Tudor architecture

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Athelhampton House - built 1493-1550, early in the period Athelhampton House - geograph.org.uk - 1223982.jpg
Athelhampton House - built 1493–1550, early in the period
Leeds Castle, reign of Henry VIII Leeds Castle (2004a).jpg
Leeds Castle, reign of Henry VIII
Hardwick Hall, Elizabethan prodigy house Front entrance of Hardwick Hall - geograph.org.uk - 1629257.jpg
Hardwick Hall, Elizabethan prodigy house

The Tudor architectural style is the final development of medieval architecture in England and Wales, during the Tudor period (14851603) and even beyond, and also the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to Britain. It followed the Late Gothic Perpendicular style and, gradually, it evolved into an aesthetic more consistent with trends already in motion on the continent, evidenced by other nations already having the Northern Renaissance underway Italy, and especially France already well into its revolution in art, architecture, and thought. A subtype of Tudor architecture is Elizabethan architecture, from about 1560 to 1600, which has continuity with the subsequent Jacobean architecture in the early Stuart period.

Contents

In the much more slow-moving styles of vernacular architecture, "Tudor" has become a designation for half-timbered buildings, although there are cruck and frame houses with half timbering that considerably predate 1485 and others well after 1603; an expert examination is required to determine the building's age. In many regions stone architecture, which presents no exposed timber on the facade, was the norm for good houses, while everywhere the poorest lived in single-storey houses using wood frames and wattle and daub, too flimsy for any to have survived four centuries. In this form the Tudor style long retained its hold on English taste. [1] Nevertheless, "Tudor style" is an awkward style-designation, with its implied suggestions of continuity through the period of the Tudor dynasty and the misleading impression that there was a style break at the accession of James I in 1603, first of the House of Stuart. A better diagnostic is the "perpendicular" arrangement of rectangular vertically oriented leaded windows framed by structural transoms and mullions and often featuring a "hooded" surround usually in stone or timber such as oak.

The low multi-centred Tudor arch was another defining feature and the period sees the first introduction of brick architecture imported from the Low Countries. Some of the most remarkable oriel windows belong to this period. [1] Mouldings are more spread out and the foliage becomes more naturalistic. During the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, many Italian artists arrived in England; their decorative features can be seen at Hampton Court Palace, Layer Marney Tower, Sutton Place, and elsewhere. However, in the following reign of Elizabeth I, the influence of Northern Mannerism, mainly derived from books, was greater. Courtiers and other wealthy Elizabethans competed to build prodigy houses that proclaimed their status.

The Dissolution of the Monasteries redistributed large amounts of land to the wealthy, resulting in a secular building boom, as well as a source of stone. [2] The building of churches had already slowed somewhat before the English Reformation, after a great boom in the previous century, but was brought to a nearly complete stop by the Reformation. Civic and university buildings became steadily more numerous in the period, which saw general increasing prosperity. Brick was something of an exotic and expensive rarity at the beginning of the period, but during it became very widely used in many parts of England, even for modest buildings, gradually restricting traditional methods such as wood framed, daub and wattle and half-timbering to the lower classes by the end of the period.

Scotland was a different country throughout the period, and is not covered here, but early Renaissance architecture in Scotland was influenced by close contacts between the French and Scottish courts, and there are a number of buildings from before 1560 that show a more thorough adoption of continental Renaissance styles than their English equivalents.

Development

The reign of Henry VII

Tudor style buildings have several features that separate them from Medieval and later 17th-century design. The earliest signs of the Renaissance appear under Henry VII; whereas most of his building projects are no longer standing, it is actually under him [ dubious ] and not his son that the Renaissance began to flower in England, evidenced by ample records of what was built and where, materials used, new features in gardening that did not at all fit the pattern of the earlier medieval walled garden, letters from the king expressing his desires and those of his wife's in the case of Greenwich Palace, as well as his own expressed interest in the New Learning. [ citation needed ]

Prior to 1485, many wealthy and noble landowners lived in homes that were not necessarily comfortable but built to withstand sieges, though manor houses that were only lightly fortified, if at all, had been increasingly built. Castles and smaller manor houses often had moats, portcullises and crenelations designed for archers to stand guard and pick off approaching enemies.

The gatehouse of Oxburgh Hall in Oxborough Oxburgh-gatehouse-inside.jpg
The gatehouse of Oxburgh Hall in Oxborough

However, with the arrival of gunpowder and cannons by the time of Henry VI, fortifications like castles became increasingly obsolete. 1485 marked the ascension of the Tudor Henry VII to the throne and the end of the Wars of the Roses that had left the royal coffers in deep trouble-Yorkists had raided the treasury just after the death of Edward IV. [3] In 1487 Henry passed laws against livery and maintenance, which checked the nobility's ability to raise armies independent of the crown, and raised taxes on the nobility through a trusted advisor, John Morton.

