimens.

Tsumeb, since its founding, has been primarily a mining town. The mine was originally owned by the OMEG (Otavi Minen- und Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft) and later by TCL (Tsumeb Corporation Limited) before its closure a few years ago, when the ore at depth ran out. The main shafts became flooded by ground water over a kilometre deep and the water was collected and pumped as far as the capital, Windhoek. The mine has since been opened up again by a group of local entrepreneurs ("Ongopolo Mining"). A fair amount of oxidized ore remains to be recovered in the old upper levels of the mine. It is highly unlikely, though, that the deepest levels will ever be reopened. [9]

The other notable feature of the town is the metal smelter, currently owned by Namibia Custom Smelters, which was sold by Weatherly International to Dundee Previous Metals in 2010. The right of the smelter is currently owned by IXM. [10] The Annual Copper Festival is a well-known event on the local festival calendar.

Sinkhole lakes and the world's biggest meteorite

Near to the town are two large sinkhole lakes, Lake Otjikoto and Lake Guinas ("Gwee-nus"). Guinas, at about 500 m in diameter, is somewhat larger in area than Otjikoto. A pioneering documentary movie about scuba diving in these lakes was made by Graham Ferreira in the early 1970s. The depths of the lakes are unknown, because towards the bottom both lakes disappear into lateral cave systems, so it is not possible to use a weight to sound them. Otjikoto, which has poor visibility (owing to pollution from agricultural fertilizers used nearby), is at least 60 m deep. The water in Guinas is completely clear and well over 100 m deep. Divers who have performed bounce-dives in Guinas to 80 m (strictly speaking, beyond the safe depth for such dives, especially given the altitude of the lake above sealevel) have reported that there was nothing but powdery-blue water below them. Guinas has been in existence for so long that a unique species of fish, Tilapia guinasana , has evolved in its waters.

When South Africa invaded German Southwest Africa, today's Namibia, in 1914, the retreating German forces eventually threw all of their weaponry and supplies into the deep waters of Otjikoto. Some of the material has been recovered for display in museums.

Lake Otjikoto Otjikotosee.jpg
Lake Otjikoto

One of the largest and deepest underground lakes in the world lies a little to the east of Tsumeb, on a farm called Harasib. To reach the water in the cave one has either to abseil or to descend an ancient, hand-forged ladder that hangs free of the vertical dolomite walls of the cave for over 50 m. Here, too, SCUBA divers have descended as deep as they have dared (80 m) in the crystal-clear waters and have reported nothing but deep blue below them from one ledge of dolomite to the next with nothing discernible in the depths.

The largest meteorite in the world, called Hoba, lies in a field about forty minutes' drive to the southeast of Tsumeb, at Hoba West. It is a nickel-iron meteorite of about 60 tonnes.

Economy and infrastructure

There are 105 commercial farms around Tsumeb. The area consists largely of rolling hills covered in thorn bush. Tsumeb falls under the dry woodland, savanna vegetation zone. The soil around Tsumeb varies in quality from very fertile red loam through black turf to chalky clay and loam. The district is thus suitable for intensified farming and crop production. There is an abundance of ground water and regular rainfall in the summer months. Irrigation makes the area even more productive. Farmers in the area grow citrus fruits with much success. The main crops grown are maize, sorghum and sunflowers. Cattle farming is also widespread. [11]

Ohorongo Cement was established in 2007. The plant is situated between Tsumeb and Otavi on Farm Sargberg approximately 45 km south of Tsumeb. The plant has a production capacity of 650000 tonnes per annum, almost double the demand of the Namibian domestic market. It is owned by Schwenk KG. Limestone reserves appear to be adequate for approximately 300 years. [12] Tsumeb has a concrete sleeper factory. [13]

Every year the Tsumeb Municipality organises the Tsumeb Copper Festival. More than 200 small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and bigger exhibitors showcase their products and services at the annual fair. The festival takes place the last weekend of October annually at the United Nations Park. The four-day event, which is aimed at boosting the economic competitiveness of the town, draws crowds from all corners of the country and beyond. [14] It also facilitates indirect investments in the hospitality sector. [15]

Tsumeb's stadium, the Oscar Norich Stadium, has a capacity of 1,500. [16]

Transport

There are main roads leading north, Ondangwa through to Oshakati and Angola, north-east a new constructed Bituminous Road to Tsintsabis leading to Katwitwi Border Post and Angola, east, Grootfontein through to Rundu and Katima Mulilo, and south, Otavi through to Otjiwarongo and Windhoek.

Otavi Mining and Railway Company train near Tsumeb about 1931. The photograph must have been taken in winter, as the trees have no leaves. Despite the fact that Tsumeb is in the tropics, it is well over a thousand metres above sea level and frosty in winter. Tsumeb Railway.JPG
Otavi Mining and Railway Company train near Tsumeb about 1931. The photograph must have been taken in winter, as the trees have no leaves. Despite the fact that Tsumeb is in the tropics, it is well over a thousand metres above sea level and frosty in winter.

