Tuoba Shiyijian (Chinese :拓跋什翼犍; pinyin :Tuòbá Shíyìjiàn; 320–376) was the last prince of the Tuoba Dai and ruled from 338 to 376 when Dai was conquered by the Former Qin. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the younger brother of Tuoba Yihuai, whom he succeeded in 338. In 340 he moved the capital to Shengle (盛樂) (near modern Horinger County, Inner Mongolia). His grandson Tuoba Gui founded the Northern Wei dynasty.
Taizu is an imperial temple name typically used for Chinese emperors who founded a particular dynasty. It may refer to:
Prince or King of Dai was an ancient and medieval Chinese title.
Fu Jian, courtesy name Yonggu (永固) or Wenyu (文玉), formally Emperor Xuanzhao of (Former) Qin ( 秦宣昭帝), was an emperor of the Chinese/Di state Former Qin, under whose rule the Former Qin state reached its greatest glory—destroying Former Yan, Former Liang, and Dai and seizing Jin's Yi Province, posturing to destroy Jin as well to unite China, until he was repelled at the Battle of Fei River in 383. For a variety of reasons, the Former Qin state soon collapsed after that defeat, and Fu Jian himself was killed by his former subordinate, Yao Chang the founding emperor of Later Qin, in 385.
Murong Chui, courtesy name Daoming (道明), Xianbei name Aliudun (阿六敦), formally Emperor Chengwu of (Later) Yan ( 燕成武帝) was a great general of the Chinese/Xianbei state Former Yan who later became the founding emperor of Later Yan. He was a controversial figure in ancient China history, as his military abilities were outstanding, but as he was forced to flee Former Yan due to the jealousies of the regent Murong Ping, he was taken in and trusted by the Former Qin emperor Fu Jiān, but later betrayed him and established Later Yan, leading to a reputation of him as a traitor. Further, his reputation was damaged in that soon after his death, the Later Yan state suffered great defeats at the hands of Northern Wei Dynasty's founder Emperor Daowu, leading to the general sense that Murong Chui contributed to the defeats by not building a sound foundation for the empire and by choosing the wrong successor. Murong Chui's biography in the Book of Jin described him as seven chi and seven cun tall and having long arms.
Murong Bao, courtesy name Daoyou (道佑), Xianbei name Kugou (庫勾), formally Emperor Huimin of (Later) Yan ( 燕惠愍帝), temple name Liezong (烈宗) or Liezu (烈祖), was an emperor of the Chinese/Xianbei state Later Yan. He inherited from his father Murong Chui a sizable empire but lost most of it within a span of a year, and would be dead in less than three, a victim of a rebellion by his granduncle Lan Han. Historians largely attributed this to his irresolution and inability to judge military and political decisions. While Later Yan would last for one more decade after his death, it would never regain the power it had under Murong Chui.
Murong Lin, Xianbei name Helin (賀驎), was a general and imperial prince of the Chinese/Xianbei state Later Yan. He was a son of the founding emperor Murong Chui and a brother of Murong Bao ; for a while, he himself was a pretender to the Later Yan throne. He was known both for his abilities and his treachery, and he betrayed both his father and his brothers Murong Ling (慕容令) and Murong Bao on separate occasions. Eventually, he was executed by his uncle Murong De, the founder of Southern Yan.
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei ( 魏道武帝) (371–409), personal name Tuoba Gui (拓拔珪), né Tuoba Shegui (拓拔渉珪), was the founding emperor of the Northern Wei. He was the grandson of the last prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. After the fall of the Dai state to Former Qin in 376, he was presumed to be the eventual successor to the Dai throne. After Former Qin fell into disarray in 383 following its defeat by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River, Tuoba Gui took the opportunity to reestablish Dai in 386. He soon changed the state's name to Wei and declared himself a prince. He was initially a vassal of Later Yan, but after defeating Later Yan emperor Murong Bao in 397 and seizing most of Later Yan's territory, he claimed the imperial title in 398.
Empress Murong, formally Empress Daowu (道武皇后), was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei Dynasty. Her husband was the founding emperor Emperor Daowu.
Princess Dowager Helan (351–396), formally Empress Xianming, was, according to official history of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei, the mother of the founding emperor Emperor Daowu. Her husband was Tuoba Gui's father Tuoba Shi (拓拔寔), the heir apparent of the Dai prince Tuoba Shiyijian (拓拔什翼犍).