Not all Tudor architecture was of a residential nature, and the dry dock in Portsmouth is very important as it laid the foundation for other civic projects done under Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. Built under Henry VII, it represented a significant advance from what was available during the Medieval period: for most of the period ships were poorly suited to trade that reached any farther than just off the coast, and were no match for the turbulence of waters like the North Sea, let alone crossing the Atlantic. [4] Within three years of Henry Tudor's ascension to the throne, however, Bartolomeu Dias had rounded the future tip of today's South Africa and by doing so changed the world forever: he opened up a sea passage to Asia and opened a route that completely cut out the reliance on the Silk Road and the Turks who controlled it. Ships were beginning to get faster and more capable of much longer journeys. Patronage of explorers would be a theme of the rest of Henry's adulthood, and it behooved him to take advantage of having the only place in all of Europe that could repair ships, build new ones, remove barnacles and shipworms, and break up and recycle older ships. [ citation needed ]

Purchasing eight acres, he gave the job of constructing the dry dock to Sir Reginald Bray with the final construction, according to a 17th-century tome [ citation needed ]. It measured 330 feet on each side, the bottom of the dock 395 feet long, and the whole 22 feet deep. The wharf on the outside of the piers that marked the dock's location were 40 feet on each side at a depth of 22 feet. The dock operated by swinging some hinged gates open, allowing the ship to enter, and then water was taken out with a bucket and chain pump worked by a horse-gin. [5]

In the early part of his reign, Henry Tudor favoured two sites, both on the River Thames though in opposite directions, with one west of Westminster and one east of it. Upon his rise to power he inherited many castles, but notably he did very little to these. Recent evidence [ citation needed ] suggests that he made notable improvements to other properties belonging to the crown, including Greenwich Palace, also known as the Palace of Placentia. Although today the Old Royal Naval College sits on the site of the palace, evidence suggests that, shortly after ascending the throne, Henry spent a very large amount of money on enlarging it and finishing off a watchtower built prior to his reign; his Queen, Elizabeth, gave birth to Henry VIII and his brother Edmund in this palace. Henry Tudor's palace facing the Thames Estuary would have had a brick courtyard that faced the River Thames. [6]

As of 2018 archaeological digs continue and much has been discovered regarding the kind of palace Henry (and later his son) invested so much money and time into [ citation needed ]. An example is that Greenwich had "bee boles": these were found in the basement of the palace and were little nooks in which beehives were kept during winter when honeybees hibernate. They would be taken out to provide for the king's table in spring and they are numerous. [7] Much of the remains beneath the royal college reveal an edifice built with brick, not stone: castles in England going back to the Normans had been built with stone, never brick, hence this is an early advancement in technology and style and given its load bearing position at the bottom of the building it is extremely unlikely to have been erected under the aegis of any later monarch. He also added a sizeable chapel to the grounds with black and white tiles, discovered in 2006. [8]

Richmond Palace, west front, drawn by Antony Wyngaerde in 1562 Wyngaerde Richmond 1562.jpg
Richmond Palace, west front, drawn by Antony Wyngaerde in 1562

Sheen, was someway down river from (and in the present day part of) London and became a primary residence as Henry's family and court grew larger. This had been one of the royal palaces since the reign of Edward II, with the most recent additions as at 1496 being by Henry V in 1414. The building was largely wooden with cloisters and several medieval features, such as a grand central banqueting hall, and the Privy Chambers facing the river very much resembling a 15th-century castle. [9]

This burnt to the ground at Christmas 1497. However, within months Henry began a magnificent new palace in a version of Renaissance style. This, called Richmond Palace has been described as the first prodigy house, a term for the ostentatious mansions of Elizabeth's courtiers and others, and was influential on other great houses for decades to come as well as a seat of royal power and pageantry of an equivalent of modern-day Buckingham Palace or the 18th century St. James's Palace. [ citation needed ]

Henry VIII and Later


Henry VII was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII, a man of a very different character of his father, who spent enormous amounts of money on building many palaces, most now vanished, as well as other expensive forms of display. In a courtyard of Hampton Court Palace he installed a fountain that for celebrations flowed with wine. [10] He also built military installations all along the southern coast of England and the border with Scotland, then a separate nation.

