|Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M in 2009|
|Role||Narrow-body jet airliner|
|National origin||Soviet Union and Russian Federation|
|Designer||Tupolev Design Bureau|
|First flight||4 October 1968|
|Introduction||7 February 1972 with Aeroflot|
|Status||In limited service|
|Primary users|| Russian Air Force |
People's Liberation Army Air Force
The Tupolev Tu-154 (Russian : Tyполев Ту-154; NATO reporting name: "Careless") is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. A workhorse of Soviet and (subsequently) Russian airlines for several decades, it carried half of all passengers flown by Aeroflot and its subsidiaries (137.5 million/year or 243.8 billion passenger km in 1990), remaining the standard domestic-route airliner of Russia and former Soviet states until the mid-2000s. It was exported to 17 non-Russian airlines and used as a head-of-state transport by the air forces of several countries.
With a cruising speed of 850 kilometres per hour (530 mph) the Tu-154 is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in use and has a range of 5,280 kilometres (3,280 mi). Capable of operating from unpaved and gravel airfields with only basic facilities, it was widely used in the extreme Arctic conditions of Russia's northern/eastern regions where other airliners were unable to operate. Originally designed for a 45,000 hour service life (18,000 cycles) but capable of 80,000 hours with upgrades, it was expected to continue in service until 2016, although noise regulations have restricted flights to western Europe and other regions.
In January 2010 Russian flag carrier Aeroflot announced the retirement of its Tu-154 fleet after 40 years, with the last scheduled flight being Aeroflot Flight 736 from Ekaterinburg to Moscow on 31 December 2009.
Since 1968 there have been 39 fatal incidents involving the Tu-154, most of which were caused either by factors unrelated to the aircraft, incorrect maintenance, or by its extensive use in demanding conditions.
The Tu-154 was developed to meet Aeroflot's requirement to replace the jet-powered Tu-104 and the Antonov An-10 and Ilyushin Il-18 turboprops. The requirements called for either a payload capacity of 16–18 tonnes (35,000–40,000 lb) with a range of 2,850–4,000 kilometres (1,770–2,490 mi) while cruising at 900 km/h (560 mph), or a payload of 5.8 tonnes (13,000 lb) with a range of 5,800–7,000 kilometres (3,600–4,300 mi) while cruising at 850 km/h (530 mph). A takeoff distance of 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) at maximum takeoff weight was also stipulated as a requirement. Conceptually similar to the British Hawker Siddeley Trident, which first flew in 1962, and the American Boeing 727, which first flew in 1963, the medium-range Tu-154 was marketed by Tupolev at the same time as Ilyushin was marketing the long-range Ilyushin Il-62. The Soviet Ministry of Aircraft Industry chose the Tu-154 as it incorporated the latest in Soviet aircraft design and best met Aeroflot's anticipated requirements for the 1970s and 1980s.
The first project chief was Sergey Yeger; in 1964, Dmitryi S. Markov assumed that position. In 1975, the project lead role was turned over to Aleksandr S. Shengardt.
The Tu-154 first flew on 4 October 1968. The first deliveries to Aeroflot were in 1970 with freight (mail) services beginning in May 1971 and passenger services in February 1972. There was still limited production of the 154M model as of January 2009 despite previous announcements of the end of production in 2006.1025 Tu-154s have been built, 214 of which were still in service as of 14 December 2009. The last serial Tu-154 was delivered to the Russian Defense Ministry on 19 February 2013 from the Aviakor factory, equipped with upgraded avionics, a VIP interior and a communications suite. The factory has four unfinished hulls in its inventory which can be completed if new orders are received.
This section does not cite any sources . (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Tu-154 is powered by three rear-mounted low-bypass turbofan engines arranged similarly to those of the Boeing 727, but it is slightly larger than its American counterpart. Both the 727 and the Tu-154 use an S-duct for the middle (Number 2) engine. The original model was equipped with Kuznetsov NK-8-2 engines, which were replaced with Soloviev D-30KU-154 in the Tu-154M. All Tu-154 aircraft models have a relatively high thrust-to-weight-ratio which give excellent performance, at the expense of lower fuel efficiency. This became an important factor in later decades as fuel costs grew.[ citation needed ]
The flight deck is fitted with conventional dual yoke control columns. Flight control surfaces are hydraulically operated.
