Tuoba Chuo

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Tuoba Chuo (Chinese :拓跋綽; pinyin: Tuòbá Chuò) (died 293), chieftain of the Tuoba from 286–293. He was the son of Tuoba Liwei, brother of Tuoba Shamohan, Tuoba Xilu, Tuoba Luguan. In 286 he succeeded his brother Tuoba Xilu as chieftain of the Tuoba. In 293, Yuwen chieftain Yuwen Mohuai was killed by his younger brother Yuwen Pubo, who usurped the position as chieftain of the Yuwen. Tuoba Chuo married his daughter to Yuwen Pubo's son Yuwen Qiubuqin. In the same year Tuoba Chuo died, his nephew Tuoba Fu, son of his brother Tuoba Shamohan, succeeded him as chieftain of the Tuoba.

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286 Calendar year

Year 286 (CCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Maximus and Aquilinus. The denomination 286 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The 290s decade ran from January 1, 290, to December 31, 299.

The 280s decade ran from January 1, 280, to December 31, 289.

293 Calendar year

Year 293 (CCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valerius and Valerius. The denomination 293 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Year 277 (CCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Probus and Paulinus. The denomination 277 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Tuoba Liwei was the first leader of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei people, from 219-277. He was the ancestor of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. Later, Emperor Wen of Western Wei changed his temple name to Taizu.

Tuoba Shiyijian was the last prince of the Tuoba Dai and ruled from 338 to 376 when Dai was conquered by the Former Qin. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the younger brother of Tuoba Yihuai, whom he succeeded in 338. In 340 he moved the capital to Shengle (盛樂). His grandson Tuoba Gui founded the Northern Wei dynasty.

Tuoba Yilu was the chieftain of the western Tuoba territory from 295 to 307, supreme chieftain of the Tuoba from 307 to 316, Duke of Dai from 310 to 315, and first ruler of the Dai kingdom from 315 to 316. He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Fu.

Tuoba Pugen was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 305 to 316, and in 316 ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai as the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba clan.

Tuoba Luguan, chieftain of the Tuoba, from 294 to 307.

Tuoba Fu, chieftain of the Tuoba (293–294). He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Yilu. In 293, he succeeded Tuoba Chuo as the chieftain of the Tuoba. His predecessor was his father's younger brother. Upon his death in 294, he was succeeded by Tuoba Luguan, another one of his uncles.

Tuoba Xilu 拓跋悉鹿 Tuòbá Xīlù, chieftain of the Tuoba His father was the Tuoba chieftain Tuoba Liwei, and he was the brother of Tuoba Shamohan, Tuoba Chuo, and Tuoba Luguan. In 286, he was succeeded by his younger brother Tuoba Chuo as chieftain of the Tuoba.

Tuoba Yulü ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 316 to 321.

Yuwen Qidegui (?-333) chieftain of the Yuwen tribe. He succeeded his father Yuwen Xunniyan as chieftain.

Tuoba Yituo was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 295 to 305. He is the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yilu and Tuoba Fu.

Yuwen Tai (507–556), nickname Heita (黑獺), formally Duke Wen of Anding (安定文公), later further posthumously honored by Northern Zhou initially as Prince Wen (文王) then as Emperor Wen (文皇帝) with the temple name Taizu (太祖), was the paramount general of the Chinese/Xianbei state Western Wei, a branch successor state of Northern Wei. In 534, Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei, seeking to assert power independent of the paramount general Gao Huan, fled to Yuwen's domain, and when Gao subsequently proclaimed Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei emperor, a split of Northern Wei was effected, and when Yuwen subsequently poisoned Emperor Xiaowu to death around the new year 535 and declared his cousin Yuan Baoju emperor, the split was formalized, with the part under Gao's and Emperor Xiaojing's control known as Eastern Wei and the part under Yuwen's and Emperor Wen's control known as Western Wei. For the rest of his life, Yuwen endeavored to make Western Wei, then much weaker than its eastern counterpart, a strong state, and after his death, his son Yuwen Jue seized the throne from Emperor Gong of Western Wei, establishing Northern Zhou.

Emperor Gong of Western Wei ( 魏恭帝) (537–557), personal name né Yuan Kuo (元廓), later changed to Tuoba Kuo (拓拔廓), was the last emperor of the Western Wei -- a rump state of and successor to Northern Wei. He was made emperor in 554 after his older brother Emperor Fei was deposed by the paramount general Yuwen Tai. He carried little actual power, and in 556, after Yuwen Tai's death, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu, serving as guardian to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue, forced Emperor Gong to yield the throne to Yuwen Jue, ending Western Wei and starting Northern Zhou. The former emperor was killed in 557. Because Northern Wei's other branch successor state, Eastern Wei, had fallen in 550, Emperor Gong can be regarded as Northern Wei's final emperor as well.

Empress Ruogan was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei state Western Wei — a branch successor state of Northern Wei. Her husband was Emperor Gong, the final emperor of the state.

Yuan Humo was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.

Military history of the Northern and Southern dynasties

The military history of the Northern and Southern dynasties encompasses the period of Chinese military activity from 420 to 589. Officially starting with Liu Yu's usurpation of the Jin throne and creation of his Liu Song dynasty in 420, it ended in 589 with the Sui dynasty's conquest of Chen dynasty and reunification of China. The first of the Northern dynasties did not however begin in 420, but in 386 with the creation of Northern Wei. Thus there is some unofficial overlap with the era of the Sixteen Kingdoms.

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