|Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M in 2009|
|Role||Narrow-body jet airliner|
|National origin||Soviet Union and Russian Federation|
|Designer||Tupolev Design Bureau|
|First flight||4 October 1968|
|Introduction||7 February 1972 with Aeroflot|
|Status||In limited service|
|Primary users|| Russian Air Force |
People's Liberation Army Air Force
The Tupolev Tu-154 (Russian : Tyполев Ту-154; NATO reporting name: "Careless") is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. A workhorse of Soviet and (subsequently) Russian airlines for several decades, it carried half of all passengers flown by Aeroflot and its subsidiaries (137.5 million/year or 243.8 billion passenger km in 1990), remaining the standard domestic-route airliner of Russia and former Soviet states until the mid-2000s. It was exported to 17 non-Russian airlines and used as a head-of-state transport by the air forces of several countries.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment from Russia, China, and historically, the Eastern Bloc. They provide unambiguous and easily understood English words in a uniform manner in place of the original designations, which either may have been unknown to the Western world at the time or easily confused codes. For example, the Russian bomber jet Tupolev Tu-160 is simply called "Blackjack".
A trijet is a jet aircraft powered by three jet engines. In general, passenger airline trijets are considered to be second-generation jet airliners, due to their innovative engine locations, in addition to the advancement of turbofan technology.
With a cruising speed of 850 kilometres per hour (530 mph) the Tu-154 is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in use and has a range of 5,280 kilometres (3,280 mi). Capable of operating from unpaved and gravel airfields with only basic facilities, it was widely used in the extreme Arctic conditions of Russia's northern/eastern regions where other airliners were unable to operate. Originally designed for a 45,000 hour service life (18,000 cycles) but capable of 80,000 hours with upgrades, it was expected to continue in service until 2016, although noise regulations have restricted flights to western Europe and other regions.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Northern Canada, Norway, Russia and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost -containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places.
Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After the watershed passage of the United States Noise Control Act of 1972, other local and state governments passed further regulations.
In January 2010 Russian flag carrier Aeroflot announced the retirement of its Tu-154 fleet after 40 years, with the last scheduled flight being Aeroflot Flight 736 from Ekaterinburg to Moscow on 31 December 2009.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations. The term also refers to any carrier that is or was owned by a government, even long after their privatization when preferential rights or privileges continue.
PJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines, commonly known as Aeroflot, is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation. The carrier is an open joint stock company that operates domestic and international passenger and services, mainly from its hub at Sheremetyevo International Airport.
Yekaterinburg, alternatively romanised Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the Asian side of the boundary between Asia and Europe. It is the main cultural and industrial centre of the oblast. In 2017, it had an estimated population of 1,488,791. Yekaterinburg has been dubbed the "third capital of Russia", as it is ranked third by the size of economy, culture, transportation and tourism. It is located about 1,420 kilometres (880 mi) to the east of Moscow.
Since 1968 there have been 39 fatal incidents involving the Tu-154, most of which were caused either by factors unrelated to the aircraft, incorrect maintenance, or by its extensive use in demanding conditions. Also, few of the Tu-154 accidents appear to have involved technical failure.
The Tu-154 was developed to meet Aeroflot's requirement to replace the jet-powered Tu-104 and the Antonov An-10 and Ilyushin Il-18 turboprops. The requirements called for either a payload capacity of 16–18 tonnes (35,000–40,000 lb) with a range of 2,850–4,000 kilometres (1,770–2,490 mi) while cruising at 900 km/h (560 mph), or a payload of 5.8 tonnes (13,000 lb) with a range of 5,800–7,000 kilometres (3,600–4,300 mi) while cruising at 850 km/h (530 mph). A takeoff distance of 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) at maximum takeoff weight was also stipulated as a requirement. Conceptually similar to the British Hawker Siddeley Trident, which first flew in 1962, and the American Boeing 727, which first flew in 1963, the medium-range Tu-154 was marketed by Tupolev at the same time as Ilyushin was marketing the long-range Ilyushin Il-62. The Soviet Ministry of Aircraft Industry chose the Tu-154 as it incorporated the latest in Soviet aircraft design and best met Aeroflot's anticipated requirements for the 1970s and 1980s.