Detail of Georg Hoefnagel's 1568 watercolour of the south front of Nonsuch Palace. This is the way it would have looked early in the reign of Elizabeth I. Nonsuch Palace watercolour detail.jpg
Detail of Georg Hoefnagel's 1568 watercolour of the south front of Nonsuch Palace. This is the way it would have looked early in the reign of Elizabeth I.

Henry VIII's most ambitious palace was Nonsuch Palace, south of London and now disappeared, an attempt to rival the spectacular French royal palaces of the age and, like them, using imported Italian artists, though the architecture is northern European in inspiration. Much of the Tudor palace survives at Hampton Court Palace, which Henry took over from his disgraced minister Cardinal Wolsey and expanded, and this is now the surviving Tudor royal palace that best shows the style.

As time wore on, quadrangular, H- or E-shaped floor plans became more common, with the H shape coming to fruition during the reign of Henry VII's son and successor. [11] It was also fashionable for these larger buildings to incorporate 'devices', or riddles, designed into the building, which served to demonstrate the owner's wit and to delight visitors. Occasionally these were Catholic symbols, for example, subtle or not so subtle references to the trinity, seen in three-sided, triangular, or Y-shaped plans, designs or motifs. [12] Earlier clerical buildings would have had a cross shape so as to honour Christ, such as in Old St Paul's and the surviving York Cathedral, but as with all clerical buildings, this was a time of great chaos and revolution catalyzed by Henry VIII's Reformation.

Henry began his reign as "Defender of the Faith." Such a title was given him in 1520 by Pope Leo X, [13] however long before this he had deep roots in Catholic piety. Both his parents were staunchly Catholic and in fact at least one aunt, Bridget of York, became a nun. There are ample records in British royal archives of how Henry VII and his queen spent their time away from political activity. Henry VII spent a large amount of time hearing Mass every day and was noted for being quite pious, according to Polydore Vergil. [14] Elizabeth of York was heavily involved in charity, then as now one of the three great virtues of the Catholic Church, evidenced by the king loaning her money when she overspent her budget on the poor and orphaned in account books that survive. As his older brother Arthur was the one expected to rule, and not Henry, his parents selected an education for him that would have prepared him for the Church: he was tutored heavily in theology. [15] This fateful decision later in life made him able to debate the usefulness of the clergy owning so much land and power outside the crown, and changed which version of the faith he defended.

A part of Henry VIII's policy was the suppression of the monasteries and several examples of the Middle Ages today lie in ruins because of the nobility raiding the properties for building materials, gold, and anything of monetary value: for many the only way to escape being destroyed was the monarch holding a personal interest in keeping the abbey or cathedral intact (Westminster Abbey being an excellent example.)

One of the most famous examples of this lies in East Anglia, near the village of Walsingham. Predating the Norman Conquest, this area of the present day United Kingdom was a major site of pilgrimage dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the mother of Christ. Over the centuries an Augustinian priory was erected upon the site that grew wealthy from pilgrims' donations and for its era this was one of the most popular shrines in all of England: Monarchs from nearly five centuries prior had worshipped at the place by 1510, up to and including Henry VII and Elizabeth. Men as famous as Erasmus also visited and the natural spring per Catholic tradition had healing powers. During Henry VIII's Reformation, however, the records show that the monks at Walsingham were turned out into the streets, the priory chapel was desecrated, and the gold and silver ornamentations of the architecture were looted. The statue of Our Lady of Walsingham at the centre of the shrine was brought back to London as a trophy to be destroyed, and the property itself was turned over to a man in the king's favour whereafter it was mined for its stone.

The great majority of images, and elements of church furniture disapproved of by the Protestants, were destroyed in waves under Henry VIII, Edward VI, and later during the English Commonwealth. For example, during the reign of Edward VI parishioners witnessed a royal decree ripping out the rood screen in every single church: none of these now survive and in addition many altarpieces were burned. While Henry VIII was still alive, many statues and shrine objects were smashed or burnt: they were considered "abused images" and a form of idolatry by many aligning with the king. [16] Building of new churches became much less frequent, and as a result England actually has larger numbers of medieval churches whose main fabric has survived than most parts of Europe. Tragically, however, larger buildings like Jervaulx or Fountains, buildings whose wealth and grandeur were meant to rival Notre-Dame de Paris often do not even have their stained glass windows and are a shadow of their former selves. Other places were outright moved into and at best have tiny fragments of the original medieval priories, abbeys, and monasteries.

