Tunceli

Last updated


Dersim

Dêsim

Tunceli
Tunceli.jpg
Tunceli in Munzur valley
Turkey adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Dersim
Location in Turkey
Coordinates: 39°06′N39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550 Coordinates: 39°06′N39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550
Country Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Province Tunceli Province
Government
   Mayor Fatih Mehmet Maçoğlu (TKP)
Area
[1]
  District881.76 km2 (340.45 sq mi)
Elevation
940 m (3,085 ft)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
31,469
  District
35,898
  District density41/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
62000
Area code(s) 0428
Licence plate 62
Website http://www.tunceli.bel.tr

Dersim (alternatively: Dêsim) or Tunceli (until 2019) is a city in Turkey. It is the capital of Tunceli Province, located in the middle of Eastern Anatolia Region.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Tunceli Province Province of Turkey in Central East Anatolia

Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Its population mostly consists of Alevi Kurds. The province was originally named Dersim Province, then demoted to a district and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. It was finally changed to Tunceli Province on January 4, 1936 by the "Law on Administration of the Tunceli Province", no. 2884 of 25 December 1935, but some still call the region by its original name. The name of the provincial capital, Kalan, was then officially changed to Tunceli to match the province's name.

Eastern Anatolia Region Region of Turkey

The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey.

Contents

Etymology

Tunceli means the land (eli) of bronze (tunç) in Turkish, while the old name for province “Dersim” (or Dêsim) means silver (sim) door (der) in Persian.

Geography

Tunceli at 39°06′N39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550 is situated just to the north of the intersection point of two rivers, Munzur and Pülümür, both flowing to south. The city is founded in the valley of Munzur which is known for its picturesque appearance. It is surrounded by high mountains called Munzur mountains. The city has a limited means of transport to other cities. The population of the city is 32815 as of 2011. [3] It is one of the least populated province centers of Turkey.

History

During the Ottoman Empire, Tunceli (then known as Kalan) was a part of the region named Dersim. In 1847 Dersim was declared a sanjak (a historical administrative unit smaller than the province). The capital of the sanjak was Hozat. During the Republican period Tunceli Province was established in 1935. In 1946 the former town of Kalan was renamed as Tunceli and it was declared as the capital city of the province. [4]

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Sanjaks were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire. Sanjak, and the variant spellings sandjak, sanjaq, and sinjaq, are English transliterations of the Turkish word sancak, meaning district,banner, or flag. Sanjaks were also called by the Arabic word for banner or flag: لواء liwa.

Hozat Place in Tunceli, Turkey

Hozat is a small city and its surrounding district in Tunceli Province of Turkey. It has a population of 4,714. The mayor is Celaleddin Polat (CHP).

As a result of the Turkish campaign of "Turkisation" Tunceli became a main target of Turkish officials after the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Tunceli played a role in the Dersim rebellion.

Turkification Cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture

Turkification, or Turkicization, is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire. As the Turkic states developed and grew, there were many instances of this cultural shift.

Dersim rebellion Kurdish abd Zaza uprising against the Turkish government in Dersim, eastern Turkey

The Dersim rebellion was a Kurdish Zaza uprising against the Turkish government in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes parts of Tunceli Province, Elazığ Province, and Bingöl Province. The rebellion was led by Seyid Riza, an Alevi Kurdish chieftain of the Yukarı Abbas Uşağı tribe. As a result of the Turkish military campaign in 1937 and 1938 against the rebellion, thousands of Alevi Kurds Zazas died and many others were internally displaced due to the conflict.

Tunceli is famous for excellent rankings in National Education statistics. [5]

Politics

In the Municipal Elections of March 2019, Fatih Mehmet Maçoğlu was elected Mayor. He is the first mayor of Dersim from the Communist Party of Turkey.

In May 2019 the Municipal Council decided to use the city`s historic name Dersim and also to offer municipal services in the Kurdish languages Zazaki and Kurmanji. 4 Members of the newly elected municipal council had their certificates revoked in May 2019 for having been dismissed from public office in the past. [6]

Economy

The main economic activity is animal breeding. Wheat is the only notable agricultural product. There are chromium salt and marble deposits. But only salt is produced. There are a few factories based on agriculture. [7]

Climate

Tunceli has a dry-summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsa) with very hot, dry summers and freezing cold, snowy winters.