The cabin of the Tu-154, although of the same six-abreast seating layout, gives the impression of an oval interior, with a lower ceiling than is common on Boeing and Airbus airliners. The passenger cabin accommodates 128 passengers in a two-class layout and 164 passengers in single-class layout, and up to 180 passengers in high-density layout. The layout can be modified to what is called a winter version where some seats are taken out and a wardrobe is installed for passenger coats. The passenger doors are smaller than on its Boeing and Airbus counterparts. Luggage space in the overhead compartments is very limited.
Like the Tupolev Tu-134, the Tu-154 has a wing swept back at 35° at the quarter-chord line. The British Hawker Siddeley Trident has the same sweepback angle, while the Boeing 727 has a slightly smaller sweepback angle of 32°. The wing also has anhedral (downward sweep) which is a distinguishing feature of Russian low-wing airliners designed during this era. Most Western low-wing airliners such as the contemporary Boeing 727 have dihedral (upward sweep). The anhedral means that Russian airliners have poor lateral stability compared to their Western counterparts, but also have weaker Dutch roll tendencies.
Considerably heavier than its predecessor Soviet-built airliner the Ilyushin Il-18, the Tu-154 was equipped with an oversized landing gear to reduce ground load, enabling it to operate from the same runways. The aircraft has two six-wheel main bogies fitted with large low-pressure tires that retract into pods extending from the trailing edges of the wings (a common Tupolev feature), plus a two-wheel nosegear unit. Soft oleo struts (shock absorbers) provide a much smoother ride on bumpy airfields than most airliners, which very rarely operate on such poor surfaces.
The original requirement was to have a three-person flight crew – captain, first officer and flight engineer – as opposed to a four- or five-person crew, as on other Soviet airliners. It became evident that a fourth crew member, a navigator, was still needed, and a seat was added on production aircraft, although their workstation was compromised due to the limitations of the original design. Navigators are no longer trained and this profession is becoming obsolete with the retirement of the oldest Soviet-era planes.
The latest variant (Tu-154M-100, introduced 1998) includes an NVU-B3 Doppler navigation system, a triple autopilot, which provides an automatic ILS approach according to ICAO category II weather minima, an autothrottle, a Doppler drift and speed measure system (DISS), and a "Kurs-MP" radio navigation suite.[ citation needed ] A stability and control augmentation system improves handling characteristics during manual flight. Modern upgrades normally include modernised TCAS, GPS, and other systems (mostly American-made or EU-made).
Early versions of the Tu-154 cannot be modified to meet the current Stage III noise regulations and are no longer allowed to fly into airspace where such regulations are enforced, such as the European Union. However, the Tu-154M's D-30 engines can be fitted with hush kits, allowing them to meet noise regulations.
Many variants of this airliner have been built. Like its western counterpart, the 727, many of the Tu-154s in service have been hush-kitted, and some converted to freighters.
As of August 2017, there are 44Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft of all variants still in civil or military service. A 45th aircraft has been sighted flying with Air Kyrgyzstan in 2017, but is not listed by the airline as part of its fleet. The remaining operators are:
|1||Last Russian passenger airline to operate this aircraft|
|12||six of them are of ELINT versions with synthetic aperture radar and six–eight of them are airliners|
|4||Operated for the government|
In February 2011, all remaining Iranian Tu-154s were grounded after two incidents.
On 27 December 2016, the Russian Ministry of Defence announced that it had grounded all of its Tu-154s until the end of the investigation into the December 2016 crash of a 1983 Tupolev Tu-154.This was followed by the grounding of all Tu-154s in Russia. The Tu-154 had crashed into the Black Sea just after takeoff from Sochi, Russia, on 25 December 2016 killing all 92 people on board, including 64 members of the Alexandrov Ensemble, an official army choir of the Russian Armed Forces. The Red Army Choir singers and dancers were en route to Syria to entertain Russian troops in the run-up to the New Year.
