The City With A Future
|• Total||3.5 sq mi (9.2 km2)|
|• Land||3.5 sq mi (9.2 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||3,484 ft (1,062 m)|
|• Density||1,400/sq mi (540/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (Central (CST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1370199|
Tulia is a city in, and county seat of, Swisher County, Texas, United States.The population was 4,967 at the 2010 census; in the 2018 census estimate, it had fallen to 4,682. The city is at the junction of U.S. Route 87 and Texas State Highway 86, about 2 mi east of Interstate 27. Tulia is a center for farming and agribusiness activities.
A city is a large human settlement. Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organisations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process.
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.
Swisher County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 7,854. Its county seat is Tulia. The county was created in 1876 and later organized in 1890. It is named for James G. Swisher, a soldier of the Texas Revolution and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence.
Its site was originally on the acreage of the Tule Ranch division of the JA Ranch. In 1887, a post office was established in James A. Parrish's dugout on Middle Tule Draw, 9 mi west of what is now the site of Tulia. Evidently, the name Tule, after the nearby creek, had been selected for this post office, but at some point a clerk's error changed the name to Tulia. By 1900, Tulia was prospering as a stopping point for freight-wagon traffic en route to the railheads of Colorado City and Amarillo. A booming new era began with the extension of the Santa Fe line to Tulia in December 1906; with it came more settlers. In the mid-1980s, local industrial plants manufactured products such as clothing and farm implements, and four large cattle-feeding enterprises were nearby.
Tulia gained notoriety following a drug sting in July 1999 that rounded up 46 people, 40 of whom were innocent African Americans. The remaining detainees were Whites known to have ties within the black community, and in fact lived in the "Black" part of town. Nearly one-third of Tulia's Black males were arrested, about 15% of the town's Black population.All charges were based on the word of undercover officer Tom Coleman, a so-called "gypsy cop" who made his living traveling through impoverished rural Texas offering to work undercover cheaply for short periods of time for underfunded police departments. Coleman claimed to have made over 100 drug buys in the small town. He never recorded any of the sales, but claimed to have written painstaking notes on his leg under his shorts and upper arm under his shirt sleeve when nobody was looking.
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.
In law enforcement in the United States, the phrase gypsy cop is slang for a police officer who frequently transfers between police departments, often because of or regardless of misconduct or poor or unsuitable job performance.
During the roundup, no large sums of money, illegal drugs, drug paraphernalia, or illegal weapons were found. The accused drug dealers showed no signs of having any income associated with selling drugs. The drugs Coleman claimed to have bought from the accused did not have the fingerprints of the accused on them or their baggies. No independent witnesses could corroborate Coleman's claims. In his testimony, Coleman gave inaccurate descriptions of the "dealers" from whom he had allegedly bought cocaine. One suspect had his charges dropped when he was able to prove he had been at work during the times he had supposedly sold Coleman cocaine. Another produced bank and phone records indicating she was in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, at the time of her alleged crime. Many of the accused, however, seeing the long sentences dealt by all-white juries in earlier cases, pleaded guilty in return for lighter sentences, despite their proclaimed innocence. The remaining defendants were convicted solely on the basis of Coleman's testimony. The Texas Department of Public Safety awarded "Lawman of the Year" to Coleman.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.
An all-white jury is a sworn body composed only of white people convened to render an impartial verdict in a legal proceeding. Juries composed solely of one racial group are not prohibited in the United States. However, the phrases "all-white jury" and "all-black jury"' may raise the expectation that deliberations may be less than fair. While the racial composition of juries is not dictated by law, racial discrimination in the selection of jurors is specifically prohibited. Racial discrimination in jury selection has a long history in the United States.
Plea bargaining in the United States is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the United States are settled by plea bargain rather than by a jury trial. They have also been increasing in frequency—they rose from 84% of federal cases in 1984 to 94% by 2001. Plea bargains are subject to the approval of the court, and different States and jurisdictions have different rules. Game theory has been used to analyze the plea bargaining decision.
Amarillo civil rights attorney Jeff Blackburn began investigating the Tulia defendants' cases,along with civil rights organizations and a handful of attorneys from firms around the country. Eventually, the case became a cause célèbre , and money was raised to legally challenge the cases. Many had already served several years in prison before this process gained momentum. By 2004, Blackburn and his team had freed most of the "Tulia 46" and a $6,000,000 collective settlement was reached to avoid further litigation in civil court. Local authorities remain defiant, promising their town will not become a "slot machine" in the face of a new lawsuit stemming from an alleged incident of police brutality during the sweep.
A cause célèbre is an issue or incident arousing widespread controversy, outside campaigning, and heated public debate. The term continues in the media in all senses. It is sometimes used positively for celebrated legal cases for their precedent value and more often negatively for infamous ones, whether for scale, outrage, scandal or conspiracy theories.
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members. Widespread police brutality exists in many countries and territories, even those that prosecute it. Although illegal, it can be performed under the color of law.
In 2005, Coleman was convicted of perjury and sentenced to 10 years' probation and a $7,500 fine.
Federal laws titled after Tulia have twice been introduced in the United States Congress, but not enacted, to increase the evidentiary standard required to convict a person for a drug offense and to require screening of law enforcement officers or others acting under color of law participating in drug task forces.
Tulia is located at km) south of Amarillo in the Texas Panhandle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles (9.1 km2), all of it land.(34.5358942, -101.7585159). It is located 46 miles (74
According to the Köppen climate classification system, Tulia has a semiarid climate, BSk on climate maps.