Climate data for Tunceli (1960-2012)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)14.2
(57.6)
18.1
(64.6)
26.0
(78.8)
32.2
(90.0)
36.6
(97.9)
39.0
(102.2)
43.5
(110.3)
43.5
(110.3)
40.3
(104.5)
35.6
(96.1)
27.0
(80.6)
21.7
(71.1)
43.5
(110.3)
Average high °C (°F)2.7
(36.9)
4.5
(40.1)
10.9
(51.6)
17.9
(64.2)
23.9
(75.0)
29.9
(85.8)
35.0
(95.0)
35.2
(95.4)
30.5
(86.9)
22.7
(72.9)
13.4
(56.1)
5.5
(41.9)
19.3
(66.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.0
(28.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.6
(42.1)
11.9
(53.4)
17.1
(62.8)
22.7
(72.9)
27.3
(81.1)
26.9
(80.4)
21.6
(70.9)
14.7
(58.5)
6.9
(44.4)
1.0
(33.8)
12.8
(55.0)
Average low °C (°F)−5.8
(21.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
0.8
(33.4)
6.2
(43.2)
10.2
(50.4)
14.5
(58.1)
18.9
(66.0)
18.4
(65.1)
13.3
(55.9)
8.2
(46.8)
2.0
(35.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
6.6
(44.0)
Record low °C (°F)−30.3
(−22.5)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−7.1
(19.2)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.3
(41.5)
9.2
(48.6)
7.7
(45.9)
2.6
(36.7)
−4.0
(24.8)
−16.4
(2.5)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−30.3
(−22.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)127.2
(5.01)
109.0
(4.29)
111.2
(4.38)
108.4
(4.27)
70.1
(2.76)
19.0
(0.75)
3.7
(0.15)
2.9
(0.11)
13.9
(0.55)
65.0
(2.56)
104.9
(4.13)
139.6
(5.50)
874.9
(34.46)
Average precipitation days11.912.113.013.812.25.21.51.22.68.49.611.8103.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 105.4112.0167.4192.0279.0336.0368.9350.3291.0213.9150.093.02,658.9
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [8]

See also

Notes

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. "Turkish statistical Institute". Archived from the original on 2014-10-12.
  4. Tunceli governor's page on history Archived 2013-09-28 at the Wayback Machine ‹See Tfd› (in Turkish)
  5. http://www.cnnturk.com/turkiye/egitim-siralamasinda-tunceli-birinci
  6. Kurdistan24. "Kurdish city returns to original name 'Dersim,' attracts Turkish ire". Kurdistan24. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  7. "TUNCELİ - Ekonomik Faaliyetler". www.cografya.gen.tr.
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2011-03-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

Related Research Articles

Muş Province Province of Turkey in Central East Anatolia

Muş Province, is a province in eastern Turkey. It is 8,196 km2 in area and has a population of 406,886 according to a 2010 estimate, down from 453,654 in 2000. The provincial capital is the city of Muş. Another town in Muş province, Malazgirt (Manzikert), is famous for the Battle of Manzikert of 1071. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.

Sivas Province Province of Turkey in Central Anatolia

Sivas Province, is a province of Turkey. It is largely located at the eastern part of the Central Anatolia region of Turkey; it is the second largest province in Turkey by territory. Its adjacent provinces are Yozgat to the west, Kayseri to the southwest, Kahramanmaraş to the south, Malatya to the southeast, Erzincan to the east, Giresun to the northeast, and Ordu to the north. Its capital is Sivas.

Bingöl Province Province of Turkey in Central East Anatolia

Bingöl Province is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. The province was created in 1946 out of parts of Elazığ and Erzincan. The new province was known as Çapakçur Province until 1950. Its neighbouring provinces are Tunceli, Erzurum, Muş, Diyarbakır, Erzincan and Elazığ. The province covers an area of 8,125 km2 and has a population of 255,170. The main spoken languages are Turkish and Zazaki/Kurdish. The capital is Bingöl. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.

Bitlis Province Province of Turkey in Central East Anatolia

Bitlis Province is a province of eastern Turkey, located to the west of Lake Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.

Van Vilayet Ottoman province

The Vilayet of Van was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century it reportedly had a population of about 400,000 and an area of 15,000 square miles (39,000 km2). It was one of the so-called six Armenian vilayets and held, prior to World War I, a large number of Armenians, as well as Assyrian and Azeri minorities.