Tsumeb is connected to the national railway network operated by TransNamib. Tsumeb was for most of the 20th century the terminus of the line but in recent times the track has been extended a further 260 km to reach Ondangwa. There have been talks of extending the line to Oshikango and having the Government of Angola build a railroad from the north to connect the two countries together. The junction for the Ondangwa line is located at the "wrong end" of Tsumeb railway station, leaving it a dead end, though a second triangle is provided for through trains to bypass the station.

Tsumeb Airport is an airstrip east of town.

Politics

Tsumeb is governed by a municipal council that has seven seats. [17] Nico Kaiyamo is one of the well-known and established local politicians.

In the 2010 local authority election, a total of 3,120 votes were cast in the city. SWAPO won with approximately 75% of the vote. Of the four other parties seeking seats, Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) received approximately 15% of the vote, followed by United Democratic Front (UDF, 5%), All People's Party (APP, 2%), and the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA, 2%) Despite being on the ballot, the Congress of Democrats (CoD) did not receive a vote. [18] The 2015 local authority election was again won by SWAPO which gained six seats and 3,149 votes. The remaining seat went to the DTA which gained 291 votes. [19]

The 2020 local authority election was also won by SWAPO which obtained 2,518 votes and gained four seats. The Independent Patriots for Change (IPC), an opposition party formed in August 2020, obtained 1,472 votes and gained two seats. The remaining seat went to the Popular Democratic Movement (PDM, the new name of the DTA) with 199 votes. [20]

Town twinning

Notable residents

Geography

Climate

Tsumeb has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSh), with hot summers and mild winters (with warm days and chilly nights). The average annual precipitation is 528 mm (21 in).

Tsumeb
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
130
 
 
31
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121
 
 
30
18
 
 
91
 
 
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34
 
 
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4
 
 
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9
 
 
1
 
 
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0
 
 
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28
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2
 
 
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60
 
 
33
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67
 
 
33
18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Climate Guide

Minerals

Tsumeb belongs to the world's most prolific mineralogical sites. The minerals from Tsumeb are unsurpassed in variety and quality of form. [24] At least 170 mineral species have been cataloged, 20 minerals are found nowhere else. The concentration of ingredients for Tsumeb's mineral formations originates in a sulfide deposit rich in many metals. A non-arid environment plentiful in oxygen-rich groundwater contributed to leaching and re-deposition of these elements as new minerals, sometimes in crystalline formations. There are rare secondary minerals of Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Sb and, reflecting the ore deposit chemistry, Ge, Ga and Cd as well. Minerals first described from Tsumeb include, according to Mindat.org:


Educational institutes and training facilities

Tsumeb is home to a number of primary and secondary schools as well as an Adult Education Center, which resorts under the Ministry of Education and Culture.

Training facilities

Schools

Related Research Articles

Oshikoto Region Region in Namibia

Oshikoto is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia, named after Lake Otjikoto. Its capital is Omuthiya. The city of Tsumeb, Otjikoto's capital until 2008, and the towns of Omuthiya and Oniipa are also situated in this region. As of 2020, Oshikoto had 112,170 registered voters.

Oshana Region in Namibia

Oshana is one of the fourteen regions of Namibia, its capital is Oshakati. The towns of Oshakati, Ongwediva and Ondangwa, all situated with this region, form an urban cluster with the second largest population concentration in Namibia after the capital Windhoek. As of 2020, Oshana had 113,112 registered voters.

Ondangwa Town in Oshana Region, Namibia

Ondangwa is a town of 23,000 inhabitants in the Oshana Region of northern Namibia, bordering Oshikoto Region. Ondangwa was first established as a mission station of the Finnish Missionary Society in 1890. In 1914 it became a local seat of government.

Otjiwarongo City in Otjozondjupa Region, Namibia

Otjiwarongo is a city of 28,000 inhabitants in the Otjozondjupa Region of Namibia. It is the district capital of the Otjiwarongo electoral constituency and also the capital of Otjozondjupa.

Usakos Town in Erongo Region, Namibia

Usakos is a town on the banks of river Khan, 140 kilometres north-east of Swakopmund in the Erongo Region of Namibia. It is located on the B2, the main road between the Walvis Bay and Johannesburg. The town has 3,000 inhabitants and owns 58 square kilometres (22 sq mi) of land.

Otavi Town in Otjozondjupa Region, Namibia

Otavi is a town of 4,000 inhabitants in the Otjozondjupa Region of central Namibia. Situated 360 km north of Windhoek, it is the district capital of the Otavi electoral constituency.

Articles related to Namibia include:

Tsumeb railway station is a station located in the mining town of Tsumeb in northeastern Namibia.

Omuthiya Place in Oshikoto Region, Namibia

Omuthiyagwiipundi is the capital of Oshikoto Region in northern Namibia, situated approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Etosha National Park. It has about 5,000 residents. Prior to Omuthiya, Tsumeb was the regional capital.