Tulia holds the record for the lowest temperature in Texas, -23°F, set during the Great Blizzard of 1899. The temperature was matched by Seminole, Texas, in 1933.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000,5,117 people, 1,698 households, and 1,222 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,447.6 people per square mile (559.7/km2). The 1,898 housing units averaged 537.0 per square mile (207.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 66.45% White, 8.40% African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 22.14% from other races, and 2.48% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 39.63% of the population.
Of the 1,698 households, 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were not families. About 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 16.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.18.
In the city, the population was distributed as 27.8% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,794, and for a family was $32,415. Males had a median income of $24,857 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,956. About 16.0% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.7% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over.
Tulia is represented in the U.S. House by Republican Mac Thornberry.
The city is served by the Tulia Independent School District.
Schools that serve Tulia include:
A documentary Tulia, Texas: Scenes from the Drug War was filmed by Sarah Kunstler and Emily Kunstler in 2003, and won the Best Documentary Short award at Woodstock Film Festival.
Another documentary, titled Tulia, Texas, filmed by Cassandra Herman and Kelly Whalen, premiered in 2008 at the South by Southwest Film Festival in Austin and aired on PBS February 10, 2009.
The Tulia 46 drug sting event was in movie production; Tulia by Paramount Pictures, directed by John Singleton and starring Billy Bob Thornton and Halle Berry, and was scheduled for release in 2014.
The 1999 drug arrests were also explored in the documentary American Drug War: The Last White Hope .
Rattlesnake is a 2019 crime drama mystery film set in Tulia.
Angelina County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 86,771. Its county seat is Lufkin. It was formed in 1846 from Nacogdoches County. It is named for a Hasinai Native American woman who assisted early Spanish missionaries and was named Angelina by them. It is a wet county as of November 2006 wet/dry election. In November 2007 the small community of Burke was the only city in it to return to dry status.
Tulelake is a city in Northeastern Siskiyou County, California, United States, at an elevation of 4,066 feet (1,239 m) above sea level. The town is named after nearby Tule Lake. The population was 1,010 at the 2010 census, down from 1,020 at the 2000 census. In an unusual circumstance, at least within California, Tulelake peace officers are authorized by state law, along with cooperation of the state of Oregon, to serve as and be recognized as peace officers within Malin, Oregon, along with the inverse being true for peace officers employed within Malin, wherein they are recognized as peace officers within Tulelake by the California Penal Code.
Claude is a city in and the county seat of Armstrong County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,196 at the 2010 census. It is located east of Amarillo in the south Texas Panhandle. Claude is part of the Amarillo Metropolitan Statistical Area but is some thirty miles east of Amarillo.
Silverton is a city in Briscoe County, Texas, United States. The population was 731 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Briscoe County.
Coleman is a city in and the county seat of Coleman County, Texas, in the United States. The population was 4,709 at the 2010 census.
Hereford is a city in and county seat of Deaf Smith County, Texas, United States. It is 48 miles southwest of Amarillo. The population was 15,370 at the 2010 census. It is the only incorporated locality named "Hereford" in the country.
Plainview is a city in and the county seat of Hale County, Texas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,194.
Turkey is a city in Hall County, Texas, United States. The population was 421 at the 2010 census, down from 494 at the 2000 census.
Buffalo is a city in Leon County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,804 at the 2000 census.
Cactus is a city in Moore County, Texas, United States, along U.S. Route 287. The population was 3,179 at the 2010 census.
Adrian is a city on historic route 66 in Oldham County, Texas, United States. The population was 166 at the 2010 census, up from 159 at the 2000 census.
Vega is a city and county seat of Oldham County, Texas, United States. The population was 884 at the 2010 census, down from 936 at the 2000 census.
Farwell is a city in and the county seat of Parmer County, Texas, United States. The population was 1363 at the 2010 census. The city is located on the Texas-New Mexico border with the city of Texico, New Mexico across the border.
Wheeler is a city, and the county seat of Wheeler County, Texas, United States, located on the eastern border of the Texas Panhandle. The population was last reported at 1,592 in the 2010 census.
Alvord is a town in Wise County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,334 at the 2010 census, an increase of 327 residents, or 32 percent growth, over the 2000 population.
Amarillo is the 14th-most populous city in the state of Texas, United States. It is also the largest city in the Texas Panhandle, and the seat of Potter County. A portion of the city extends into Randall County. The estimated population was 199,826 as of 2017. The Amarillo metropolitan area has an estimated population of 276,020 in four counties as of 2017. The metro population is projected to surpass 310,000 in 2020.
Happy is a town in Randall and Swisher Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. The population was 678 at the 2010 census. The Randall County portion of Happy is part of the Amarillo, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The Texas Observer is an American magazine. The Observer is published bimonthly by a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, the Texas Democracy Foundation. Its mission, as declared by founding editor Ronnie Dugger, is to "serve no group or party but ... hew hard to the truth as we find it and the right as we see it". It is headquartered in Austin, Texas.
Alan Bean is a white former minister working to uncover injustice and organize black opposition, in the racial controversies surrounding the Tulia 46 drug sting in Tulia, Texas and the Jena Six controversy in Jena, Louisiana. In 1999, Dr. Alan Bean founded the organization, Friends of Justice, an alliance of community members to advocate for criminal justice reform.