The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine, typically used in aircraft. It consists of a gas turbine with a propelling nozzle. The gas turbine has an air inlet, a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine. The compressed air from the compressor is heated by the fuel in the combustion chamber and then allowed to expand through the turbine. The turbine exhaust is then expanded in the propelling nozzle where it is accelerated to high speed to provide thrust. Two engineers, Frank Whittle in the United Kingdom and Hans von Ohain in Germany, developed the concept independently into practical engines during the late 1930s.
The Tupolev Tu-104 was a twinjet medium-range narrow-body turbojet-powered Soviet airliner. It was the second to enter in regular service, behind the British de Havilland Comet, and was the only jetliner operating in the world from 1956 to 1958, when the British jetliner was grounded due to safety matters.
The Antonov An-10 is a four-engined turboprop passenger transport aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The first project chief was Sergey Yeger; in 1964, Dmitryi S. Markov assumed that position. In 1975, the project lead role was turned over to Aleksandr S. Shengardt.
The Tu-154 first flew on 4 October 1968. The first deliveries to Aeroflot were in 1970 with freight (mail) services beginning in May 1971 and passenger services in February 1972. There was still limited production of the 154M model as of January 2009 despite previous announcements of the end of production in 2006.1025 Tu-154s have been built, 214 of which were still in service as of 14 December 2009. The last serial Tu-154 was delivered to the Russian Defense Ministry on 19 February 2013 from the Aviakor factory, equipped with upgraded avionics, a VIP interior and a communications suite. The factory has four unfinished hulls in its inventory which can be completed if new orders are received.
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The Tu-154 is powered by three rear-mounted low-bypass turbofan engines arranged similarly to those of the Boeing 727, but it is slightly larger than its American counterpart. Both the 727 and the Tu-154 use an S-duct for the middle (Number 2) engine. The original model was equipped with Kuznetsov NK-8-2 engines, which were replaced with Soloviev D-30KU-154 in the Tu-154M. All Tu-154 aircraft models have a relatively high thrust-to-weight-ratio which give excellent performance, at the expense of lower fuel efficiency. This became an important factor in later decades as fuel costs grew.[ citation needed ]
The flight deck is fitted with conventional dual yoke control columns. Flight control surfaces are hydraulically operated.
The cabin of the Tu-154, although of the same six-abreast seating layout, gives the impression of an oval interior, with a lower ceiling than is common on Boeing and Airbus airliners. The passenger cabin accommodates 128 passengers in a two-class layout and 164 passengers in single-class layout, and up to 180 passengers in high-density layout. The layout can be modified to what is called a winter version where some seats are taken out and a wardrobe is installed for passenger coats. The passenger doors are smaller than on its Boeing and Airbus counterparts. Luggage space in the overhead compartments is very limited.
Like the Tupolev Tu-134, the Tu-154 has a wing swept back at 35° at the quarter-chord line. The British Hawker Siddeley Trident has the same sweepback angle, while the Boeing 727 has a slightly smaller sweepback angle of 32°. The wing also has anhedral (downward sweep) which is a distinguishing feature of Russian low-wing airliners designed during this era. Most Western low-wing airliners such as the contemporary Boeing 727 have dihedral (upward sweep). The anhedral means that Russian airliners have poor lateral stability compared to their Western counterparts, but also have weaker Dutch roll tendencies.
Considerably heavier than its predecessor Soviet-built airliner the Ilyushin Il-18, the Tu-154 was equipped with an oversized landing gear to reduce ground load, enabling it to operate from the same runways. The aircraft has two six-wheel main bogies fitted with large low-pressure tires that retract into pods extending from the trailing edges of the wings (a common Tupolev feature), plus a two-wheel nosegear unit. Soft oleo struts (shock absorbers) provide a much smoother ride on bumpy airfields than most airliners, which very rarely operate on such poor surfaces.
The original requirement was to have a three-person flight crew – captain, first officer and flight engineer – as opposed to a four- or five-person crew, as on other Soviet airliners. It became evident that a fourth crew member, a navigator, was still needed, and a seat was added on production aircraft, although their workstation was compromised due to the limitations of the original design. Navigators are no longer trained and this profession is becoming obsolete with the retirement of the oldest Soviet-era planes.
The latest variant (Tu-154M-100, introduced 1998) includes an NVU-B3 Doppler navigation system, a triple autopilot, which provides an automatic ILS approach according to ICAO category II weather minima, an autothrottle, a Doppler drift and speed measure system (DISS), and a "Kurs-MP" radio navigation suite.[ citation needed ] A stability and control augmentation system improves handling characteristics during manual flight. Modern upgrades normally include modernised TCAS, GPS, and other systems (mostly American-made or EU-made).
