|6th Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters|
31 December 1983 –27 August 1985
|President||Muhammadu Buhari as Military Head of State|
|Preceded by||Alex Ekwueme as civilian Vice President of Nigeria|
|Succeeded by||Ebitu Ukiwe|
|Governor of Borno State|
July 1978 –October 1979
|Preceded by||Mustapha Amin|
|Succeeded by||Mohammed Goni|
|Born||14 September 1942|
Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria
|Died||24 March 1999 56) (aged|
Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria
|Political party||None (military)|
|Alma mater|| Nigerian Military School |
Pakistan Military Academy
Nigerian Defence Academy
Naval Postgraduate School
|Years of service||1962–1985|
Babatunde "Tunde" Abdulbaki Idiagbon (14 September 1943 – 24 March 1999) was a Nigerian Army major general who served as chief of staff at Supreme Headquarters (de facto vice president) under the military regime of Major General Muhammadu Buhari from 1983 to 1985. He was also a key member of Nigeria's military governments between 1966 and 1979, serving as a military administrator of Borno State under General Olusegun Obasanjo's military government. He died on 24 March 1999 in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. Idiagbon was one of Nigeria's egalitarian military leaders.
The Nigerian army (NA) is the largest component of the Nigerian Armed Forces, and is responsible for land warfare operations. It is governed by the Nigerian Army Council (NAC). It bears the brunt of the nation's security challenges, notably the Boko Haram insurgency.
Muhammadu Buhari is a Nigerian politician currently serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and previously served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government.
Borno, also known as Borno State, is a state in north-eastern Nigeria. Its capital is Maiduguri. The state was formed in 1976 from the split of the North-Eastern State. Until 1991 it contained what is now Yobe State. It is the homeland of the Kanuri people in Nigeria.
Idiagbon was born into the family of his father Hassan Dogo and mother Ayisatu Iyabeji Hassan Idiagbon on 14 September 1943 in Ilorin, Kwara State.He attended United Primary School, Ilorin from 1950 to 1952 and Okesuna Senior Primary School, Ilorin, 1953–57. He received his secondary education at the Nigeria Military School, Zaria between 1958 and 62.
Ilorin is the state capital of Kwara in Western Nigeria. As of the 2006 census, it had a population of 777,667, making it the 7th largest city by population in Nigeria.
Kwara is a state in Western Nigeria. Its capital is Ilorin. Kwara is located within the North Central geopolitical zone, commonly referred to as the Middle Belt. The primary ethnic group is Yoruba, with significant Nupe, Bariba, and Fulani minorities.
Zaria is a major city in Kaduna State in northern Nigeria, as well as being a Local Government Area. Formerly known as Zazzau, it was one of the original seven Hausa city-states. Today, it is known for housing Nigeria's largest university, Ahmadu Bello University, as well as being home to a number of prominent Nigerians.
In 1962, Idiagbon joined the Nigerian Army by enrolling in the Nigerian Military Training College (NMTC). In February 1964, the college was renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA).
The Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA) Kaduna, is the first of two Military universities in Nigeria. Nigerian Army University established in 2018 in Biu, Borno State is the other military university though it does not offer military training. The duration of training at the Nigerian Defence Academy is 5 years for Army cadets(4 years Academic + 1 year Military) and 4 years for Navy and Air force cadets after which they proceed to Nigerian Naval College, Onne, Port-hacourt and 301 Flying Training School(301FTS), Kaduna respectively for 1-year training at their respective services.
From 1962 to 1965, Idiagbon attended the Pakistan Military Academy, Kakul (PMA Kakul), Abbottabad, Pakistan, where he obtained a bachelor's degree in economics. Upon arrival to Nigeria from Pakistan he was commissioned second lieutenant in April 1965. He was company commander, 4th Battalion from August 1965 to February 1966. In 1966 he studied for the junior commander course at the Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna. From 1966 to 1967 he also served as an intelligence officer, 4th Battalion and General Staff Officer, 3rd Intelligence, 1st Sector. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in 1966. He was made commanding officer, 20 Battalion from October 1967 to February 1968. In 1968, he was promoted to the rank of captain. He was the commanding officer, 125 Battalion, from 1968 to 1970.
The Pakistan Military Academy (PMA), also known as PMA Kakul, is a two-year accredited federal service academy in Kakul near Abbottabad in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Pakistan Military Academy is similar in function to Sandhurst, Saint-Cyr, and West Point, and provides training to the officers of Pakistan Army and Allied countries. The academy has four training battalions, and 16 companies. Approximately 2,000 invited guests from over 34 countries tour the facility each year. Many close allies of Pakistan send their own cadets and officers to receive premier training in modern military doctrine at PMA.On July 22, 2015 the COAS inaugurated the incoming 4th battalion for training.
