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Tullio Regge | |
---|---|

Born | Borgo d'Ale, Italy | 11 July 1931

Died | 23 October 2014 83) Orbassano, Italy | (aged

Alma mater | University of Turin |

Known for | Regge theory Regge calculus |

Awards | Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics (1964) Albert Einstein Award (1979) Pomeranchuk Prize (2001) |

Scientific career | |

Fields | Theoretical physics |

Institutions | Max Planck Institute for Physics University of Turin Institute for Advanced Study Polytechnic University of Turin |

Doctoral advisor | Robert Marshak |

**Tullio Eugenio Regge** (Italian: [ˈtulljo ˈrɛddʒe] ; July 11, 1931 – October 23, 2014) was an Italian theoretical physicist.^{ [1] }

**Italy**, officially the **Italian Republic**, is a country in Southern and Western Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km^{2} (116,350 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.

**Theoretical physics** is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena.

Regge obtained the * laurea * in physics from the University of Turin in 1952 under the direction of Mario Verde and Gleb Wataghin, and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Rochester in 1957 under the direction of Robert Marshak. From 1958 to 1959 Regge held a post at the Max Planck Institute for Physics where he worked with Werner Heisenberg. In 1961 he was appointed to the chair of Relativity at the University of Turin. He also held an appointment at the Institute for Advanced Study from 1965 to 1979. He was emeritus professor at the Polytechnic University of Turin while contributing work at CERN as a visiting scientist. Regge died on October 23, 2014.^{ [2] } He was married to Rosanna Cester, physicist, by whom he had three children: Daniele, Marta and Anna.

In Italy, the * Iaurea* is the main post-secondary academic degree. The name originally referred literally to the laurel wreath, since ancient times a sign of honor and now often worn by Italian students right after their official graduation ceremony and sometimes during the graduation party. A graduate is known as a

**Physics** is the natural science that studies matter, its motion, and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.

The **University of Turin** is a university in the city of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe, and continues to play an important role in research and training. It is steadily ranked among the top 5 Italian universities and it is ranked third for research activities in Italy, according to the latest data by ANVUR.

In 1959, Regge discovered a mathematical property of potential scattering in the Schrödinger equation—that the scattering amplitude can be thought of as an analytic function of the angular momentum, and that the position of the poles determines power-law growth rates of the amplitude in the purely mathematical region of large values of the cosine of the scattering angle (i.e. , requiring complex angles).^{ [3] }^{ [4] }^{ [5] }^{ [6] }^{ [7] }^{ [8] } This formulation is known as Regge theory.

The **Schrödinger equation** is a linear partial differential equation that describes the wave function or state function of a quantum-mechanical system. It is a key result in quantum mechanics, and its discovery was a significant landmark in the development of the subject. The equation is named after Erwin Schrödinger, who derived the equation in 1925, and published it in 1926, forming the basis for the work that resulted in his Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933.

In quantum physics, **Regge theory** is the study of the analytic properties of scattering as a function of angular momentum, where the angular momentum is not restricted to be an integer multiple of *ħ* but is allowed to take any complex value. The nonrelativistic theory was developed by Tullio Regge in 1959.

In the early 1960s, Regge introduced Regge calculus, a simplicial formulation of general relativity. Regge calculus was the first discrete gauge theory suitable for numerical simulation, and an early relative of lattice gauge theory. In 1968 he and G. Ponzano developed a quantum version of Regge calculus in three space-time dimensions now known as the Ponzano-Regge model.^{ [9] } This was the first of a whole series of state sum models for quantum gravity known as spin foam models. In mathematics, the model also developed into the Turaev-Viro model, an example of a quantum invariant.

In general relativity, **Regge calculus** is a formalism for producing simplicial approximations of spacetimes that are solutions to the Einstein field equation. The calculus was introduced by the Italian theoretician Tullio Regge in 1961.

In geometry, a **simplex** is a generalization of the notion of a triangle or tetrahedron to arbitrary dimensions. Specifically, a ** k-simplex** is a

**General relativity** is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the *curvature of spacetime* is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.

He received the Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics in 1964, the Città di Como prize in 1968, the Albert Einstein Award in 1979,^{ [10] } and the Cecil Powell Medal in 1987.

**Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics** is an award given each year since 1959 jointly by the American Physical Society and American Institute of Physics. It is established by the Heineman Foundation in honour of Dannie Heineman. As of 2010, the prize consists of US$ 10,000 and a certificate citing the contributions made by the recipient plus travel expenses to attend the meeting at which the prize is bestowed.

