Last updated

Cacique tupinikin 2007.jpg

Jaguarete, Tupiniquim cacique, Brasilia, 2007
Total population
2,630 (2010) [1]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil (Bandeira do Espirito Santo.svg  Espírito Santo) [1]
Christianity (Catholic and Protestant)

Tupiniquim (also Tupinã-ki, Topinaquis, Tupinaquis, Tupinanquins, Tupiniquins) are an indigenous people of Brazil, who now live in three indigenous territories (Terras Indígenas in Portuguese). The indigenous territories (Caieiras Velhas, Pau-Brasil and Comboios) are located near the cities of Santa Cruz and Vila do Riacho in the municipality of Aracruz in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Caieiras Velhas Indigenous Territory is located along the banks of the Piraquê-Açu River. The Pau-Brasil Indigenous Territory is near the Sahy creek. The Comboios Indigenous Territory is located on the banks of the Comboios River. A 2010 census determined the population of Tupiniquim in all three indigenous territories as 2,630. [1]

Indigenous territory (Brazil) protected land in Brazil

In Brazil, an indigenous territory or indigenous land is an area inhabited and exclusively possessed by indigenous people. The Brazilian Constitution recognises the inalienable right of indigenous peoples to lands they "traditionally occupy" and automatically confers them permanent possession of these lands. In practice, however, a formal process of demarcation is required for a TI to gain full protection, and this has often entailed protracted legal battles. Even after demarcation, they are frequently subject to illegal invasions by settlers and mining and logging companies.

Espírito Santo State of Brazil

Espírito Santo is a state in southeastern Brazil. Its capital is Vitória, and its largest city is the nearby Vila Velha. With an extensive coastline, the state hosts some of the country's main ports, and its beaches are significant tourist attractions.

Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.



Coastal Tupi or Tupiniquim, which is a member of the Tupi–Guarani language family, is no longer spoken by the Tupiniquim. [2] It is now extinct. Currently, the Tupiniquim speak only Portuguese.

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. Reintegrationists maintain that Galician is not a separate language, but a dialect of Portuguese. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).


Historically, the Tupiniquim inhabited a large tract of land along Brazil's coastline from approximately 200 km south of Salvador down to the São Mateus river. This area is north of the present day Indigenous Territories and extended for about 600 km. The Tupiniquim have inhabited these Indigenous Territories since the founding of Santa Cruz and Nova Almeida (then Reis Magos). During the first two centuries after the arrival of Europeans, indigenous populations were the predominate majority in both Santa Cruz and Nova Almeida. Their tribe was one of the first to meet Portuguese in April 1500 at Porto Seguro.

Salvador, Bahia Municipality in Northeast, Brazil

Salvador, also known as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people (2017), it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 4th largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília.

Porto Seguro Place in Nordeste, Brazil

Porto Seguro is a city located in the far south of Bahia, Brazil. The city has an estimated population of 145,431 (2015), covers 2,287 square kilometres (883 sq mi), and has a population density of 52.7 residents per square kilometer. The area that includes Porto Seguro and neighboring Santa Cruz Cabrália and Prado holds a distinctive place in Brazilian history: in 1500 it was the first landing point of Portuguese navigators, principally Pedro Álvares Cabral. The crime rate is considered high, as is the case in all Bahia State

Etymology and usage of word

The expression Tupin-i-ki means the tupi next door, side neighbor. [2] [3] Tupinã-ki means a parallel situated tribe or branch of the Tupi. [4]

In Brazil, the term "Tupiniquim" has come to mean "Brazilian" or "national". The term is used as both a noun and an adjective: cinema tupiniquim (Brazilian cinema), cantor tupiniquim (Brazilian singer), and filosofia tupiniquim [5] (Brazilian philosophy).


  1. 1 2 3 "Tupiniquim: Introduction." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 28 Jan 2012.
  2. 1 2 "Tupiniquim: Name and language." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 28 Jan 2012.
  3. Nasecentes, A. Dicionário etimológico da língua portuguesa - Rio de Janeiro: Francisco Alves, 1932
  4. Silveira Bueno, Grande Dicionário Etimológico-Prosódico da Língua Portuguesa, 1966
  5. Gomes, R. Crítica da razão tupiniquim, 2001.