Abbottabad is the capital city of Abbottabad District in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, and 150 kilometres (93 mi) east of Peshawar, at an altitude of 1,260 metres (4,134 ft). Kashmir lies to the east.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
In 1970, he was promoted to the rank of major. He was made brigade major and deputy commander, 33 Brigade from March 1970 to March 1971 and the commander, 29 Brigade from March 1971 to December 1972. In January 1973 he served as the general staff officer, Grade 1 and later, principal staff officer (PSO), Supreme Military Headquarters. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1974. He was made brigade commander, 31 and 15 Brigades from August 1975 to August 1978. In 1976, Idiagbon proceeded to the Command and Staff College in Quetta, Pakistan, for further military training. In July 1978 he was promoted to the rank of colonel. He was appointed as the director of manpower (manning) and planning, Army Headquarters in October 1979.
Quetta is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan. It was largely destroyed in the 1935 Quetta earthquake, but was rebuilt and has a population of 1,001,205 according to the census of 2017 while the Quetta District has a population of 2,275,699. Quetta is at an average elevation of 1,680 metres above sea level, making it Pakistan's only high-altitude major city. The city is known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan," due to the numerous fruit orchards in and around it, and the large variety of fruits and dried fruit products produced there.
Colonel is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks. However, in some small military forces, such as those of Monaco or the Vatican, colonel is the highest rank. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations.
In May 1980 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. In 1981, he attended the National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies, Kuru, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria and in 1982 he attended the International Defence Management Course, Naval Postgraduate School, US. He was the military secretary of the Nigerian Army from 1981 to 1983. Idiagbon was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1985.
The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) is a public graduate school operated by the United States Navy and located in Monterey, California. It grants master’s degrees, doctoral degrees, and certificates. Established in 1909, the school also offers research fellowship opportunities at the postdoctoral level through the National Academies’ National Research Council research associateship program.
From August 1978 to October 1979, the military Head of State, General Obasanjo appointed Idiagbon as the military administrator (position now called governor) of Borno State, Nigeria.
Idiagbon was chief of staff, Supreme Headquarters from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985. He played a key role as the hallmark of Buhari's military government. He controlled all visible instruments of national, political, governmental and administrative powers.
Idiagbon was responsible for introducing, announcing and implementing many of the government's major policies, they include:
The five phases of the War Against Indiscipline which Idiagbon announced and implemented were:
In April 1984, Idiagbon announced the introduction of a new currency for Nigeria. He said the new currency would keep the same name, but the colors of bills would be different.
He also announced limits to currency exchange for corporations and individuals. The individual limit was $7,000. He said any corporation or individual exchanging in excess of the limit had to explain where the money came from and needed government clearance.
According to Idiagbon the major cause of the nation's economic problems 'is the deliberate sabotage of the Nigerian currency through large-scale illegal trafficking of the currency'.
In 1984, Idiagbon implemented the military government's import substitution industrialisation policy based on the use of local materials. Importation was tightened. The aim was to ensure the growth of local industries through the policy.
Also in 1984, Idiagbon spearheaded and implemented the Go Back to Land Programme which was part of the government's farming policy that encouraged massive agricultural food production and was also part of the military government's poverty alleviation strategy.
From January 1984 to August 1985, Idiagbon took control of all foreign policy matters that involved security. He was in control of the border closure, expulsion of illegal immigrants, and damage control after the Umaru Dikko Affair in Britain.
He also participated in diplomatic activities. On behalf of Nigeria's military government, he signed credit line and educational cooperation agreements with a visiting Bulgarian delegation led by Prime Minister Grisha Filipov in 1984. He led a delegation in 1984 to the Soviet Union to meet Soviet leader Konstantin Chernenko.
After 20 months in power, the military government of Buhari was overthrown by Ibrahim Babangida on 27 August 1985. Idiagbon was removed from his position as chief of staff, Supreme Headquarters, and he was placed under house arrest for three years.
On 6 March 1970, Idiagbon married Biodun Idiagbon (née Gamra). They had two sons and three daughters together: Adekunle, Junior, Ronke, Mope and Bola.
Major-General Idiagbon (Rtd.) received several awards and medals. In alphabetical order they include:
Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, is a retired Nigerian Army General who was President of Nigeria from 27 August 1985 to 26 August 1993. He previously served as the chief of army staff from January 1984 to August 1985. Babangida was a key player in most of the military coups in Nigeria.
The National Security Organization (NSO) of Nigeria, or Nigerian Security Organization, was created under Decree number 27 of 1976 by the military regime of Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo, after the failed Dimka coup which claimed the life of former Head of State Gen. Murtala Mohammed. The NSO was given a mandate of co-ordinating Internal Security, Foreign Intelligence and counterintelligence activities. It was charged with the detection and prevention of any crime against the security of the state, with the protection of classified materials, and with carrying out any other security missions assigned by the president.
George Agbazika Innih was a Nigerian Army General and Statesman. He was the Military Governor of Bendel and Kwara States.