Early versions of the Tu-154 cannot be modified to meet the current Stage III noise regulations and are no longer allowed to fly into airspace where such regulations are enforced, such as the European Union. However, the Tu-154M's D-30 engines can be fitted with hush kits, allowing them to meet noise regulations.
Many variants of this airliner have been built. Like its western counterpart, the 727, many of the Tu-154s in service have been hush-kitted, and some converted to freighters.
As of August 2017, there are 44Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft of all variants still in civil or military service. A 45th aircraft has been sighted flying with Air Kyrgyzstan in 2017, but is not listed by the airline as part of its fleet. The remaining operators are:
|1||Last Russian passenger airline to operate this aircraft|
|12||six of them are of ELINT versions with synthetic aperture radar and six–eight of them are airliners|
|4||Operated for the government|
In February 2011, all remaining Iranian Tu-154s were grounded after two incidents.
On 27 December 2016, the Russian Ministry of Defence announced that it had grounded all of its Tu-154s until the end of the investigation into the December 2016 crash of a 1983 Tupolev Tu-154.This was followed by the grounding of all Tu-154s in Russia. The Tu-154 had crashed into the Black Sea just after takeoff from Sochi, Russia, on 25 December 2016 killing all 92 people on board, including 64 members of the Alexandrov Ensemble, an official army choir of the Russian Armed Forces. The Red Army Choir singers and dancers were en route to Syria to entertain Russian troops in the run-up to the New Year.
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Between 1970 and December 2016 there have been 110 serious incidents involving the Tu-154,and 69 hull losses, 30 of which did not involve fatalities. Of the fatal incidents, five resulted from terrorist or military terrorist action (two other wartime losses were non fatal), several from poor runway conditions in winter (including one in which the airplane struck snow plows on the runway), cargo overloading in the lapse of post-Soviet federal safety standards, and mid-air collisions due to faulty air traffic control. Other incidents resulted from mechanical problems (two cases prior to 2001), running out of fuel on unscheduled routes, pilot errors (including inadequate flight training for new crews), and cargo fires; several accidents remain unexplained.
The Tu-154 is described as having an average (or better than expected) safety record considering its length of service and heavy use in demanding conditions where other airliners are unable to operate.On January 2, 2011, Russia's Federal Transport Oversight Agency advised airlines to stop using remaining examples of the Tu-154 (B variant) until the fatal fire incident in Surgut had been investigated. Its operation in Iran ceased in February 2011 due to a number of crashes and incidents involving the type (almost 9% of all Tu-154 losses have occurred in Iran). This grounding compounded the effects of US embargo on civil aircraft parts, substantially decreasing the number of airworthy aircraft in the Iranian civil fleet. In 2010 there were two fatal losses of the Tu-154 due to pilot error and/or weather conditions (a Polish presidential jet attempting a rural airfield landing in heavy fog, the 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash, and a Russian-registered plane that suffered engine stall after a crew member accidentally de-activated a fuel transfer pump). Following these accidents, in March 2011 the Russian Federal Bureau of Aviation recommended a withdrawal of remaining Tu-154Ms from service. In December 2010, Uzbekistan Airways also declared that it will cease to operate Tu-154s from 2011.
On 27 December 2016, the Russian Defence Ministry grounded all Tu-154s in Russia pending investigation into the 25 December 2016 Tupolev Tu-154 crash which killed 64 members of the Alexandrov Ensemble, an official Red Army Choir of the Russian Armed Forces.
