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Tuoba Yilu (Chinese :拓跋猗盧; pinyin :Tuòbá Yīlú; died 316) was the chieftain of the western Tuoba territory from 295 to 307, supreme chieftain of the Tuoba from 307 to 316, Duke of Dai from 310 to 315, and first ruler of the Dai kingdom from 315 to 316. He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Fu.
In 295, Tuoba Luguan the chieftain of the Tuoba (a branch of the Xianbei) divided the territory under Tuoba control into three areas: a vast tract of land extending west from White Mountain (northeast of Zhangjiakou), to Dai (Datong, Shanxi); an area from Shengle (south of Hohhot) and beyond; and a central area, which included north Shanxi and the region to its north. Tuoba Yilu would be named chieftain of the western area. As chieftain of the western Tuoba territory, Tuoba Yilu defeated the Xiongnu and Wuhuan to the west, gaining in this way the support of various ethnically Han and Wuhuan people, in addition to his own Xianbei people. In 304, Tuoba Yilu, along with Tuoba Yituo, joined forces with the Jin armies and defeated Liu Yuan. In 305, Tuoba Yituo died, and in 307, Tuoba Luguan died, following which Tuoba Yilu became the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba.
The name Dai itself originated when Tuoba Yilu was created Duke of Dai (代公) and rewarded with five commanderies by the Western Jin in 310 as a reward for his helping Liu Kun (劉琨), the Governor of Bingzhou (并州) (modern Shanxi province), to fight the Xiongnu Han state. This fief was later raised from a duchy to a principality by the Western Jin court in 315. In 312, Tuoba Yilu assisted Liu Kun in the recapturing of Jinyang (晉陽, in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi) from the Han general Liu Yao. When Tuoba Yilu designated his youngest son Tuoba Biyan (拓跋比延) as his heir apparent instead of his eldest son Tuoba Liuxiu (拓跋六修), this led to a dispute between him and his son Tuoba Liuxiu. He was succeeded by Tuoba Pugen in 316, after his own son Tuoba Liuxiu killed him a succession dispute.
The Five Barbarians, or Wu Hu, is a Chinese historical exonym for ancient non-Chinese peoples who immigrated to northern China in the Eastern Han dynasty, and then overthrew the Western Jin dynasty and established their own kingdoms in the 4th–5th centuries. The peoples categorized as the Five Barbarians were the Xiongnu, Jie, Xianbei, Di, and Qiang. Of these five tribal ethnic groups, the Xiongnu and Xianbei were nomadic peoples from the northern steppes. The ethnic identity of the Xiongnu is uncertain, but the Xianbei appear to have been Mongolic. The Jie, another pastoral people, may have been a branch of the Xiongnu, who may have been Yeniseian. The Di and Qiang were from the highlands of western China. The Qiang were predominantly herdsmen and spoke Sino-Tibetan (Tibeto-Burman) languages, while the Di were farmers who may have spoken a Sino-Tibetan or Turkic language.
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China. They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the 3rd century BC. The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu. However unlike the Xiongnu, the Xianbei political structure lacked the organization to pose a concerted challenge to the Chinese for most of their time as a nomadic people.
The Han Zhao, or Former Zhao, was a dynasty of Southern Xiongnu origin during Sixteen Kingdoms period of Chinese history coeval with the Sima clan's Jin dynasty. In Chinese historiography, it was given two conditional state titles, the Northern Han for the state proclaimed in 304 by Liu Yuan, and the Former Zhao for the state proclaimed in 319 by Liu Yao. The reference to them as separate states should be considered misleading, given that when Liu Yao changed the name of the state from "Han" to "Zhao" in 319, he treated the state as having been continuous from the time that Liu Yuan founded it in 304; instead, he de-established royal lineage from the Han dynasty and claimed ancestry directly from Yu the Great of the Xia dynasty.
Emperor Huai of Jin, personal name Sima Chi (司馬熾), courtesy name Fengdu (豐度), was an emperor of the Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Prince or King of Dai was an ancient and medieval Chinese title.
Dai, also formerly spelled Tai, was a state of the Xianbei clan of Tuoba, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. It existed from AD 310 to 376, with its capital at Shengle (盛樂).
