Last updated
Cacique tupinikin 2007.jpg
Jaguarete, Tupiniquim cacique, Brasilia, 2007
Total population
2,630 (2010) [1]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil (Bandeira do Espirito Santo.svg  Espírito Santo) [1]
Christianity (Catholic and Protestant)

Tupiniquim (also Tupinã-ki, Topinaquis, Tupinaquis, Tupinanquins, Tupiniquins) are an indigenous people of Brazil, who now live in three indigenous territories (Terras Indígenas in Portuguese). The indigenous territories (Caieiras Velhas, Pau-Brasil and Comboios) are located near the cities of Santa Cruz and Vila do Riacho in the municipality of Aracruz in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Caieiras Velhas Indigenous Territory is located along the banks of the Piraquê-Açu River. The Pau-Brasil Indigenous Territory is near the Sahy creek. The Comboios Indigenous Territory is located on the banks of the Comboios River. A 2010 census determined the population of Tupiniquim in all three indigenous territories as 2,630. [1]

Indigenous territory (Brazil) protected land in Brazil

In Brazil, an indigenous territory or indigenous land is an area inhabited and exclusively possessed by indigenous people. The Brazilian Constitution recognises the inalienable right of indigenous peoples to lands they "traditionally occupy" and automatically confers them permanent possession of these lands. In practice, however, a formal process of demarcation is required for a TI to gain full protection, and this has often entailed protracted legal battles. Even after demarcation, they are frequently subject to illegal invasions by settlers and mining and logging companies.

Espírito Santo State of Brazil

Espírito Santo is a state in southeastern Brazil. Its capital is Vitória, and its largest city is Serra. With an extensive coastline, the state hosts some of the country's main ports, and its beaches are significant tourist attractions.

Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.



Historically, the Tupiniquim inhabited a large tract of land along Brazil's coastline from approximately 200 km south of Salvador down to the São Mateus river. This area is north of the present day Indigenous Territories and extended for about 600 km. The Tupiniquim have inhabited these Indigenous Territories since the founding of Santa Cruz and Nova Almeida (then Reis Magos). During the first two centuries after the arrival of Europeans, indigenous populations were the predominate majority in both Santa Cruz and Nova Almeida. Their tribe was one of the first to meet Portuguese in April 1500 at Porto Seguro.

Salvador, Bahia Municipality in Northeast, Brazil

Salvador, also known as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people (2017), it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 4th largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília.

Porto Seguro Place in Nordeste, Brazil

Porto Seguro is a city located in the far south of Bahia, Brazil. The city has an estimated population of 145,431 (2015), covers 2,287 square kilometres (883 sq mi), and has a population density of 52.7 residents per square kilometer. The area that includes Porto Seguro and neighboring Santa Cruz Cabrália and Prado holds a distinctive place in Brazilian history: in 1500 it was the first landing point of Portuguese navigators, principally Pedro Álvares Cabral. The crime rate is considered high, as is the case in all Bahia State

Etymology and usage of word

The expression Tupin-i-ki means the tupi next door, side neighbor. [2] [3] Tupinã-ki means a parallel situated tribe or branch of the Tupi. [4]

In Brazil, the term "Tupiniquim" has come to mean "Brazilian" or "national". The term is used as both a noun and an adjective: cinema tupiniquim (Brazilian cinema), cantor tupiniquim (Brazilian singer), and filosofia tupiniquim [5] (Brazilian philosophy).


  1. 1 2 3 "Tupiniquim: Introduction." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 28 Jan 2012.
  2. "Tupiniquim: Name and language." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 28 Jan 2012.
  3. Nasecentes, A. Dicionário etimológico da língua portuguesa - Rio de Janeiro: Francisco Alves, 1932
  4. Silveira Bueno, Grande Dicionário Etimológico-Prosódico da Língua Portuguesa, 1966
  5. Gomes, R. Crítica da razão tupiniquim, 2001.

Related Research Articles

Indigenous peoples in Brazil diverse range of ethnic groups

Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians once comprised an estimated 2000 tribes and nations inhabiting what is now the country of Brazil, prior to the European contact around 1500. Christopher Columbus thought he had reached the East Indies, but Portuguese Vasco da Gama had already reached India via the Indian Ocean route, when Brazil was discovered by Portugal. Nevertheless, the word índios ("Indians") was by then established to designate the people of the New World and continues to be used in the Portuguese language to designate these people, while a person from India is called indiano in order to distinguish the two.