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei ( 魏明元帝), Chinese name Tuoba Si (拓拔嗣), Xianbei name Mumo (木末), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Daowu. During his reign, Northern Wei's territory did not expand as much as it did under either his father's reign or the reign of his son Emperor Taiwu, but he helped the state stabilize over northern China, and started the tradition of meeting with important imperial officials to listen to their advice and make final decisions. He is generally regarded by historians to be an intelligent and rational ruler.
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, personal name Tuoba Tao (拓拔燾), Xianbei name Büri(佛貍), was an emperor of Northern Wei. He was generally regarded as a capable ruler, and during his reign, Northern Wei roughly doubled in size and united all of northern China, thus ending the Sixteen Kingdoms period and, together with the southern dynasty Liu Song, started the Southern and Northern Dynasties period of ancient China history. He was a devout Taoist, under the influence of his prime minister Cui Hao, and in 444, at Cui Hao's suggestion and believing that Buddhists had supported the rebellion of Gai Wu (蓋吳), he ordered the abolition of Buddhism, at the penalty of death. This was the first of the Three Disasters of Wu for Chinese Buddhism. Late in his reign, his reign began to be cruel, and his people were also worn out by his incessant wars against Liu Song. In 452, he was assassinated by his eunuch Zong Ai, who put his son Tuoba Yu on the throne but then assassinated Tuoba Yu as well. The other officials overthrew Zong and put Emperor Taiwu's grandson Tuoba Jun on the throne as Emperor Wencheng.
Tuoba Huang (拓拔晃), Xianbei name Tianzhen (天真), formally Crown Prince Jingmu (景穆太子), later further formally honored as Emperor Jingmu (景穆皇帝) with the temple name Gongzong (恭宗) by his son Emperor Wencheng, was a crown prince of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of Emperor Taiwu, and was created crown prince in 432 at the age of four, and as he grew older, Emperor Taiwu transferred more and more authority to him. However, in 451, he incurred the wrath of his father due to false accusations of the eunuch Zong Ai, and many of his associates were put to death. He himself grew ill in fear, and died that year.
Tuoba Yu (拓拔余), formally Prince Yin of Nan'an (南安隱王), Xianbei name Kebozhen (可博真), was briefly an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was placed on the throne by the eunuch Zong Ai after Zong assassinated his father Emperor Taiwu in spring 452, and Zong was largely in control of the regime during his reign. Later in the year, when Tuoba Yu tried to assert his own authority, Zong had him assassinated as well, but then was overthrown by a group of officials, who put Tuoba Yu's nephew Tuoba Jun on the throne as Emperor Wencheng.
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei ( 魏文成帝) (440–465), Chinese name Tuoba Jun (拓拔濬), Xianbei name Wulei (烏雷), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He became emperor aged 12 in the aftermath of the eunuch Zong Ai's assassinations of his grandfather Emperor Taiwu and uncle Tuoba Yu, and he was generally described by historians as a ruler who sought foremost to allow his people to rest after his grandfather's expansionist policies and extensive campaigns, who also reformed the laws to become more lenient.
Tuoba Yulü ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 316 to 321.
Tuoba Yihuai ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai from 329 to 335 and again from 337 to 338. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the nephew of Tuoba Hena. When Tuoba Hena was in his first reign as the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yihuai lived with his maternal uncle's father Helan Aitou (賀蘭藹頭) of the Helan tribe.
Tuoba Heru ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 321 to 325. He was the son of Tuoba Yituo, and the brother of Tuoba Pugen and Tuoba Hena. In 321, when his cousin Tuoba Yulü was the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Heru launched a coup d'état against his cousin, killing Tuoba Yulü and becoming the Prince of Dai himself.
Battle of Canhe Slope refers to a battle in 395 where the Chinese/Xianbei state Later Yan, then ruling over northern and central China, had launched a punitive campaign against its former vassal Northern Wei, also of Xianbei extraction.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians," non-Chinese peoples who had settled in northern and western China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. The kingdoms founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, as well as Chinese and other ethnicities, took on Chinese dynastic names, and fought against each other and the Eastern Jin dynasty, which succeeded the Western Jin and ruled southern China. The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty established by the Xianbei Tuoba clan, and the history of ancient China entered the Northern and Southern dynasties period.
The military history of the Jin dynasty encompasses the period of Chinese military activity from 266 AD to 420 AD. The Jin dynasty is usually divided into the Western and Eastern Jin eras. Western Jin lasted from its usurpation of Cao Wei in 266 to 316 when the Uprising of the Five Barbarians split the empire and created a number of barbarian states in the north. The Jin court fled to Jiankang, starting the era of Eastern Jin, which ended in 420 when it was usurped by Liu Yu, who founded the Liu Song dynasty.
Emperor Zhaocheng of DaiBorn: 320 Died: 376
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