This section does not cite any sources . (December 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Between 1970 and December 2016 there have been 110 serious incidents involving the Tu-154,and 69 hull losses, 30 of which did not involve fatalities. Of the fatal incidents, five resulted from terrorist or military terrorist action (two other wartime losses were non fatal), several from poor runway conditions in winter (including one in which the airplane struck snow plows on the runway), cargo overloading in the lapse of post-Soviet federal safety standards, and mid-air collisions due to faulty air traffic control. Other incidents resulted from mechanical problems (two cases prior to 2001), running out of fuel on unscheduled routes, pilot errors (including inadequate flight training for new crews), and cargo fires; several accidents remain unexplained.
The Tu-154 is described as having an average (or better than expected) safety record considering its length of service and heavy use in demanding conditions where other airliners are unable to operate.On January 2, 2011, Russia's Federal Transport Oversight Agency advised airlines to stop using remaining examples of the Tu-154 (B variant) until the fatal fire incident in Surgut had been investigated. Its operation in Iran ceased in February 2011 due to a number of crashes and incidents involving the type (almost 9% of all Tu-154 losses have occurred in Iran). This grounding compounded the effects of US embargo on civil aircraft parts, substantially decreasing the number of airworthy aircraft in the Iranian civil fleet. In 2010 there were two fatal losses of the Tu-154 due to pilot error and/or weather conditions (a Polish presidential jet attempting a rural airfield landing in heavy fog, the 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash, and a Russian-registered plane that suffered engine stall after a crew member accidentally de-activated a fuel transfer pump). Following these accidents, in March 2011 the Russian Federal Bureau of Aviation recommended a withdrawal of remaining Tu-154Ms from service. In December 2010, Uzbekistan Airways also declared that it will cease to operate Tu-154s from 2011.
On 27 December 2016, the Russian Defence Ministry grounded all Tu-154s in Russia pending investigation into the 25 December 2016 Tupolev Tu-154 crash which killed 64 members of the Alexandrov Ensemble, an official Red Army Choir of the Russian Armed Forces.
|Date||Tail number||Aircraft type||Location||Fatalities||Description||Refs|
|19 February 1973||CCCP-85023||Tu-154||66/100||Aeroflot Flight 141 crashed 467 m (1,532 ft) short of the runway; the cause was not determined.|
|7 May 1973||CCCP-85030||Tu-154||0/6||Force-landed during a training flight following loss of engine power and severe vibrations after the aircraft took off with the inner spoilers deployed.|
|10 July 1974||SU-AXB||Tu-154||6/6||Stalled and crashed during a training flight.|
|30 September 1975||HA-LCI||Tu-154A||60/60||Malév Flight 240 crashed in the sea on final approach in clear weather, allegedly shot down by one or two air-to-air missiles fired by either IDF or SDF forces.|
|1 June 1976||CCCP-85102||Tu-154A||46/46||Aeroflot Flight 418 crashed into a mountain on final approach; radar failure was blamed.|
|1976||CCCP-85020||Tu-154||0||Rough landing, written off. This aircraft is now in the Ukraine Government Museum of Aviation.|
|2 December 1977||LZ-BTN||Tu-154A||59/165||Crashed due to fuel exhaustion while searching for an alternate airport after diverting due to fog. The aircraft was leased from Balkan Bulgarian Airlines.|
|23 March 1978||LZ-BTB||Tu-154B||4/4||Crashed into high ground on final approach.|