Tuoba Liwei was the first leader of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei people, from 219-277. He was the ancestor of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. Later, Emperor Wen of Western Wei changed his temple name to Taizu.
Liu Yuan (劉淵), courtesy name Yuanhai (元海), formally Emperor Guangwen of Han (Zhao) was the founding emperor of the Xiongnu state Han Zhao in 308.
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei ( 魏道武帝) (371–409), personal name Tuoba Gui (拓拔珪), né Tuoba Shegui (拓拔渉珪), was the founding emperor of the Northern Wei. He was the grandson of the last prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. After the fall of the Dai state to Former Qin in 376, he was presumed to be the eventual successor to the Dai throne. After Former Qin fell into disarray in 383 following its defeat by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River, Tuoba Gui took the opportunity to reestablish Dai in 386. He soon changed the state's name to Wei and declared himself a prince. He was initially a vassal of Later Yan, but after defeating Later Yan emperor Murong Bao in 397 and seizing most of Later Yan's territory, he claimed the imperial title in 398.
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei ( 魏明元帝), Chinese name Tuoba Si (拓拔嗣), Xianbei name Mumo (木末), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Daowu. During his reign, Northern Wei's territory did not expand as much as it did under either his father's reign or the reign of his son Emperor Taiwu, but he helped the state stabilize over northern China, and started the tradition of meeting with important imperial officials to listen to their advice and make final decisions. He is generally regarded by historians to be an intelligent and rational ruler.
You Prefecture or Province, also known by its Chinese name Youzhou, was a prefecture (zhou) in northern China during its imperial era.
Tuoba Pugen was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 305 to 316, and in 316 ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai as the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba clan.
Tuoba Luguan, chieftain of the Tuoba, from 294 to 307.
Tuoba Fu, chieftain of the Tuoba (293–294). He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Yilu. In 293, he succeeded Tuoba Chuo as the chieftain of the Tuoba. His predecessor was his father's younger brother. Upon his death in 294, he was succeeded by Tuoba Luguan, another one of his uncles.
Tuoba Yulü ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 316 to 321.
Tuoba Yituo was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 295 to 305. He is the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yilu and Tuoba Fu.
The Xianbei state or Xianbei confederation was a nomadic empire which existed in modern-day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, Northeast China, Gansu, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Tuva, Altai Republic and eastern Kazakhstan from 156 to 234. Like most ancient peoples known through Chinese historiography, the ethnic makeup of the Xianbei is unclear.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians," non-Chinese peoples who had settled in northern and western China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. The kingdoms founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, as well as Chinese and other ethnicities, took on Chinese dynastic names, and fought against each other and the Eastern Jin dynasty, which succeeded the Western Jin and ruled southern China. The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty established by the Xianbei Tuoba clan, and the history of ancient China entered the Northern and Southern dynasties period.
The military history of the Jin dynasty encompasses the period of Chinese military activity from 266 AD to 420 AD. The Jin dynasty is usually divided into the Western and Eastern Jin eras. Western Jin lasted from its usurpation of Cao Wei in 266 to 316 when the Uprising of the Five Barbarians split the empire and created a number of barbarian states in the north. The Jin court fled to Jiankang, starting the era of Eastern Jin, which ended in 420 when it was usurped by Liu Yu, who founded the Liu Song dynasty.
Liu Kun (270-318), courtesy name Yueshi, was a writer, poet, and military general of the Jin dynasty (266-420). He was a famous writer during the Western Jin dynasty and was known for his services as the Inspector of Bingzhou where he continuously fought with the growing Xiongnu threat of Han Zhao. Despite his determination and active role in fighting back Han Zhao, he lacked the sufficient skills in administration and military to match his enemies and suffered repeated losses to Liu Yao and Shi Le. He was eventually driven out from Bingzhou after suffering a decisive defeat to Shi Le in 316 and fled to Youzhou, where he allied with the Xianbei, Duan Pidi. However, after Pidi suspected him of betrayal, he was eventually executed via strangulation in 318.
Emperor Mu of DaiDied: 316
as Duke of Dai
| Prince of Dai |
Last known title holder:Liu Lang
as Prince of Dai
| Duke of Dai |
as Prince of Dai