Henry and Edward are responsible for enormous losses and gaps in the cultural record; the damage was massive. Manuscripts, many of them illuminated, were lost, with many being burned. Some of these went back to the time of the Anglo-Saxons, but as few could read the runic alphabet (including the king himself) they were destroyed and their intricate covers, sometimes bejeweled, were looted. Distinctly English styles of craftsmanship in religious metalwork for chalices, bishops' croziers, patens, and cruets were melted down for the crown.

During this period, the arrival of the chimney stack and enclosed hearths resulted in the decline of the great hall based around an open hearth that was typical of earlier Medieval architecture. Instead, fireplaces could now be placed upstairs and it became possible to have a second story that ran the whole length of the house. [17] Tudor chimney-pieces were made large and elaborate to draw attention to the owner's adoption of this new technology. [2] The jetty appeared, as a way to show off the modernity of having a complete, full-length upper floor. [2]

Hallmarks of Tudor architecture

Upper classes

Buildings constructed by the wealthy or royal had these common characteristics:

Kentwell Hall Kentwell Hall, Long Melford, Suffolk-8700880501.jpg
Kentwell Hall
Brick chimneys at Hampton Court Palace Tudor chimneys on Hampton Court Palace, Middlesex.jpg
Brick chimneys at Hampton Court Palace

Lower classes

The houses and buildings of ordinary people were typically timber framed. Timber framing on the upper floors of a house started appearing after 1400 CE in Europe and originally it was a method used to keep water from going back into the walls, instead being redirected back to the soil. [19] [20] The frame was usually filled with wattle and daub but occasionally with brick. [2] These houses were also slower to adopt the latest trends, and the great hall continued to prevail. [17] Fireplaces were quite large by modern standards, and intended to heat as much of the home as possible as well as cook upon them because in this period England was much more prone to snow.

Smaller Tudor-style houses display the following characteristics:

Anne Hathaway's Cottage, a timber-framed farmhouse Anne Hathaways Cottage 1 (5662418953).jpg
Anne Hathaway's Cottage, a timber-framed farmhouse
Churche's Mansion, Nantwich, Ches. Churches Mansion left.jpg
Churche's Mansion, Nantwich, Ches.

Examples


Institutional

Ecclesiastical

Henry VII Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey (1503-09) Canaletto - The Interior of Henry VII's Chapel in Westminster Abbey.JPG
Henry VII Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey (1503–09)
First Quad gate tower, St. John's College, Cambridge (1511-20) First Court Gatehouse, St John's College, Cambridge c1870.jpg
First Quad gate tower, St. John's College, Cambridge (1511-20)
The Gate of Honor, Caius Court, Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge (1565) Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, Gate of Honour.jpg
The Gate of Honor, Caius Court, Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge (1565)

Academic

Commercial

Inns of Court

The Hall, Middle Temple, London; damaged and rebuilt after World War II Herbert Railton - Middle Temple Hall.jpg
The Hall, Middle Temple, London; damaged and rebuilt after World War II

Other

Domestic

Royal Residences

Other Palaces

Great Hall, Hampton Court Palace Hampton Court Palace, Gothic Court, by Charles Wild, 1819 - royal coll 922129 313701 ORI 2.jpg
Great Hall, Hampton Court Palace

Metropolitan London

Outside of London

Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire ComptonW.jpg
Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire
The long gallery, Little Moreton Hall, Cheshire Little Moreton Hall The Long Gallery.jpg
The long gallery, Little Moreton Hall, Cheshire
Portal, Burghley House, near Peterborough Architecture of the renaissance in England Plate 03 Burghley House east side of the courtyard.jpg
Portal, Burghley House, near Peterborough
Wollaton Hall Rear of Wollaton Hall 2015.jpg
Wollaton Hall
Elizabethan gardens at Kenilworth Castle Kenilworth Castle Gardens (9791).jpg
Elizabethan gardens at Kenilworth Castle

(see Prodigy house)

Tudor Revival

In the 19th century a free mix of late Gothic elements, Tudor, and Elizabethan were combined for public buildings, such as hotels and railway stations, as well as for residences. The popularity continued into the 20th century for residential building. This type of Renaissance Revival architecture is called 'Tudor,' 'Mock Tudor,' 'Tudor Revival,' 'Elizabethan,' 'Tudorbethan,' and 'Jacobethan.'

Tudor and Elizabethan precedents were the clear inspiration for many 19th and 20th century grand country houses in the United States and the British Commonwealth countries. A 19th and 20th century movement to build revivalist institutional buildings at schools and hospitals often drew from famous Tudor examples such as the Collegiate Gothic architectural style.

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