|19 May 1978||CCCP-85169||Tu-154B||4/134||Aeroflot Flight 6709 crashed in a field after all three engines failed after the flight engineer accidentally shut off the automatic transferring of fuel of the sump tank.|
|30 June 1979||P-551||Tu-154B||0||A Choson Minhang charter flight stalled while landing due to pilot error. The right landing gear collapsed and the right wing hit the ground, sustaining damage to the wing structure. The aircraft was subsequently repaired and returned to service.|
|1 March 1980||CCCP-85103||Tu-154A||0/161||Landed hard and broke in two after the crew deviated from the glide path while on approach.|
|8 July 1980||CCCP-85355||Tu-154B-2||166/166||Aeroflot Flight 4225 stalled and crashed on climb out after entering a downdraft. This accident remains the worst in Kazakhstan.|
|7 August 1980||YR-TPH||Tu-154B-1||1/168||Ditched 300 m (980 ft) short of the runway.|
|8 October 1980||CCCP-85321||Tu-154B-2||0/184||Landed hard after coming in too high.||photo|
|13 June 1981||CCCP-85029||Tu-154||0||Overran the runway on landing and broke in two.|
|21 October 1981||HA-LCF||Tu-154B||0/81||Malev Flight 641 crashed on the runway and broke in two after deploying the spoilers at low altitude following a too-high approach.|
|16 November 1981||CCCP-85480||Tu-154B-2||99/167||Aeroflot Flight 3603 crashed 470 m short of runway due to overloading and crew error.|
|11 October 1984||CCCP-85243||Tu-154B-1||4+174/179||Aeroflot Flight 3352 crashed after colliding with maintenance vehicles on the runway due to ATC error. ATC personnel received prison sentences of 12–15 years. This accident is the second deadliest in Soviet history and remains the deadliest on Russian soil.|
|23 December 1984||CCCP-85338||Tu-154B-2||110/111||Aeroflot Flight 3519 crashed following double engine failure and in-flight fire.|
|10 July 1985||CCCP-85311||Tu-154B-2||200/200||Aeroflot Flight 7425 stalled and crashed due to crew errors and fatigue. This accident is the deadliest in Soviet history, the deadliest in Uzbekistan, and deadliest accident involving the Tu-154.|
|21 May 1986||CCCP-85327||Tu-154B-2||0||Deformation of fuselage due to crew errors during flight after the crew forgot to turn on the pitot heating system.|
|18 January 1988||CCCP-85254||Tu-154B-1||11/143||Broke in three following a heavy landing.|
|8 March 1988||CCCP-85413||Tu-154B-2||9/84||Aeroflot Flight 3739 was hijacked by the Ovechkin family.|
|24 September 1988||CCCP-85479||Tu-154B-2||0/168||Landed hard and left the runway after encountering light turbulence on approach.|
|13 January 1989||CCCP-85067||Tu-154S||0||Overran runway and crashed following a rejected takeoff due to shifting cargo and overloading.|
|9 February 1989||YR-TPJ||Tu-154B-2||5/5||Crashed on takeoff due to engine failure during a training flight.|
|20 October 1990||CCCP-85268||Tu-154B-2||0/171||Failed to takeoff and overran runway due to overloading and center of gravity problems; written off.|
|17 November 1990||CCCP-85664||Tu-154M||0/6||Force-landed following a fire in the cargo hold and broke apart on landing.|
|23 May 1991||CCCP-85097||Tu-154B-1||2+13/178||Landed hard short of the runway, collapsing the right landing gear and broke apart after coming in too fast in rain.|
|14 September 1991||CU-T1227||Tu-154B-2||0/112||Cubana Flight 464 landed too late and overran the runway due to pilot error and poor visibility.|
|5 June 1992||LZ-BTD||Tu-154B||0/130||Landed too late and overran the runway in bad weather.|
|June 1992||RA-85282||Tu-154B-1||0/0||Burned out during refueling. A second Tu-154 (RA-85234) also burned out.|
|20 July 1992||85222||Tu-154B||4+24/24||Failed to take off due to overloading and center of gravity problems, overran the runway, striking the localizer building, and ended up in a ravine.|
