Tupiniquim

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Tupiniquim

Cacique tupinikin 2007.jpg

Jaguarete, Tupiniquim cacique, Brasilia, 2007
Total population
2,630 (2010) [1]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil (Bandeira do Espirito Santo.svg  Espírito Santo) [1]
Languages
Portuguese
Religion
Christianity (Catholic and Protestant)

Tupiniquim (also Tupinã-ki, Topinaquis, Tupinaquis, Tupinanquins, Tupiniquins) are an indigenous people of Brazil, who now live in three indigenous territories (Terras Indígenas in Portuguese). The indigenous territories (Caieiras Velhas, Pau-Brasil and Comboios) are located near the cities of Santa Cruz and Vila do Riacho in the municipality of Aracruz in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. Caieiras Velhas Indigenous Territory is located along the banks of the Piraquê-Açu River. The Pau-Brasil Indigenous Territory is near the Sahy creek. The Comboios Indigenous Territory is located on the banks of the Comboios River. A 2010 census determined the population of Tupiniquim in all three indigenous territories as 2,630. [1]

Indigenous territory (Brazil) protected land in Brazil

In Brazil, an indigenous territory or indigenous land is an area inhabited and exclusively possessed by indigenous people. The Brazilian Constitution recognises the inalienable right of indigenous peoples to lands they "traditionally occupy" and automatically confers them permanent possession of these lands. In practice, however, a formal process of demarcation is required for a TI to gain full protection, and this has often entailed protracted legal battles. Even after demarcation, they are frequently subject to illegal invasions by settlers and mining and logging companies.

Espírito Santo State of Brazil

Espírito Santo is a state in southeastern Brazil. Its capital is Vitória, and its largest city is the nearby Vila Velha. With an extensive coastline, the state hosts some of the country's main ports, and its beaches are significant tourist attractions.

Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.

Contents

Language

Coastal Tupi or Tupiniquim, which is a member of the Tupi–Guarani language family, is no longer spoken by the Tupiniquim. [2] It is now extinct. Currently, the Tupiniquim speak only Portuguese.

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. Reintegrationists maintain that Galician is not a separate language, but a dialect of Portuguese. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).

Territory

Historically, the Tupiniquim inhabited a large tract of land along Brazil's coastline from approximately 200 km south of Salvador down to the São Mateus river. This area is north of the present day Indigenous Territories and extended for about 600 km. The Tupiniquim have inhabited these Indigenous Territories since the founding of Santa Cruz and Nova Almeida (then Reis Magos). During the first two centuries after the arrival of Europeans, indigenous populations were the predominate majority in both Santa Cruz and Nova Almeida. Their tribe was one of the first to meet Portuguese in April 1500 at Porto Seguro.

Salvador, Bahia Municipality in Northeast, Brazil

Salvador, also known as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people (2017), it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 4th largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília.

Porto Seguro Place in Nordeste, Brazil

Porto Seguro is a city located in the far south of Bahia, Brazil. The city has an estimated population of 145,431 (2015), covers 2,287 square kilometres (883 sq mi), and has a population density of 52.7 residents per square kilometer. The area that includes Porto Seguro and neighboring Santa Cruz Cabrália and Prado holds a distinctive place in Brazilian history: in 1500 it was the first landing point of Portuguese navigators, principally Pedro Álvares Cabral. The crime rate is considered high, as is the case in all Bahia State

Etymology and usage of word

The expression Tupin-i-ki means the tupi next door, side neighbor. [2] [3] Tupinã-ki means a parallel situated tribe or branch of the Tupi. [4]

In Brazil, the term "Tupiniquim" has come to mean "Brazilian" or "national". The term is used as both a noun and an adjective: cinema tupiniquim (Brazilian cinema), cantor tupiniquim (Brazilian singer), and filosofia tupiniquim [5] (Brazilian philosophy).

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 "Tupiniquim: Introduction." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 28 Jan 2012.
  2. 1 2 "Tupiniquim: Name and language." Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Retrieved 28 Jan 2012.
  3. Nasecentes, A. Dicionário etimológico da língua portuguesa - Rio de Janeiro: Francisco Alves, 1932
  4. Silveira Bueno, Grande Dicionário Etimológico-Prosódico da Língua Portuguesa, 1966
  5. Gomes, R. Crítica da razão tupiniquim, 2001.


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