Mazgirt Place in Tunceli, Turkey

Mazgirt, Kurdish: Mêzgir or Mazgêrd‎) is a small city and its surrounding district in Tunceli Province of Turkey. The city has a population of 1,712, most of which are Alevi. The mayor is Tekin Türkel (ÖDP). The town has a number of interesting buildings, such as an abandoned castle, an old Mosque, and an Armenian Church which is soon to be renovated.

Pertek Place in Tunceli, Turkey

Pertek, is a small city and its surrounding district in Tunceli Province of modern Turkey. Pertag, means "tiny fortress" in Armenian.

Yayladere Place in Bingöl, Turkey

Yayladere is a town and county of Bingöl Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region, it had previously been a sancak (district) of the province of Dersim. The county has an area of 430 km ² and is bordered on the west by Tunceli and Elazığ to the south. The Peri River forms the natural border to Elazig. The area is about 1,600 m above sea level. The mountains up to 2,800 m high. The two largest are the Sülbüs / Selbuz and Sultan Mehmet / Taru. The local population is Kurdish with previous Armenian communities. The mayor is Sabri Akyürek (CHP). The district has twenty-six villages and eighty hamlets, most of the population are Alevi muslims, however in recent decades there has been a shift towards sunni Islam. There are 2,000 people living in the district as per 2007 estimates. It is known for its goat dishes.

Turkish Kurdistan Wikimedia list article

Turkish Kurdistan or Northern Kurdistan is the portion of Turkey, located in the Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia regions, where Kurds form the predominant ethnic group.

Kurdification is a cultural change in which non-ethnic Kurds or/and non-ethnic Kurdish area or/and non-Kurdish languages becomes Kurdish. This can happen both naturally and deliberately.

Ovacık, Dersim Place in Tunceli, Turkey

Ovacık is a town and its surrounding district in Tunceli Province of Turkey. It has a population of 3,227. It was the first town to elect a communist mayor, Fatih Mehmet Maçoğlu, member of the Communist Party of Turkey. He made public transport free of charge and in 2017 he opened a municipal agricultural cooperative which produced chickpeas, beans and honey and according to Maçoğlu gave work to 250 people. In the Municipal elections of 2019 Mustafa Sarigül from the CHP was elected mayor.

Munzur Valley National Park

The Munzur Valley National Park, established on December 21, 1971, is the largest and the most biodiverse national park in Turkey. It is located at the Munzur Valley of Munzur Mountain Range within Tunceli Province in eastern Anatolia.

Erdal Gezik is a contemporary writer on Alevis and honor crimes in Turkey.

Koyungölü Village in Tunceli Province, Turkey

Koyungölü is a village in Ovacık district of Tunceli Province, Turkey. At 39°21′N39°07′E it is situated in the valley of the Munzur river. The distance to Ovacık is 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and to Tunceli is 72 kilometres (45 mi). The population of Koyungölü is 350 as of 2011. Like most villages around, the main economic activities are animal breeding and agriculture.

Aktuluk Village in Tunceli Province, Turkey

Aktuluk (formerly Türüşmek; Kurdish: Troşmek‎) is a village in the central (Tunceli) district of Tunceli Province, Turkey. It is situated west of Munzur River and Turkish state highway D.885. The distance to Tunceli is 11 kilometres (6.8 mi). The population of Aktuluk is 318 as of 2011.

Edibe Şahin was mayor of the municipality of Tunceli (Mamekiye), the capital of Tunceli Province in Eastern Anatolia, of the Peace and Democracy Party (BDP). She was elected in the March 2009 local elections.

Düzgün Baba is a religious figure among Alevi Kurds, especially in the Dersim Province. He also symbolizes a mountain in Nazımiye, nearby the village Qıl. The people believe that he disappeared at the top of this mountain, which is known as Kemerê Duzginî, Bimbarek (holy) or Kemerê Bimbarekî in Zazaki. According to local narrations he is the son of sayyid Kures/Kureş who was an ancestor of Kureşan community and his real name is not Duzgı/Dızgun, it is Haydar or Shah Haydar. But some researches suggest the opposite of this view.

The Maoist insurgency in Turkey, also known as People's War in Turkey, is an ongoing low level insurgency in eastern Turkey between the Turkish government and Maoist rebels that appears to have begun in the 1980s. The insurgency declined in the late 1980s and 1990s and has been sidelined by the larger Kurdish separatist conflict. Low level armed attacks continue to be carried out by insurgent groups, the most significant of which are Liberation Army of the Workers and Peasants of Turkey (TİKKO) and People's Liberation Army (HKO) and People's Partisan Forces (PHG), both armed wings of the Maoist Communist Party.