|Date||Tail number||Aircraft type||Location||Fatalities||Description||Refs|
|19 February 1973||CCCP-85023||Tu-154||66/100||Aeroflot Flight 141 crashed 467 m (1,532 ft) short of the runway; the cause was not determined.|
|7 May 1973||CCCP-85030||Tu-154||0/6||Force-landed during a training flight following loss of engine power and severe vibrations after the aircraft took off with the inner spoilers deployed.|
|10 July 1974||SU-AXB||Tu-154||6/6||Stalled and crashed during a training flight.|
|30 September 1975||HA-LCI||Tu-154A||60/60||Malév Flight 240 crashed in the sea on final approach in clear weather, allegedly shot down by one or two air-to-air missiles fired by either IDF or SDF forces.|
|1 June 1976||CCCP-85102||Tu-154A||46/46||Aeroflot Flight 418 crashed into a mountain on final approach; radar failure was blamed.|
|1976||CCCP-85020||Tu-154||0||Rough landing, written off. This aircraft is now in the Ukraine Government Museum of Aviation.|
|2 December 1977||LZ-BTN||Tu-154A||59/165||Crashed due to fuel exhaustion while searching for an alternate airport after diverting due to fog. The aircraft was leased from Balkan Bulgarian Airlines.|
|23 March 1978||LZ-BTB||Tu-154B||4/4||Crashed into high ground on final approach.|
|19 May 1978||CCCP-85169||Tu-154B||4/134||Aeroflot Flight 6709 crashed in a field after all three engines failed after the flight engineer accidentally shut off the automatic transferring of fuel of the sump tank.|
|30 June 1979||P-551||Tu-154B||0||A Choson Minhang charter flight stalled while landing due to pilot error. The right landing gear collapsed and the right wing hit the ground, sustaining damage to the wing structure. The aircraft was subsequently repaired and returned to service.|
|1 March 1980||CCCP-85103||Tu-154A||0/161||Landed hard and broke in two after the crew deviated from the glide path while on approach.|
|8 July 1980||CCCP-85355||Tu-154B-2||166/166||Aeroflot Flight 4225 stalled and crashed on climb out after entering a downdraft. This accident remains the worst in Kazakhstan.|
|7 August 1980||YR-TPH||Tu-154B-1||1/168||Ditched 300 m (980 ft) short of the runway.|
|8 October 1980||CCCP-85321||Tu-154B-2||0/184||Landed hard after coming in too high.||photo|
|13 June 1981||CCCP-85029||Tu-154||0||Overran the runway on landing and broke in two.|
|21 October 1981||HA-LCF||Tu-154B||0/81||Malev Flight 641 crashed on the runway and broke in two after deploying the spoilers at low altitude following a too-high approach.|
|16 November 1981||CCCP-85480||Tu-154B-2||99/167||Aeroflot Flight 3603 crashed 470 m short of runway due to overloading and crew error.|
|11 October 1984||CCCP-85243||Tu-154B-1||4+174/179||Aeroflot Flight 3352 crashed after colliding with maintenance vehicles on the runway due to ATC error. ATC personnel received prison sentences of 12–15 years. This accident is the second deadliest in Soviet history and remains the deadliest on Russian soil.|
|23 December 1984||CCCP-85338||Tu-154B-2||110/111||Aeroflot Flight 3519 crashed following double engine failure and in-flight fire.|
|10 July 1985||CCCP-85311||Tu-154B-2||200/200||Aeroflot Flight 7425 stalled and crashed due to crew errors and fatigue. This accident is the deadliest in Soviet history, the deadliest in Uzbekistan, and deadliest accident involving the Tu-154.|
|21 May 1986||CCCP-85327||Tu-154B-2||0||Deformation of fuselage due to crew errors during flight after the crew forgot to turn on the pitot heating system.|
|18 January 1988||CCCP-85254||Tu-154B-1||11/143||Broke in three following a heavy landing.|
|8 March 1988||CCCP-85413||Tu-154B-2||9/84||Aeroflot Flight 3739 was hijacked by the Ovechkin family.|
|24 September 1988||CCCP-85479||Tu-154B-2||0/168||Landed hard and left the runway after encountering light turbulence on approach.|
|13 January 1989||CCCP-85067||Tu-154S||0||Overran runway and crashed following a rejected takeoff due to shifting cargo and overloading.|
|9 February 1989||YR-TPJ||Tu-154B-2||5/5||Crashed on takeoff due to engine failure during a training flight.|
|20 October 1990||CCCP-85268||Tu-154B-2||0/171||Failed to takeoff and overran runway due to overloading and center of gravity problems; written off.|
|17 November 1990||CCCP-85664||Tu-154M||0/6||Force-landed following a fire in the cargo hold and broke apart on landing.|