The Tupi people were one of the most numerous peoples indigenous to Brazil, before colonisation. Scholars believe that while they first settled in the Amazon rainforest, from about 2,900 years ago the Tupi started to migrate southward and gradually occupied the Atlantic coast of Southeast Brazil.

Aracruz, Espírito Santo Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Aracruz is a municipality at the central coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil.


The Kamayurá are an indigenous tribe in the Amazonian Basin of Brazil. Their name is also spelled Kamayura and Kamaiurá; it means "a raised platform to keep meat, pots and pans." The Kamayurá language belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family

Languages of Brazil languages of a geographic region

Portuguese is the official and national language of Brazil and is widely spoken by most of the population. The Portuguese dialects spoken in Brazil are collectively known as Brazilian Portuguese. The Brazilian Sign Language also has official status at the federal level.

Rio Omerê Indigenous Territory Brazilian indigenous land

The Rio Omerê Indigenous Territory is an indigenous territory for isolated indigenous peoples in Rondônia, Brazil. The territory consists of 26,000 hectares of forest on the Omerê River and is home to the Kanoê and Akuntsu tribes. Both tribes were the victims of severe massacres by cattle ranchers in the 1970s and 1980s. As of 2011, the Akuntsu number just five individuals and the Rio Omerê Kanoê four. The two tribes are separate peoples speaking mutually unintelligible languages, but are linked by marriage. The reserve is also home to an unknown man who lives alone and is thought to be the last survivor of a different tribe. Several loggers and cattle ranchers also remain in the territory despite attempts to eject them and continue to pose a threat to its indigenous inhabitants.

The Kuruaya people are an indigenous people of Brazil. They live along the tributaries of the lower Xingu River in the state of Pará.

Xakriabá ethnic group

The Xakriabá are an indigenous people of Brazil. One of the Gê peoples who spoke the Xakriabá dialect of the Akwe language, they used to live in the Tocantins River area. As of 2010, 9,196 Xakriabá people lived in the state of Minas Gerais.

Urussanga Municipality in South, Brazil

Urussanga is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina in the South region of Brazil.. The name means "very cold water" in the Tupi language.

Kiriri people

Kiriri people are indigenous people of Eastern Brazil. Their name is also spelled Cariri or Kariri and is a Tupi word meaning "silent" or "tactiturn."

The Tapeba people are an indigenous people of Brazil, who formed from the remnant populations of tribes around the Village of Nossa Senhora dos Prazeres de Caucaia in Ceará, Brazil. They are native Portuguese-speakers and are also known as Tapebano and Perna-de-pau people.

The Anambé are an indigenous people of Brazil, living in the state of Pará, Brazil.

Tremembé people

The Tremembé or Teremembé people are an indigenous people in the state of Ceará in Brazil.

The Tembé, also Timbé and Tenetehara, are an indigenous people of Brazil, living along the Maranhão and Gurupi Rivers, in the state of Amazonas and Pará. Their lands have been encroached and settled by farmers and loggers, who do so illegally, and the Tembé are working to expel the intruders from their territories.

The Tapajós, also called the Santarém culture, were an indigenous Brazilian people, now extinct, who in the 17th century lived in the area around where the Tapajós flowed into the Amazon River, in the Brazilian state of Amazonas.

Baré people indigenous ethnic group of Brazil

The Baré, or Hanera, and Werekena are related indigenous people of northwest Brazil and Venezuela. For many years they suffered from violent exploitation by Portuguese and Spanish merchants, forced to work as debt slaves. They moved often to try to avoid the merchants. Today most live by agriculture, hunting, fishing and gathering, and extract piassava fiber for income to buy goods from traders.

Before the Portuguese discovery of Brazil, the region where the present state of Rondônia is situated was populated by indigenous peoples, who are known to have included the following:

Morumbi is a future monorail station, which will be operated by ViaMobilidade. Placed in the district of Santo Amaro in São Paulo, it will connect with homonymous station of Line 9-Emerald.

Morumbi (CPTM)

Morumbi is a train station on CPTM Line 9-Emerald, located in the limits of district of Santo Amaro. It will be connected to ViaMobilidade Line 17-Gold, scheduled to 2nd semester of 2022.