**Como** is a city and *comune* in Lombardy, Italy. It is the administrative capital of the Province of Como.

The **Albert Einstein Award** was an award in theoretical physics that was established to recognize high achievement in the natural sciences. It was endowed by the Lewis and Rosa Strauss Memorial Fund in honor of Albert Einstein's 70th birthday. It was first awarded in 1951 and, in addition to a gold medal of Einstein by sculptor Gilroy Roberts, it also included a prize money of $15,000, which was later reduced to $5,000. The winner was selected by a committee of the Institute for Advanced Study, which administered the award. Lewis L. Strauss used to be one of the trustees of the institute.

In 1989, Regge was elected to the European Parliament as a candidate of the Italian Communist Party and served until 1994. Regge served as president of the Turin section of the Association for Research in Handicap Prevention (AIRH).

The **European Parliament** (**EP**) is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU) that is directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU. The Parliament is composed of 751 members (MEPs), that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world.

The **Italian Communist Party** was a communist political party in Italy.

He was awarded the Dirac Medal in 1996,^{ [11] } the Marcel Grossmann Award in 1997,^{ [12] } and the Pomeranchuk Prize in 2001.^{ [13] } The asteroid 3778 Regge has been named after him.

Regge theory, a theory of strong interaction phenomenology at high energies, and Regge calculus are named after him.

*Lettera ai giovani sulla scienza*, Rizzoli, 2004*Spazio, tempo e universo. Passato, presente e futuro della teoria della relatività*, wirh Giulio Peruzzi, UTET Libreria, 2003*L'universo senza fine. Breve storia del Tutto: passato e futuro del cosmo*, Milan, Mondadori, 1999*Non abbiate paura. Racconti di fantascienza*, La Stampa, 1999*Infinito*, Mondadori, 1996*Gli eredi di Prometeo. L'energia nel futuro*, La Stampa, 1993*Le meraviglie del reale*, La Stampa, 1987*Dialogo*, with Primo Levi, Einaudi, 1987*Cronache Dell'Universo*, Boringhieri, 1981

**Tullio Levi-Civita**, was an Italian mathematician, most famous for his work on absolute differential calculus and its applications to the theory of relativity, but who also made significant contributions in other areas. He was a pupil of Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, the inventor of tensor calculus. His work included foundational papers in both pure and applied mathematics, celestial mechanics, analytic mechanics and hydrodynamics.

**Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro** was an Italian mathematician born in Lugo di Romagna. He is most famous as the inventor of tensor calculus, but also published important works in other fields.

In physics, the **pomeron** is a Regge trajectory — a family of particles with increasing spin — postulated in 1961 to explain the slowly rising cross section of hadronic collisions at high energies. It is named after Isaak Pomeranchuk.

**Gabriele Veneziano** is an Italian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of string theory. He has conducted most of his scientific activities at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, and he has held the Chair of Elementary Particles, Gravitation and Cosmology at the Collège de France in Paris, from 2004 to 2013.

The term "**bootstrap model**" is used for a class of theories that use very general consistency criteria to determine the form of a quantum theory from some assumptions on the spectrum of particles. It is a form of S-matrix theory.

**Isaak Yakovlevich Pomeranchuk** was a Soviet theoretical physicist working in particle physics, quantum field theory, electromagnetic and synchrotron radiation, condensed matter physics and the physics of liquid helium. The Pomeranchuk instability, the pomeron, and a few others phenomena in particle and condensed matter physics are named after him.

**Stanley Mandelstam** was a South Africa-born American theoretical physicist of Jewish ancestry. He introduced the relativistically invariant Mandelstam variables into particle physics in 1958 as a convenient coordinate system for formulating his double dispersion relations. The double dispersion relations were a central tool in the bootstrap program which sought to formulate a consistent theory of infinitely many particle types of increasing spin.

**Ludvig Dmitrievich Faddeev** was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist and mathematician. He is known for the discovery of the Faddeev equations in the theory of the quantum mechanical three-body problem and for the development of path integral methods in the quantization of non-abelian gauge field theories, including the introduction of Faddeev–Popov ghosts. He led the Leningrad School, in which he along with many of his students developed the quantum inverse scattering method for studying quantum integrable systems in one space and one time dimension. This work led to the invention of quantum groups by Drinfeld and Jimbo.