|23 May 1991||CCCP-85097||Tu-154B-1||2+13/178||Landed hard short of the runway, collapsing the right landing gear and broke apart after coming in too fast in rain.|
|14 September 1991||CU-T1227||Tu-154B-2||0/112||Cubana Flight 464 landed too late and overran the runway due to pilot error and poor visibility.|
|5 June 1992||LZ-BTD||Tu-154B||0/130||Landed too late and overran the runway in bad weather.|
|June 1992||RA-85282||Tu-154B-1||0/0||Burned out during refueling. A second Tu-154 (RA-85234) also burned out.|
|20 July 1992||85222||Tu-154B||4+24/24||Failed to take off due to overloading and center of gravity problems, overran the runway, striking the localizer building, and ended up in a ravine.|
|1 August 1992||YA-TAP||Tu-154M||0/0||Destroyed during a mortar attack. The aircraft had been parked at the airport for repairs following an incident three months earlier.|
|5 September 1992||CCCP-85269||Tu-154B-1||0/147||Emergency landing after the left main landing gear failed to extend.|
|13 October 1992||CCCP-85528||Tu-154B-2||0/67||Failed to take off and overran the runway due to overloading and center of gravity problems.|
|5 December 1992||CCCP-85105||Tu-154A||0/154||Veered off the runway on landing after the pilot mistook the runway edge lights for the centerline lights.|
|9 January 1993||85533||Tu-154B-2||0/165||Indian Airlines Flight 840 crashed on landing after striking some installations next to the runway; the tail and right wing later separated and the aircraft came to rest upside down. The aircraft was leased from Uzbekistan Airways due to a pilot strike at Indian Airlines.|
|8 February 1993||EP-ITD||Tu-154M||2+131/131||Mid-air collision.|
|22 September 1993||85163||Tu-154B||108/132||Shot down and crashed on the runway. The accident remains the worst in Georgia.|
|23 September 1993||85359||Tu-154B-2||Unknown||Written off after suffering damage from mortar or artillery fire.|
|25 December 1993||RA-85296||Tu-154B-2||0/172||Nosegear collapsed after landing in bad weather.|
|3 January 1994||RA-85656||Tu-154M||1+124/124||Baikal Airlines Flight 130 crashed after an in-flight fire that started in the number two engine, caused by a starter failure.|
|6 June 1994||B-2610||Tu-154M||160/160||China Northwest Airlines Flight 2303 broke apart in mid-air and crashed shortly after takeoff due to a maintenance error. The crash remains the worst in China.|
|21 January 1995||UN-85455||Tu-154B-2||0/117||Failed to take off and overran the runway due to overloading.|
|7 December 1995||RA-85164||Tu-154B||98/98||Khabarovsk United Air Group Flight 3949 crashed into a mountain following a loss of control after fuel was selected from the left wing tanks to counter a left wing-low attitude.|
|29 August 1996||RA-85621||Tu-154M||141/141||Vnukovo Airlines Flight 2801 crashed into a mountain on final approach due to navigation errors. This accident remains the worst in Norway.|
|13 September 1997||11+02||Tu-154M||33/33||German Air Force Flight 074 collided in mid-air with a USAF C-141 due to pilot and ATC errors.|
|15 December 1997||EY-85281||Tu-154B-1||85/86||Tajikistan Airlines Flight 3183 crashed in the desert due to pilot error and crew fatigue.|
|29 August 1998||CU-T1264||Tu-154M||10+70/91||Cubana de Aviación Flight 389 failed to take off and overran the runway, crashing into a soccer field. Following problems before takeoff, the crew had forgotten to select the switches for the hydraulic valves of the control system.|
|24 February 1999||B-2622||Tu-154M||61/61||China Southwest Airlines Flight 4509 lost control and crashed after incorrect nuts in the elevator control system fell off, due to improper maintenance. China removed the Tu-154 from service following this accident.|
|4 July 2000||HA-LCR||Tu-154B-2||0/76||Malév Flight 262 touched down wheels-up while landing and skidded on runway, but was able to take off and land normally after a go-around.|
|4 July 2001||RA-85845||Tu-154M||145/145||Vladivostok Air Flight 352 stalled and crashed on final approach due to pilot error.|
|4 October 2001||RA-85693||Tu-154M||Black Sea off Sochi||78/78||Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 was accidentally shot down by an errant Ukrainian S-200 surface-to-air missile.|
|12 February 2002||EP-MBS||Tu-154M||119/119||Iran Air Tours Flight 956 struck a mountain on approach.|