National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS) in Kuru, Nigeria is a policy formation center for bureaucrats, private sector leaders, Army officers, and medium-rank and senior civil servants, which was founded in 1979. Most policymakers in Nigeria have attended the NIPSS. Its first Director General was Major General Ogundeko. The current Director General is Professor Tijjanii Muhammad-Bande (OFR). Notable graduates of the NIPSS are General Ibrahim Babangida the former Nigerian Head of State, and Comrade Ajayi Olusegun, the former Director General of Nigeria Policy Study and Mallam Nuhu Ribadu, the anti-corruption campaigner.
Salaudeen Adebola Latinwo is a retired group captain in the Nigerian Air Force and a former military governor of Kwara State, Nigeria, under Muhammadu Buhari's military government.
John Mark Inienger (1945–2002) was a Nigerian Army major general who served as ECOMOG field commander in Liberia, governor of Bendel State between 1985 and 1987, during the military administration of General Ibrahim Babangida, and commander of the Brigade of Guards.
Colonel Ibrahim Taiwo was a Military Governor of Kwara State from July 1975 to February 1976 during the military regime of General Murtala Mohammed. He assisted in establishment of the University of Ilorin, which was founded by decree August, 1975.
Brigadier-General John Atom Kpera was the first Military Governor of Anambra State in Nigeria from March 1976 to July 1978, after it had been created from the old East Central State during the military regime of General Olusegun Obasanjo. Later he was Military Governor of Benue State from January 1984 to August 1985 during the military regime of Major-General Muhammadu Buhari.
Ibrahim Mahmud Alfa was an air marshal in the Nigerian Air Force. He previously served as Military administrator of Kaduna State and Chief of Air Staff for the Nigerian Air Force. He died on 16 March 2000.
Clement Nyong Isong, CFR was a Nigerian banker and politician who was governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (1967–1975) during the military regime of General Yakubu Gowon. He was later elected governor of Cross River State (1979–1983) in the Nigerian Second Republic.
Lt. General Salihu Ibrahim FSS, FHWC was a Nigerian army general who was Chief of Army Staff from August 1990 until September 1993 during the military regime of General Ibrahim Babangida.
In the politics of Nigeria, Buharism is the economic principles and political ideology of the military-led government of Nigeria headed by General Muhammadu Buhari from 31 December, 1983 to 27 August, 1985. The government introduced a policy they called War Against Indiscipline (WAI).At its root, Buharism represented a return to right-wing military dictatorship after four years of democratic rule in Nigeria between 1979 and 1983.
There have been a large number of successful and failed military coups in Nigeria since the country's independence from the British Empire in 1960. A military coup is the violent or non-violent overthrow of an existing political regime by the military. Between 1966 and 1999 the army held power in Nigeria without interruption apart from a short-lived return to democracy between 1979-1983. “Military coups and military rule became a seemingly permanent feature of Nigerian politics.Buhari was the one who lead the military coup of 1983. Buhari removed then head of state shehu shagari and imprisoned him for two years in a closed door without light.
The Nigerian military coup of 1983 took place on December 31st of that year. It was coordinated by key officers of the Nigerian military and led to the ouster of the democratically elected government of President Shehu Shagari and the installation of Major General Muhammadu Buhari as Head of State.
The Cabinet of Shehu Shagari formed the government of Nigeria during the presidency of Shehu Shagari between 1979 and 1983, after the return to civilian rule with the Second Nigerian Republic. It was terminated by a military coup.
Tukur Yusuf Buratai is a Nigerian Army Lieutenant General and the current Chief of Army Staff of Nigeria, a position he was appointed by President Muhammadu Buhari in July 2015. He was commissioned in 1983 and has had multiple command, administrative, and instructional appointments.
War Against Indiscipline was a Nigerian military government controlled mass mobilisation corrective response to social maladjustment within the country, the measure began in March 1984 and was in effect till September 1985. The measure was programmatic in design and broader in scope than previous measures, it aimed to attack social maladjustment and widespread corruption. But by July 1985, newspapers such as Concord and The Guardian that were critical of corruption and mismanagement of the economy in the previous administration began panning the WAI campaign and accusing military officials of engaging in abusive practices under the cover of fighting indiscipline. Others viewed the measure as an exhortation from the military command at the top to the people below. The program was gradually discontinued after a military coup removed Major-General Muhammadu Buhari's military regime.
The 1985 Nigerian coup d'état was a military coup which took place in Nigeria on 27 August 1985 when a faction of mid-level Armed Forces officers, led by the Chief of Army Staff General Ibrahim Babangida, overthrew the government of Major General Muhammadu Buhari. Buhari was then detained in Benin City until 1988. Babangida justified the coup by saying that Buhari failed to deal with the country's economic problems by implementing Buharism, and promised "to rejuvenate the economy ravaged by decades of government mismanagement and corruption". Babangida then replaced the ruling Supreme Military Council (SMC) with a new Armed Forces Ruling Council (AFRC), which lasted until 1993. The regime survived a coup attempt in 1990.