Related Research Articles

Indigenous peoples in Brazil ethnic group

Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500. Unlike Christopher Columbus, who thought he had reached the East Indies, the Portuguese, most notably Vasco da Gama, had already reached India via the Indian Ocean route when they reached Brazil.

The Tupi people were one of the most numerous peoples indigenous to Brazil, before colonisation. Scholars believe that while they first settled in the Amazon rainforest, from about 2,900 years ago the Tupi started to migrate southward and gradually occupied the Atlantic coast of Southeast Brazil.

Rondônia State of Brazil

{{Expand Portuguese|Portuguese article title|date=March 2019}}

War of the Emboabas

The War of the Emboabas was a conflict in colonial Brazil waged in 1706-1707 and 1708-1709 over newly discovered gold fields, which had set off a rush to the region between two generations of Portuguese settlers in the viceroyalty of Brazil - then the Captaincy of São Vicente. The discovery of gold set off a rush to the region, Paulistas asserted rights of discovery and non-Paulistas challenged their claims. Although the Portuguese crown sought more control in the area and the Paulistas sought protection of their claims, the Emoboabas won. The crown re-assessed its position in the region and made administrative changes subsequently.

Aracruz, Espírito Santo Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Aracruz is a municipality at the central coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

Mogi Guaçu Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Mogi Guaçu is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population is 147,233 in an area of 813 km². The city is at an average elevation of 591 m. Mogi Guaçu is a place name that probably originates from the Tupi language. It means "large river of snakes". The city was founded on April 9, 1877.

Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira was a Brazilian lexicographer, philologist, translator, and writer, best known for editing the Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa, a major dictionary of the Portuguese language.

Araraquara Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Araraquara is a city in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population is 226,508 in an area of 1004 km². It is also known as "the abode of the sun," because of its impressive sunset and because of its hot atmosphere, especially in summer. The city was founded in 1817.


The Kamayurá are an indigenous tribe in the Amazonian Basin of Brazil. Their name is also spelled Kamayura and Kamaiurá; it means "a raised platform to keep meat, pots and pans." The Kamayurá language belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family

Caratinga Place in Southeast, Brazil

Caratinga is a municipality in eastern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The population in 2009 was 85,472 inhabitants and the total area of the municipality was 1251 km2. The altitude is 578 meters above sea level, with maximum altitude of 1,516 m in the Serra do Rio Preto and 330 m at the mouth of the Córrego Boachá.

Languages of Brazil languages of a geographic region

Portuguese is the official language of Brazil, and is widely spoken by most of population. Brazilian Sign Language is also an official language. Minority languages include indigenous languages and languages of more recent European and Asian immigrants. The population speaks or signs approximately 210 languages, of which 180 are indigenous. Fewer than forty thousand people actually speak any one of the indigenous languages in the Brazilian territory.

The Kuruaya people are an indigenous people of Brazil. They live along the tributaries of the lower Xingu River in the state of Pará.

The Xakriabá are an indigenous people of Brazil. One of the Gê peoples who spoke the Xakriabá dialect of the Akwe language, they used to live in the Tocantins River area. As of 2010, 9,196 Xakriabá people lived in the state of Minas Gerais.

Urussanga Municipality in South, Brazil

Urussanga is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina in the South region of Brazil.. The name means "very cold water" in the Tupi language.

Tremembé people

The Tremembé or Teremembé people are an indigenous people in the state of Ceará in Brazil.

The Tembé, also Timbé and Tenetehara, are an indigenous people of Brazil, living along the Maranhão and Gurupi Rivers, in the state of Amazonas and Pará. Their lands have been encroached and settled by farmers and loggers, who do so illegally, and the Tembé are working to expel the intruders from their territories.

Atikum indigenous ethnic group of Brazil

The Atikum, also known as Huamuê or Uamué, are an indigenous people of Brazil that live in Bahia and Pernambuco.

The Tapajós, also called the Santarém culture, were an indigenous Brazilian people, now extinct, who in the 17th century lived in the area around where the Tapajós flowed into the Amazon River, in the Brazilian state of Amazonas.


Caiçaras are the traditional inhabitants of the coastal regions of the southeastern and southern Brazil. They form a distinct group of people, descended from indigenous people, Europeans and Africans.