|1 August 1992||YA-TAP||Tu-154M||0/0||Destroyed during a mortar attack. The aircraft had been parked at the airport for repairs following an incident three months earlier.|
|5 September 1992||CCCP-85269||Tu-154B-1||0/147||Emergency landing after the left main landing gear failed to extend.|
|13 October 1992||CCCP-85528||Tu-154B-2||0/67||Failed to take off and overran the runway due to overloading and center of gravity problems.|
|5 December 1992||CCCP-85105||Tu-154A||0/154||Veered off the runway on landing after the pilot mistook the runway edge lights for the centerline lights.|
|9 January 1993||85533||Tu-154B-2||0/165||Indian Airlines Flight 840 crashed on landing after striking some installations next to the runway; the tail and right wing later separated and the aircraft came to rest upside down. The aircraft was leased from Uzbekistan Airways due to a pilot strike at Indian Airlines.|
|8 February 1993||EP-ITD||Tu-154M||2+131/131||Mid-air collision.|
|22 September 1993||85163||Tu-154B||108/132||Shot down and crashed on the runway. The accident remains the worst in Georgia.|
|23 September 1993||85359||Tu-154B-2||Unknown||Written off after suffering damage from mortar or artillery fire.|
|25 December 1993||RA-85296||Tu-154B-2||0/172||Nosegear collapsed after landing in bad weather.|
|3 January 1994||RA-85656||Tu-154M||1+124/124||Baikal Airlines Flight 130 crashed after an in-flight fire that started in the number two engine, caused by a starter failure.|
|6 June 1994||B-2610||Tu-154M||160/160||China Northwest Airlines Flight 2303 broke apart in mid-air and crashed shortly after takeoff due to a maintenance error. The crash remains the worst in China.|
|21 January 1995||UN-85455||Tu-154B-2||0/117||Failed to take off and overran the runway due to overloading.|
|7 December 1995||RA-85164||Tu-154B||98/98||Khabarovsk United Air Group Flight 3949 crashed into a mountain following a loss of control after fuel was selected from the left wing tanks to counter a left wing-low attitude.|
|29 August 1996||RA-85621||Tu-154M||141/141||Vnukovo Airlines Flight 2801 crashed into a mountain on final approach due to navigation errors. This accident remains the worst in Norway.|
|13 September 1997||11+02||Tu-154M||33/33||German Air Force Flight 074 collided in mid-air with a USAF C-141 due to pilot and ATC errors.|
|15 December 1997||EY-85281||Tu-154B-1||85/86||Tajikistan Airlines Flight 3183 crashed in the desert due to pilot error and crew fatigue.|
|29 August 1998||CU-T1264||Tu-154M||10+70/91||Cubana de Aviación Flight 389 failed to take off and overran the runway, crashing into a soccer field. Following problems before takeoff, the crew had forgotten to select the switches for the hydraulic valves of the control system.|
|24 February 1999||B-2622||Tu-154M||61/61||China Southwest Airlines Flight 4509 lost control and crashed after incorrect nuts in the elevator control system fell off, due to improper maintenance. China removed the Tu-154 from service following this accident.|
|4 July 2000||HA-LCR||Tu-154B-2||0/76||Malév Flight 262 touched down wheels-up while landing and skidded on runway, but was able to take off and land normally after a go-around.|
|4 July 2001||RA-85845||Tu-154M||145/145||Vladivostok Air Flight 352 stalled and crashed on final approach due to pilot error.|
|4 October 2001||RA-85693||Tu-154M||Black Sea off Sochi||78/78||Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 was accidentally shot down by an errant Ukrainian S-200 surface-to-air missile.|
|12 February 2002||EP-MBS||Tu-154M||119/119||Iran Air Tours Flight 956 struck a mountain on approach.|
|20 February 2002||EP-LBX||Tu-154M||0||Landed hard, suffering substantial damage. The aircraft was ferried to Vnukovo for repairs where the nose gear collapsed while the aircraft was being towed. The aircraft was written off and used for spare parts.|