|20 February 2002||EP-LBX||Tu-154M||0||Landed hard, suffering substantial damage. The aircraft was ferried to Vnukovo for repairs where the nose gear collapsed while the aircraft was being towed. The aircraft was written off and used for spare parts.|
|1 July 2002||RA-85816||Tu-154M||2+69/69||Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937 collided in mid-air with DHL Flight 611 due to errors of communication between instruction from ATC and Traffic collision avoidance system.|
|24 August 2004||RA-85556||Tu-154B-2||46/46||Sibir Airlines Flight 1047 crashed after it was bombed in mid-air by a suicide bomber, along with a Tu-134 on the same day.|
|22 August 2006||RA-85185||Tu-154M||170/170||Pulkovo Airlines Flight 612 stalled and crashed after the crew attempted to fly over a storm front. The aircraft entered turbulence and later stalled. The aircraft entered a flat spin and then struck the ground.|
|1 September 2006||EP-MCF||Tu-154M||28/148||Iran Air Tours Flight 945 suffered a mishap while landing, possibly due to a blown nosegear tire. The aircraft swerved off the runway.|
|30 June 2008||RA-85667||Tu-154M||0/112||The number one engine suffered an uncontained failure during takeoff and takeoff was aborted. The aircraft was parked at Pulkovo Airport after the incident and was broken up in August 2009.|
|15 July 2009||EP-CPG||Tu-154M||168/168||Caspian Airlines Flight 7908 lost control and crashed following an engine fire.|
|24 January 2010||RA-85787||Tu-154M||0/170||Taban Air Flight 6437 crashed on landing after the captain declared a medical emergency due to a seriously ill passenger on board. The aircraft was leased from Kolavia.|
|10 April 2010||101||Tu-154M||96/96||Crashed on final approach in thick fog on an airfield without ILS. Polish President Lech Kaczyński and other high-ranking officials were on board and died in the crash.|
|7 September 2010||RA-85684||Tu-154M||0/81||Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise Flight 514 made an emergency landing at a remote airfield after general electrical failure at 34,800 ft, overran the small runway and sustained minor damage with no injuries. In March 2011 it was flown back to Samara for structural inspection and rehabilitation.|
|4 December 2010||RA-85744||Tu-154M||2/170||Dagestan Airlines Flight 372 made an emergency landing after two engines failed shortly after takeoff; full of fuel. Overran the runway and broke up into three. The accident investigation revealed that a crew member had mistakenly switched off a fuel transfer pump thereby causing fuel-starvation and subsequent engine flameout.|
|1 January 2011||RA-85588||Tu-154B-2||3/124||Kolavia Flight 348 caught fire while taxiing for takeoff.|
|25 December 2016||RA-85572||Tu-154B-2||92/92||Russian Defence Ministry flight crashed en route to Khmeimim, Syria, killing all 92 people (84 passengers and 8 crew members) on board, including 64 members of the Alexandrov Ensemble, an official army choir of the Russian Armed Forces|
[ citation needed ]
|Length||48.0 metres (157 ft 6 in)|
|Wingspan||37.55 metres (123 ft 2 in)|
|Wing area||201.5 square metres (2,169 sq ft)|
|Height||11.4 metres (37 ft 5 in)|
|Cabin width||3.58 metres (11 ft 9 in)|
|Maximum take-off weight||98,000 kilograms (216,000 lb) – 100,000 kilograms (220,000 lb)||102,000 kilograms (225,000 lb) – 104,000 kilograms (229,000 lb)|
|Empty weight||50,700 kilograms (111,800 lb)||55,300 kilograms (121,900 lb)|
|Maximum speed||913 km/h (M 0,86)|
|Range fully loaded||2,500 km (1,300 nmi; 1,600 mi)||5,280 km (2,850 nmi; 3,280 mi)|
|Range with max fuel||3,900 km (2,100 nmi; 2,400 mi)||6,600 km (3,600 nmi; 4,100 mi)|
|Service ceiling||12,100 metres (39,700 ft)|
|Engine (x 3)||Kuznetsov NK-8-2U||Soloviev D-30KU-154|
|Max. thrust (x 3)||90 kN (20,000 lbf) each||103 kN (23,148 lbf) each|
|Max. fuel capacity||47,000 litres (10,000 imp gal; 12,000 US gal)||49,700 litres (10,900 imp gal; 13,100 US gal)|
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This is a list of aviation-related events from 1973:
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1976:
China Southwest Airlines Flight 4509 (SZ4509) was a domestic flight in China from Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, Sichuan to Wenzhou Yongqiang Airport, Zhejiang. On February 24, 1999, the Tupolev Tu-154M operating the flight crashed while on approach to Wenzhou Airport, killing all 61 passengers and crew members on board.