The **history of string theory** spans several decades of intense research including two superstring revolutions. Through the combined efforts of many researchers, string theory has developed into a broad and varied subject with connections to quantum gravity, particle and condensed matter physics, cosmology, and pure mathematics.

**Sergio Ferrara** is an Italian physicist working on theoretical physics of elementary particles and mathematical physics. He is renowned for the discovery of theories introducing supersymmetry as a symmetry of elementary particles and of supergravity, the first significant extension of Einstein's general relativity, based on the principle of "local supersymmetry". He is an emeritus staff member at CERN and a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles.

**S-matrix theory** was a proposal for replacing local quantum field theory as the basic principle of elementary particle physics.

**Vladimir Naumovich Gribov** was a prominent Russian theoretical physicist, who worked on high-energy physics, quantum field theory and the Regge theory of the strong interactions.

**Tai Tsun Wu** is a Chinese-born American physicist and applied physicist well known for his contributions to high-energy nuclear physics and statistical mechanics.

**Lev Nikolaevich Lipatov** was a Russian physicist, well known for his contributions to nuclear physics and particle physics. He has been the head of Theoretical Physics Division at St. Petersburg's Nuclear Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences in Gatchina and an Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

**Karen Avetovich Ter-Martirosyan** was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist of Armenian descent. He is known for his contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory and the author of several hundred articles in his area.

**Aleksander Ilyich Akhiezer** was a Soviet theoretical physicist, known for contributions to numerous branches of theoretical physics, including quantum electrodynamics, nuclear physics, solid state physics, quantum field theory, and the theory of plasma. He was the brother of the mathematician Naum Akhiezer.

**Sergio Fubini** was an Italian theoretical physicist. He was one of the pioneers of string theory. He was engaged in peace activism in the Middle East.

**Anna Ceresole** is an Italian high energy physicist and Director of Research in Theoretical Physics at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). She is interested in quantum field theory, supergravity and supersymmetry.

- ↑ Piero Bianucci. "Addio a Tullio Regge, genio della fisica". lastampa.it. p. 18. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
- ↑ D'Auria, Riccardo (January 2015). "Faces and places: Tullio Regge 1931-2014" (PDF).
*CERN Courier*.**55**(1): 39–40.^{[ permanent dead link ]} - ↑ Tullio Regge, "Introduction to complex angular momentum,"
*Il Nuovo Cimento Series*10, Vol. 14, 1959, p. 951. - ↑ Iliopoulos, John (1996), Krige, John, ed.,
*History of CERN, Volume 3*, Elsevier, p. 301, ISBN 978-0-444-89655-1 - ↑ Cao, Tian Yu (1998),
*Conceptual developments of 20th century field theories*, Cambridge University Press, p. 224, ISBN 978-0-521-63420-5 - ↑ Collins, P. D. B. (1977).
*An Introduction to Regge Theory and High-Energy Physics*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21245-6. - ↑ Eden, R. J. (1971). "Regge poles and elementary particles".
*Rep. Prog. Phys*.**34**(3): 995–1053. Bibcode:1971RPPh...34..995E. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/34/3/304. - ↑ Irving, A. C.; Worden, R. P. (1977). "Regge phenomenology".
*Phys. Rep*.**34**(3): 117–231. Bibcode:1977PhR....34..117I. doi:10.1016/0370-1573(77)90010-2. - ↑ G. Ponzano; T. Regge (1968). "Semiclassical limit of Racah coefficients". In Bloch, F.
*Spectroscopic and group theoretical methods in physics*. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. pp. 1–58. - ↑ "Tullio Regge receives Albert Einstein Award",
*Physics Today*,**32**: 82, May 1979, Bibcode:1979PhT....32e..82., doi:10.1063/1.2995565 - ↑ Dirac Medalists 1996 — ICTP Portal
- ↑ MARCEL GROSSMANN AWARDS
- ↑ Pomeranchuk Prize Winners 2001 Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine .

- Tullio Regge at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Tullio Regge on INSPIRE-HEP
- (in Italian)
*L'utopia del progresso a "rischio zero"*, articolo di Tullio Regge su "La Repubblica" (2001) - (in Italian) L'imperdibile intervista a Tullio Regge e Rita Levi-Montalcini, da
*Memoro - la Banca della Memoria* - (in Italian)
*Premi Guilio Natta e Nicolò Copernico*: Tullio Regge, biographical sketch of prize committee member.

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