|1 July 2002||RA-85816||Tu-154M||2+69/69||Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937 collided in mid-air with DHL Flight 611 due to errors of communication between instruction from ATC and Traffic collision avoidance system.|
|24 August 2004||RA-85556||Tu-154B-2||46/46||Sibir Airlines Flight 1047 crashed after it was bombed in mid-air by a suicide bomber, along with a Tu-134 on the same day.|
|22 August 2006||RA-85185||Tu-154M||170/170||Pulkovo Airlines Flight 612 stalled and crashed after the crew attempted to fly over a storm front. The aircraft entered turbulence and later stalled. The aircraft entered a flat spin and then struck the ground.|
|1 September 2006||EP-MCF||Tu-154M||28/148||Iran Air Tours Flight 945 suffered a mishap while landing, possibly due to a blown nosegear tire. The aircraft swerved off the runway.|
|30 June 2008||RA-85667||Tu-154M||0/112||The number one engine suffered an uncontained failure during takeoff and takeoff was aborted. The aircraft was parked at Pulkovo Airport after the incident and was broken up in August 2009.|
|15 July 2009||EP-CPG||Tu-154M||168/168||Caspian Airlines Flight 7908 lost control and crashed following an engine fire.|
|24 January 2010||RA-85787||Tu-154M||0/170||Taban Air Flight 6437 crashed on landing after the captain declared a medical emergency due to a seriously ill passenger on board. The aircraft was leased from Kolavia.|
|10 April 2010||101||Tu-154M||96/96||Crashed on final approach in thick fog on an airfield without ILS. Polish President Lech Kaczyński and other high-ranking officials were on board and died in the crash.|
|7 September 2010||RA-85684||Tu-154M||0/81||Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise Flight 514 made an emergency landing at a remote airfield after general electrical failure at 34,800 ft, overran the small runway and sustained minor damage with no injuries. In March 2011 it was flown back to Samara for structural inspection and rehabilitation.|
|4 December 2010||RA-85744||Tu-154M||2/170||Dagestan Airlines Flight 372 made an emergency landing after two engines failed shortly after takeoff; full of fuel. Overran the runway and broke up into three. The accident investigation revealed that a crew member had mistakenly switched off a fuel transfer pump thereby causing fuel-starvation and subsequent engine flameout.|
|1 January 2011||RA-85588||Tu-154B-2||3/124||Kolavia Flight 348 caught fire while taxiing for takeoff.|
|25 December 2016||RA-85572||Tu-154B-2||92/92||Russian Defence Ministry flight crashed en route to Khmeimim, Syria, killing all 92 people (84 passengers and 8 crew members) on board, including 64 members of the Alexandrov Ensemble, an official army choir of the Russian Armed Forces|
[ citation needed ]
|Length||48.0 metres (157 ft 6 in)|
|Wingspan||37.55 metres (123 ft 2 in)|
|Wing area||201.5 square metres (2,169 sq ft)|
|Height||11.4 metres (37 ft 5 in)|
|Cabin width||3.58 metres (11 ft 9 in)|
|Maximum take-off weight||98,000 kilograms (216,000 lb) – 100,000 kilograms (220,000 lb)||102,000 kilograms (225,000 lb) – 104,000 kilograms (229,000 lb)|
|Empty weight||50,700 kilograms (111,800 lb)||55,300 kilograms (121,900 lb)|
|Maximum speed||913 km/h (M 0,86)|
|Range fully loaded||2,500 km (1,300 nmi; 1,600 mi)||5,280 km (2,850 nmi; 3,280 mi)|
|Range with max fuel||3,900 km (2,100 nmi; 2,400 mi)||6,600 km (3,600 nmi; 4,100 mi)|
|Service ceiling||12,100 metres (39,700 ft)|
|Engine (x 3)||Kuznetsov NK-8-2U||Soloviev D-30KU-154|
|Max. thrust (x 3)||90 kN (20,000 lbf) each||103 kN (23,148 lbf) each|
|Max. fuel capacity||47,000 litres (10,000 imp gal; 12,000 US gal)||49,700 litres (10,900 imp gal; 13,100 US gal)|
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tupolev Tu-154 .|