The Ilyushin Il-12 was a Soviet twin-engine cargo aircraft, developed in the mid-1940s for small and medium-haul airline routes and as a military transport.
Aeroflot Flight 7425 refers to a Tupolev Tu-154B-2, registration CCCP-85311, that was operating a domestic scheduled Karshi–Ufa–Leningrad passenger service under the airline's Uzbekistan division, that crashed near Uchkuduk, Uzbek SSR, Soviet Union, while en route its first leg. The crash killed all 200 occupants on board.
Aviaarktika was a Soviet airline which started operations on 1 September 1930 and was absorbed by Aeroflot on 3 January 1960.
Vnukovo Airlines is a defunct Russian airline which had its corporate headquarters at Vnukovo International Airport in Moscow. It was created as a spin-off from the Vnukovo Airport division of Aeroflot in March 1993 and operated until 2001, when it was bought by Siberian Airlines.
Founded in 1923, Aeroflot, the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation, has had a high number of fatal crashes, almost all occurring during the Soviet era. According to the Aircraft Crashes Record Office, 8,231 passengers have died in Aeroflot crashes, about five times more than any other airline. From 1946 to 1989, the carrier was involved in 721 incidents. However, from 1995 to 2017, the carrier was involved in only 10 incidents. Following the retirement of the 1970s era Tupolev Tu-154 in 2010, Aeroflot's fleet consisted primarily of aircraft from Airbus and Boeing, in addition to the Ilyushin Il-96 and more recently the Sukhoi Superjet 100. In 2013, AirlineRatings.com reported that five of the ten aircraft models involved in the highest numbers of fatal accidents were old Soviet models.
Aeroflot Flight 4225 was a Tupolev Tu-154B-2 on a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Alma-Ata Airport in Soviet Kazakhstan to Simferopol Airport in Soviet Ukraine on July 8, 1980. The aircraft had reached an altitude of no more than 500 feet when the airspeed suddenly dropped because of thermal currents it encountered during the climb out. This caused the airplane to stall less than 5 km (3.1 mi) from the airport, crash and catch fire, killing all 156 passengers and 10 crew on board. To date, it remains the deadliest aviation accident in Kazakhstan.
Following is a list of accidents and incidents experienced by Aeroflot during the 1980s. The deadliest accident the carrier experienced in this decade occurred in July 1985, when Flight 7425, a Tupolev Tu-154B-2, stalled en route and crashed near Uchkuduk, then located in the Uzbek SSR, claiming the lives of all 200 occupants aboard the aircraft. The second deadliest accident the company went through in the decade took place in October 1984, when Flight 3352, a Tupolev Tu-154B-1, hit snowploughs upon landing at Omsk Airport, killing 174 of 179 people on board plus four people on the ground. Both accidents combined left a death toll of 378 casualties and involved a Tupolev Tu-154, ranking as the worst ones involving the type, as of February 2012.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, its former republics started establishing their own carriers from the corresponding directorates Aeroflot had at these countries, causing the airline to shrink drastically. The fleet reduced from several thousand aircraft to a number slightly over 100 in 1993, helping the former Soviet Union's national airline to improve its accidents and incidents record sharply. The company experienced 42 events between 1990 and 1991 only, and had 41 occurrences in the rest of the decade. Despite this, the three deadliest accidents the airline went through in the decade occurred in the post-Soviet era, leaving a death toll of 257, each one involving more than 50 fatalities.
Aeroflot Flight 3932 was a flight operated by Aeroflot from Koltsovo Airport to Omsk Tsentralny Airport. On 30 September 1973 the Tupolev Tu-104 operating the route crashed shortly after takeoff from Sverdlovsk, killing all 108 passengers and crew on board.
Aeroflot Flight 3603 was a Tupolev Tu-154 operating a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Krasnoyarsk to Noril'sk, both in the Soviet Union, that crashed while attempting to land on 17 November 1981. Of the 167 passengers and crew on board, 99 were killed in the accident.
Aeroflot Flight 2022 was a scheduled Soviet domestic passenger flight between Vilnius Airport in Lithuania and Vnukovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia that crashed on 16 December 1973, killing all 51 people on board. The five hundred mile flight suffered a loss of control as a result of a malfunction of its elevator, causing it to crash as it made its final descent into Moscow. At the time of the crash it was the worst accident in aviation history involving a Tupolev Tu-124, since it entered service with Aeroflot in 1962.
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