Tuoba Yituo (Chinese :拓跋猗㐌; pinyin: Tuòbá Yītuō) (died 305) was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 295 to 305. He is the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yilu and Tuoba Fu.
In 295, Tuoba Luguan the chieftain of the Tuoba (a branch of the Xianbei) divided the territory under Tuoba control into three areas: in a vast tract of land extending west from White Mountain (northeast of Zhangjiakou), to Dai (Datong, Shanxi); an area from Shengle (south of Hohhot) and beyond; a central area, which included north Shanxi and the region to its north. Tuoba Yituo would be named chieftain of the central area. As chieftain of the central Tuoba territory, Tuoba Yituo in 297 passes through Outer Mongolia and conquers 30 territories, gained the support of various ethnically Han people, in addition to his own Xianbei people. Tuoba Yituo is said to have rescued Sima Teng, governor of the Jin province of Bing, from the Xiongnu. In 304, Tuoba Yituo, along with Tuoba Yilu, joined forces with the Jin armies and defeated Han Zhao leader Liu Yuan. In 305, Tuoba Yituo died, and was succeeded by his son Tuoba Pugen as chieftain of the central Tuoba territory.
The 290s decade ran from January 1, 290, to December 31, 299.
Year 295 (CCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 295th Year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 295th year of the 1st millennium, the 95th year and last 6 years of the 3rd century, and the 6th year of the 290s decade. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Tuscus and Anullinus. The denomination 295 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China. They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the 3rd century BC. The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu. However unlike the Xiongnu, the Xianbei political structure lacked the organization to pose a concerted challenge to the Chinese for most of their time as a nomadic people.
The Han Zhao, or Former Zhao, was a dynasty of Southern Xiongnu origin during Sixteen Kingdoms period of Chinese history coeval with the Sima clan's Jin dynasty. In Chinese historiography, it was given two conditional state titles, the Northern Han for the state proclaimed in 304 by Liu Yuan, and the Former Zhao for the state proclaimed in 319 by Liu Yao. The reference to them as separate states should be considered misleading, given that when Liu Yao changed the name of the state from "Han" to "Zhao" in 319, he treated the state as having been continuous from the time that Liu Yuan founded it in 304; instead, he de-established royal lineage from the Han dynasty and claimed ancestry directly from Yu the Great of the Xia dynasty.
Prince or King of Dai was an ancient and medieval Chinese title.
Tuoba Liwei was the first leader of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei people, from 219-277. He was the ancestor of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. Later, Emperor Wen of Western Wei changed his temple name to Taizu.
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei ( 魏道武帝) (371–409), personal name Tuoba Gui (拓拔珪), né Tuoba Shegui (拓拔渉珪), was the founding emperor of the Northern Wei. He was the grandson of the last prince of Dai, Tuoba Shiyijian. After the fall of the Dai state to Former Qin in 376, he was presumed to be the eventual successor to the Dai throne. After Former Qin fell into disarray in 383 following its defeat by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River, Tuoba Gui took the opportunity to reestablish Dai in 386. He soon changed the state's name to Wei and declared himself a prince. He was initially a vassal of Later Yan, but after defeating Later Yan emperor Murong Bao in 397 and seizing most of Later Yan's territory, he claimed the imperial title in 398.
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei ( 魏明元帝), Chinese name Tuoba Si (拓拔嗣), Xianbei name Mumo (木末), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Daowu. During his reign, Northern Wei's territory did not expand as much as it did under either his father's reign or the reign of his son Emperor Taiwu, but he helped the state stabilize over northern China, and started the tradition of meeting with important imperial officials to listen to their advice and make final decisions. He is generally regarded by historians to be an intelligent and rational ruler.
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, personal name Tuoba Tao (拓拔燾), Xianbei name Büri(佛貍), was an emperor of Northern Wei. He was generally regarded as a capable ruler, and during his reign, Northern Wei roughly doubled in size and united all of northern China, thus ending the Sixteen Kingdoms period and, together with the southern dynasty Liu Song, started the Southern and Northern Dynasties period of ancient China history. He was a devout Taoist, under the influence of his prime minister Cui Hao, and in 444, at Cui Hao's suggestion and believing that Buddhists had supported the rebellion of Gai Wu (蓋吳), he ordered the abolition of Buddhism, at the penalty of death. This was the first of the Three Disasters of Wu for Chinese Buddhism. Late in his reign, his reign began to be cruel, and his people were also worn out by his incessant wars against Liu Song. In 452, he was assassinated by his eunuch Zong Ai, who put his son Tuoba Yu on the throne but then assassinated Tuoba Yu as well. The other officials overthrew Zong and put Emperor Taiwu's grandson Tuoba Jun on the throne as Emperor Wencheng.
