Tuoba Yihuai

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Tuoba Yihuai (Chinese :拓跋翳槐; pinyin :Tuòbá Yīhuái; died 338) ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai from 329 to 335 and again from 337 to 338. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the nephew of Tuoba Hena. When Tuoba Hena was in his first reign as the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yihuai lived with his maternal uncle's father Helan Aitou (賀蘭藹頭) of the Helan tribe.

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The 320s decade ran from January 1, 320, to December 31, 329.

321 Calendar year

Year 321 (CCCXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Crispus and Constantinus. The denomination 321 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

325 Calendar year

Year 325 (CCCXXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Proculus and Paulinus. The denomination 325 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The 330s decade ran from January 1, 330, to December 31, 339.

338 Calendar year

Year 338 (CCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Ursus and Polemius. The denomination 338 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

335

Year 335 (CCCXXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Constantius and Albinus. The denomination 335 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Prince or King of Dai was an ancient and medieval Chinese title.

Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms)

Dai, also formerly spelled Tai, was a state of the Xianbei clan of Tuoba, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. It existed from AD 310 to 376, with its capital at Shengle (盛樂).

Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei ( 魏道武帝) (371–409), personal name Tuoba Gui (拓拔珪), né Tuoba Shegui (拓拔渉珪), was the founding emperor of the Northern Wei. He was the grandson of the last prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. After the fall of the Dai state to Former Qin in 376, he was presumed to be the eventual successor to the Dai throne. After Former Qin fell into disarray in 383 following its defeat by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River, Tuoba Gui took the opportunity to reestablish Dai in 386. He soon changed the state's name to Wei and declared himself a prince. He was initially a vassal of Later Yan, but after defeating Later Yan emperor Murong Bao in 397 and seizing most of Later Yan's territory, he claimed the imperial title in 398.

Princess Dowager Helan (351–396), formally Empress Xianming, was, according to official history of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei, the mother of the founding emperor Emperor Daowu. Her husband was Tuoba Gui's father Tuoba Shi (拓拔寔), the heir apparent of the Dai prince Tuoba Shiyijian (拓拔什翼犍).

Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei ( 魏明元帝), Chinese name Tuoba Si (拓拔嗣), Xianbei name Mumo (木末), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Daowu. During his reign, Northern Wei's territory did not expand as much as it did under either his father's reign or the reign of his son Emperor Taiwu, but he helped the state stabilize over northern China, and started the tradition of meeting with important imperial officials to listen to their advice and make final decisions. He is generally regarded by historians to be an intelligent and rational ruler.

Tuoba Shiyijian was the last prince of the Tuoba Dai and ruled from 338 to 376 when Dai was conquered by the Former Qin. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the younger brother of Tuoba Yihuai, whom he succeeded in 338. In 340 he moved the capital to Shengle (盛樂). His grandson Tuoba Gui founded the Northern Wei dynasty.

Tuoba Huang (拓拔晃), Xianbei name Tianzhen (天真), formally Crown Prince Jingmu (景穆太子), later further formally honored as Emperor Jingmu (景穆皇帝) with the temple name Gongzong (恭宗) by his son Emperor Wencheng, was a crown prince of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of Emperor Taiwu, and was created crown prince in 432 at the age of four, and as he grew older, Emperor Taiwu transferred more and more authority to him. However, in 451, he incurred the wrath of his father due to false accusations of the eunuch Zong Ai, and many of his associates were put to death. He himself grew ill in fear, and died that year.

Tuoba Yilu was the chieftain of the western Tuoba territory from 295 to 307, supreme chieftain of the Tuoba from 307 to 316, Duke of Dai from 310 to 315, and first ruler of the Dai kingdom from 315 to 316. He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Fu.

Tuoba Pugen was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 305 to 316, and in 316 ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai as the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba clan.

Tuoba Luguan, chieftain of the Tuoba, from 294 to 307.

Tuoba Yulü ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 316 to 321.

Tuoba Heru ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 321 to 325. He was the son of Tuoba Yituo, and the brother of Tuoba Pugen and Tuoba Hena. In 321, when his cousin Tuoba Yulü was the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Heru launched a coup d'état against his cousin, killing Tuoba Yulü and becoming the Prince of Dai himself.

Battle of Canhe Slope

Battle of Canhe Slope refers to a battle in 395 where the Chinese/Xianbei state Later Yan, then ruling over northern and central China, had launched a punitive campaign against its former vassal Northern Wei, also of Xianbei extraction.

Sixteen Kingdoms Period of Chinese history (304–439) which northern China fractured into a series of transient states founded by the "Five Barbarians"

The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians," non-Chinese peoples who had settled in northern and western China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. The kingdoms founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, as well as Chinese and other ethnicities, took on Chinese dynastic names, and fought against each other and the Eastern Jin dynasty, which succeeded the Western Jin and ruled southern China. The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty established by the Xianbei Tuoba clan, and the history of ancient China entered the Northern and Southern dynasties period.

References

Emperor Lie of Dai
 Died: 338
Chinese royalty
Preceded by
Tuoba Hena
Prince of Dai
329–335
Succeeded by
Tuoba Hena
Prince of Dai
337–338
Succeeded by
Tuoba Shiyijian