Mining in Namibia Overview of Namibias mining sector

Mining is the biggest contributor to Namibia's economy in terms of revenue. It accounts for 25% of the country's income. Its contribution to the gross domestic product is also very important and makes it one of the largest economic sectors of the country. Namibia produces diamonds, uranium, copper, magnesium, zinc, silver, gold, lead, semi-precious stones and industrial minerals. The majority of revenue comes from diamond mining. In 2014, Namibia was the fourth-largest exporter of non-fuel minerals in Africa.

Oniipa is a town in the Oshikoto Region of northern Namibia and the district capital of the Oniipa electoral constituency. It lies just outside Ondangwa. It is the hometown of former Lutheran bishop and liberation leader Leonard Auala.

Duftite Arsenate mineral

Duftite is a relatively common arsenate mineral with the formula CuPb(AsO4)(OH), related to conichalcite. It is green and often forms botryoidal aggregates. It is a member of the adelite-descloizite Group, Conichalcite-Duftite Series. Duftite and conichalcite specimens from Tsumeb are commonly zoned in color and composition. Microprobe analyses and X-ray powder-diffraction studies indicate extensive substitution of Zn for Cu, and Ca for Pb in the duftite structure. This indicates a solid solution among conichalcite, CaCu(AsO4 )(OH), austinite, CaZn(AsO4)(OH) and duftite PbCu(AsO4)(OH), all of them belonging to the adelite group of arsenates. It was named after Mining Councilor G Duft, Director of the Otavi Mine and Railroad Company, Tsumeb, Namibia. The type locality is the Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region, Namibia.

Otjikoto Lake

Otjikoto Lake is the smaller of only two permanent natural lakes in Namibia. It is a sinkhole lake that was created by a collapsing karst cave. It is located 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-west of Tsumeb and only 100 meters from the main road B1. The lake was declared a national monument in 1972.

Guinas Constituency Electoral constituency in the Oshikoto region of northern Namibia

Guinas Constituency is an electoral constituency in the Oshikoto Region of Namibia. It had 8,435 inhabitants in 2004 and 4,210 registered voters in 2020. Guinas consists of the rural area surrounding the mining town of Tsumeb. Larger settlements in the Guinas constituency are Oshivelo and Tsintsabis.

Hosea Nico Kaiyamo is a Namibian politician and businessman who was the first Regional Councillor for the Tsumeb Constituency and a member of parliament in the National Council. He was an activist for South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) in its long struggle against South African rule until Namibia obtained independence on 21 March 1990. He was elected Regional Councillor for the Tsumeb Constituency in 1993 and remained in office until 2003. He was a member of parliament in the National Council from 1993 to 2003.

Namibia, a country in south-western Africa, has a total of 124 known caves, 41 of which are situated in the Otjozondjupa Region.

Ianbruceite

Ianbruceite is a rare hydrated zinc arsenate with the formula [Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2; material from the Driggith mine has traces of cobalt. It was first discovered at Tsumeb, approved by the International Mineralogical Association as a new mineral species in 2011, reference IMA2011-49, and named for Ian Bruce, who founded "Crystal Classics" in the early 1990s, and was heavily involved in attempts to reopen the famous Tsumeb mine for specimen mining.
In 2013 new occurrences of ianbruceite were reported from the neighbouring Driggith and Potts Gill mines on High Pike in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Here the mineral is probably a post-mining product. Caldbeck Fells and Tsumeb are the only reported localities for ianbruceite to date (May 2013).

Bartelkeite is an exceptionally rare mineral, one of scarce natural germanium compounds. The formula was originally assumed to be PbFeGe3O8, bartelkeite was later shown to be isostructural with a high-pressure form of the mineral lawsonite. Thus, its correct formula is PbFeGe(Ge2O7)(OH)2•H2O. Bartelkeite and mathewrogersite are minerals with essential (dominant) lead, iron and germanium. Both come from Tsumeb, Namibia - a world's "capital" of germanium minerals.

Owambo Basin

The Owambo Basin is a sedimentary basin located on the Congo Craton in Southern Africa that extends from southern Angola into Namibia and includes the Etosha Pan. It is bound on the southern and western sides by the Damara Belt in Northern Namibia and by the Cubango River to the East. The northern boundary is scientifically disputed, but is currently mapped by most stratigraphers to include southern Angola with the boundary set at the Kunene River. The Owambo Basin is host to two famous regions: Tsumeb, a major Namibian city and site of a formerly active copper mine with exceptional mineralogical variability producing museum quality rare specimens, and Etosha National Park, the largest protected wildlife sanctuary in Namibia centered around Etosha Pan.

Geology of Namibia

The geology of Namibia encompasses rocks of Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic to Cenozoic age. About 46% of the countryʼs surface are bedrock exposure, while the remainder is covered by the young overburden sediments of the Kalahari and Namib deserts.

References

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Coordinates: 19°15′S17°42′E / 19.250°S 17.700°E / -19.250; 17.700