Tuoba Pugen (Chinese :拓跋普根; pinyin :Tuòbá Pǔgēn; died 316) was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 305 to 316, and in 316 ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai as the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba clan.
He was the son of Tuoba Yituo, and the brother of Tuoba Heru and Tuoba Hena.
In 305, he succeeded his father Tuoba Yituo, as the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory, under his uncle Tuoba Yilu, then the Duke of Dai. In 316, Tuoba Yilu, then carrying the title the Prince of Dai, was killed by his son Tuoba Liuxiu (拓跋六修), Tuoba Pugen hears of the news and attacked Tuoba Liuxiu with an armed force and killing him, and succeeded Tuoba Yilu as the Prince of Dai. In light of Tuoba Yilu's death, however, much of the ethnically Han and Wuhuan force that Tuoba Yilu commanded left Dai and gave their allegiance to the Jin official Liu Kun (劉琨). Tuoba Pugen died several months later and was succeeded by his infant son, who did not have (and never got) a name.
The 290s decade ran from January 1, 290, to December 31, 299.
Year 316 (CCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Sabinus and Rufinus. The denomination 316 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Prince or King of Dai was an ancient and medieval Chinese title.
Tuoba Liwei was the first leader of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei people, from 219-277. He was the ancestor of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. Later, Emperor Wen of Western Wei changed his temple name to Taizu.
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei ( 魏道武帝) (371–409), personal name Tuoba Gui (拓拔珪), né Tuoba Shegui (拓拔渉珪), was the founding emperor of the Northern Wei. He was the grandson of the last prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. After the fall of the Dai state to Former Qin in 376, he was presumed to be the eventual successor to the Dai throne. After Former Qin fell into disarray in 383 following its defeat by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River, Tuoba Gui took the opportunity to reestablish Dai in 386. He soon changed the state's name to Wei and declared himself a prince. He was initially a vassal of Later Yan, but after defeating Later Yan emperor Murong Bao in 397 and seizing most of Later Yan's territory, he claimed the imperial title in 398.
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei ( 魏明元帝), Chinese name Tuoba Si (拓拔嗣), Xianbei name Mumo (木末), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Daowu. During his reign, Northern Wei's territory did not expand as much as it did under either his father's reign or the reign of his son Emperor Taiwu, but he helped the state stabilize over northern China, and started the tradition of meeting with important imperial officials to listen to their advice and make final decisions. He is generally regarded by historians to be an intelligent and rational ruler.
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, personal name Tuoba Tao (拓拔燾), Xianbei name Büri(佛貍), was an emperor of Northern Wei. He was generally regarded as a capable ruler, and during his reign, Northern Wei roughly doubled in size and united all of northern China, thus ending the Sixteen Kingdoms period and, together with the southern dynasty Liu Song, started the Southern and Northern Dynasties period of ancient China history. He was a devout Taoist, under the influence of his prime minister Cui Hao, and in 444, at Cui Hao's suggestion and believing that Buddhists had supported the rebellion of Gai Wu (蓋吳), he ordered the abolition of Buddhism, at the penalty of death. This was the first of the Three Disasters of Wu for Chinese Buddhism. Late in his reign, his reign began to be cruel, and his people were also worn out by his incessant wars against Liu Song. In 452, he was assassinated by his eunuch Zong Ai, who put his son Tuoba Yu on the throne but then assassinated Tuoba Yu as well. The other officials overthrew Zong and put Emperor Taiwu's grandson Tuoba Jun on the throne as Emperor Wencheng.
Tuoba Shiyijian was the last prince of the Tuoba Dai and ruled from 338 to 376 when Dai was conquered by the Former Qin. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the younger brother of Tuoba Yihuai, whom he succeeded in 338. In 340 he moved the capital to Shengle (盛樂). His grandson Tuoba Gui founded the Northern Wei dynasty.
Tuoba Huang (拓拔晃), Xianbei name Tianzhen (天真), formally Crown Prince Jingmu (景穆太子), later further formally honored as Emperor Jingmu (景穆皇帝) with the temple name Gongzong (恭宗) by his son Emperor Wencheng, was a crown prince of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of Emperor Taiwu, and was created crown prince in 432 at the age of four, and as he grew older, Emperor Taiwu transferred more and more authority to him. However, in 451, he incurred the wrath of his father due to false accusations of the eunuch Zong Ai, and many of his associates were put to death. He himself grew ill in fear, and died that year.
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei ( 魏文成帝) (440–465), Chinese name Tuoba Jun (拓拔濬), Xianbei name Wulei (烏雷), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He became emperor aged 12 in the aftermath of the eunuch Zong Ai's assassinations of his grandfather Emperor Taiwu and uncle Tuoba Yu, and he was generally described by historians as a ruler who sought foremost to allow his people to rest after his grandfather's expansionist policies and extensive campaigns, who also reformed the laws to become more lenient.
Tuoba Yilu was the chieftain of the western Tuoba territory from 295 to 307, supreme chieftain of the Tuoba from 307 to 316, Duke of Dai from 310 to 315, and first ruler of the Dai kingdom from 315 to 316. He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Fu.
Tuoba Luguan, chieftain of the Tuoba, from 294 to 307.
Tuoba Fu, chieftain of the Tuoba (293–294). He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Yilu. In 293, he succeeded Tuoba Chuo as the chieftain of the Tuoba. His predecessor was his father's younger brother. Upon his death in 294, he was succeeded by Tuoba Luguan, another one of his uncles.
Tuoba Chuo, chieftain of the Tuoba from 286–293. He was the son of Tuoba Liwei, brother of Tuoba Shamohan, Tuoba Xilu, Tuoba Luguan. In 286 he succeeded his brother Tuoba Xilu as chieftain of the Tuoba. In 293, Yuwen chieftain Yuwen Mohuai was killed by his younger brother Yuwen Pubo, who usurped the position as chieftain of the Yuwen. Tuoba Chuo married his daughter to Yuwen Pubo's son Yuwen Qiubuqin. In the same year Tuoba Chuo died, his nephew Tuoba Fu, son of his brother Tuoba Shamohan, succeeded him as chieftain of the Tuoba.
Tuoba Xilu 拓跋悉鹿 Tuòbá Xīlù, chieftain of the Tuoba His father was the Tuoba chieftain Tuoba Liwei, and he was the brother of Tuoba Shamohan, Tuoba Chuo, and Tuoba Luguan. In 286, he was succeeded by his younger brother Tuoba Chuo as chieftain of the Tuoba.
Tuoba Yulü ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 316 to 321.
Tuoba Yihuai ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai from 329 to 335 and again from 337 to 338. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the nephew of Tuoba Hena. When Tuoba Hena was in his first reign as the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yihuai lived with his maternal uncle's father Helan Aitou (賀蘭藹頭) of the Helan tribe.
Tuoba Heru ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 321 to 325. He was the son of Tuoba Yituo, and the brother of Tuoba Pugen and Tuoba Hena. In 321, when his cousin Tuoba Yulü was the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Heru launched a coup d'état against his cousin, killing Tuoba Yulü and becoming the Prince of Dai himself.
Tuoba Yituo was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 295 to 305. He is the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yilu and Tuoba Fu.
Battle of Canhe Slope refers to a battle in 395 where the Chinese/Xianbei state Later Yan, then ruling over northern and central China, had launched a punitive campaign against its former vassal Northern Wei, also of Xianbei extraction.
Prince of DaiDied: 316
| Prince of Dai |
Next known title holder:Tuoba Yulü