Tuoba Shiyijian was the last prince of the Tuoba Dai and ruled from 338 to 376 when Dai was conquered by the Former Qin. He was the son of Tuoba Yulü and the younger brother of Tuoba Yihuai, whom he succeeded in 338. In 340 he moved the capital to Shengle (盛樂). His grandson Tuoba Gui founded the Northern Wei dynasty.
Tuoba Huang (拓拔晃), Xianbei name Tianzhen (天真), formally Crown Prince Jingmu (景穆太子), later further formally honored as Emperor Jingmu (景穆皇帝) with the temple name Gongzong (恭宗) by his son Emperor Wencheng, was a crown prince of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He was the oldest son of Emperor Taiwu, and was created crown prince in 432 at the age of four, and as he grew older, Emperor Taiwu transferred more and more authority to him. However, in 451, he incurred the wrath of his father due to false accusations of the eunuch Zong Ai, and many of his associates were put to death. He himself grew ill in fear, and died that year.
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei ( 魏文成帝) (440–465), Chinese name Tuoba Jun (拓拔濬), Xianbei name Wulei (烏雷), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei. He became emperor aged 12 in the aftermath of the eunuch Zong Ai's assassinations of his grandfather Emperor Taiwu and uncle Tuoba Yu, and he was generally described by historians as a ruler who sought foremost to allow his people to rest after his grandfather's expansionist policies and extensive campaigns, who also reformed the laws to become more lenient.
Tuoba Yilu was the chieftain of the western Tuoba territory from 295 to 307, supreme chieftain of the Tuoba from 307 to 316, Duke of Dai from 310 to 315, and first ruler of the Dai kingdom from 315 to 316. He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Fu.
Tuoba Pugen was the chieftain of the central Tuoba territory from 305 to 316, and in 316 ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai as the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba clan.
Tuoba Luguan, chieftain of the Tuoba, from 294 to 307.
Tuoba Fu, chieftain of the Tuoba (293–294). He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Yilu. In 293, he succeeded Tuoba Chuo as the chieftain of the Tuoba. His predecessor was his father's younger brother. Upon his death in 294, he was succeeded by Tuoba Luguan, another one of his uncles.
Tuoba Chuo, chieftain of the Tuoba from 286–293. He was the son of Tuoba Liwei, brother of Tuoba Shamohan, Tuoba Xilu, Tuoba Luguan. In 286 he succeeded his brother Tuoba Xilu as chieftain of the Tuoba. In 293, Yuwen chieftain Yuwen Mohuai was killed by his younger brother Yuwen Pubo, who usurped the position as chieftain of the Yuwen. Tuoba Chuo married his daughter to Yuwen Pubo's son Yuwen Qiubuqin. In the same year Tuoba Chuo died, his nephew Tuoba Fu, son of his brother Tuoba Shamohan, succeeded him as chieftain of the Tuoba.
Tuoba Yulü ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai 316 to 321.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians," non-Chinese peoples who had settled in northern and western China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. The kingdoms founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, as well as Chinese and other ethnicities, took on Chinese dynastic names, and fought against each other and the Eastern Jin dynasty, which succeeded the Western Jin and ruled southern China. The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty established by the Xianbei Tuoba clan, and the history of ancient China entered the Northern and Southern dynasties period.
Tufa Shujineng was a Xianbei chieftain who lived during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He led a revolt in Liang Province against the Jin Dynasty (266-420) between 270 and 279. His revolt helped delayed the Jin invasion of Eastern Wu before he was finally killed in battle against the Jin general Ma Long in 279. His great-great-grandnephew, Tufa Wugu, was the founder of the Xianbei Southern Liang state during the Sixteen Kingdoms period.
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